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Qvv^iLt< f , 

— -^^ f r 

_>la(W >?^^'>^, 

. Kliidi>D«o. ^- 




I ■ 



(T^^^ cJ/V-/./^,^/^', 

THi TAOAioe uurouAei. 


Special atteution ii called to what ii said in the 
note on the last page of this book with regard to the 
meet' pwinlfai^ orthographical character in Tagalog. 
Student! are particularly recommended to read such 
note carefully before their going into the Grammar, 
10 that, from the start, they may not get accustomed 
to write it in the wrong manner it will be found 
printed throughout the work. 


A comprehensive grammatical Treatise adapted to seif-instrnction 

and particularly designed for use of those engaged in Oovemment 

service or in business or trade in the Philippines, 



for twenty years intimately connected with trade and commerce 

in these Islands. 



Imprenta de **EU MERCAINTIU^'' 

Manila rp. I.j 



The Tagalog Language. 


The great practical advantages enjoved by one who speaks 
I native language or dialect over him who knows not a word ut- 
tered by those with whom he comes in daily contact are too 
obvious to requu'e mention. The belief that Americans who look 
forward to a permanent ur long reeiidence in these Islands will 
be quick to perceive the benefit!^ to be derived from a know- 
ledge of the niowt widely ajwken native language in the Philip- 
piDes was the inspiring cause of the author's undertaking this 
work. It is offered as a practical aid to the acquisition of a 
thorough knowledge oftheTagalog language. 

The method of instruction followed throughout this work is 
in accordance with the system which seems to be easiest for 
learners, whatever their age, to grasp a new language, namely, that 
of explaining its grammatical construction, as far as possible, in the 
same phraseology and on the same lines as they have been ac- 
customed to in learning tlieir own and other languages. 

It was at first intended to avoid any unnecessary philological 
investigations or scientific theories of the language as being 
beyond the scope of a practical Grammar, but when such lan- 
guage as the Tagalog, so dissimilar in construction to those of 
the western world, is to he considered, some scientifical remarks 
showingitspeculiarcharactercan hardly bedispensed with. This ' 
has been done, to some extent, in the "Introduction" and occas- 
ionally in the text, mainly in the explanatory notes generally 
preceding every lesson and part of speech. 

As it will be difficult at the outset, that the student should 
divest himself of the notion that Tagalog can be learnt or taught 
on identically the same Hues as modern languages, it may. 
perhaps, appear to him, at first sight, that too much sjjace has 
been devoted in this Grammar to explanations of this kind and 
^" t repetition of and frequent refer<?nct* to them may, in (Hinie 


cases, render the style somewhat prolix. This, if we un* 
stand it rightly, is only seeming and the apparent delioieni 
accouuted for by Iho nature of th<- languafic and'the age of] 
persons probably undertaking il. 

As Tagalog Ik nol a modern iaii^'ua};!' and neuettgary. 
others, for common profecHJonal purpo-ies or sicietitifical reseai 
it iw not for trlnUircn, l)ut fnr pt-rwoiiM of malure ywaro. 
(especially for thot^e wtto tratk* and fill offiuial -jintTef^ in the Phil- 
ippines) to learn it. Now. it would liardly 1# dunirably Ut learh 
such persons iw will probably study Tajialog in the li^hinds, is 
the liame manner an children are taught. Reason being to Ma- 
turity what \[eniory is to Infancy, a method jrrounded on a mere 
exposition of English wordH or sentences coupled to their count- 
erparts in Tagalog. as ip uxual in a dictionary or a vocabu- 
lary, would be a complete failure, as most of such learners would 
have the opportunity of a better teatdiing derived from thi- 
natives in the midst of whom they live. It is believed that 
theory and a frequent reference tothose rules which more directly 
show the fundamental principles the language rests upon, con- 
jointly with the practice of such words and idioms as are used 
in common topics for all requirements of every-day life will best 
ai^complish the learner's end. It is in this way that the stadeni 
of mature years for whom the task of committing the leRaons to 
memory issodifficult will be able to acquire the language by merely 
reading the grammar over_ from time to time as he may find it ne- 
cessary to do. When adequate illustrations have been given on a 
special point; a rule, as comprehensive as it may tie, immediat- 
ely follows: when the matter is treated of as a heading, the rule 
precedes and the illustrations follow. 

Great care has been taken in noting, either in the text or ia 
foot-noles. every word of Spanish origin and in tracing it hack 
to it^ original and simple spelling in the language so as to show 
clearly the change undergone in its adaptation to Tagalog. If 
such words appear combined with any Tagalog suffixes or prefixes 
so as to impart some special sense, the various element** have 
l>een separated and explained, when this lias been deemed neces- 
sar\-. But above all, we have endeavoured to exjihiin as fully 
as we could, a nnitter which, it may be said, const itntes the very 
pith of the language, that is to say, the particlw* and their use in 
word-building. Eveiy one of them has lietMi fully treated of, 
both as it occurp in the first lesv^ony and in the closing part of 
the book, when all the imparting senses and combinations thev 
are susceptible of have been brought together and thoroughly 

Besides the" reading exercises given in the last three lesson? 
' every other lesson is provided with an exercise in which the 
. words and phrases given in such lesson or in the previons ones 
have a f ree pky.' In considering the matter offered for train- 
ing in such exftrcifes. the student nlust bear in - mind- that. 
religion^: thoughts excepted, abstract ideas, -Mhieh form so large 


a part of our topics in conversation, have but little place in 
that of natives, and that the expressions resorted to, puerile or 
strange as they pay appear to our minds, constitute howev^er 
the conversational ground with that part of the native popula- 
tion with which, most probably ^ those for whom this work is 
intended have to deal. The exercises are arranged in questions 
and answers for the teacher (if there be one) and the pupil 
to engage in dialogues and the same may be extended to simi- 
lar topics or read aloud as many times as may be necessary to 
acquire fluency. The exercises should, of course, be written 
without any other assistance than the vocabulary in the lessons 
and the mistakes made should, then, be corrected bv comparison 
with the key which is given at the end of the book. 

The author is, however, conscious of many imperfections in 
his work, but when it is considered that this is the first English- 
Tagalog grammar ever published and that the Tagalog language 
differs so widely in its structure and idioms from all modern 
languages, the great difficulties to be encountered in compiling 
even the simplest treatise of this kind will be better perceived 
and appreciated. It is hoped that this effort of the author will be 
found a useful and profitable source for better qualified persons 
to pursue the subject more deeply and in a more scientific and 
successful manner, and that the work, despite its imperfections, 
will be welcomed and appreciated by Americans both in these^ 
Islands and at home, 




Tagalog is one ot the many dialects derived from the Mala 
language and can hardly be spoken of without reference beii^ 
made to the trunk or fountain from which it originally apruug 
Malay is not the language of a nation, but of tribes and com- 
munities widely scattered from the eastern coast of the bay ot 
Bengal to the Malay Peiiinuula. Sumatra. Sunda. Java. Borneo, 
Celebes. Flores, Timor, the Moluccas and the Philippine&. 

The similarity of the dialects used Vjy the inliabitants of t 
above-mentioned countries with their stem the Malay u^ spok^ 
iu the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, was first noticed b 
Europeans in the sixteenth century when Magellan'^ Malav ifl 
terpreter was found to be understood from one end of the 9i(ald( 

, Archipelago to the other. 

Tagalog has received the influence of Sanskrit, and of th 

Arabic and some other Semitic languages, butin a smaller degreS 

than the other Malay dialects. It has, liowever, been influence*! 
by Spanish in a much larger proportion than either Javanese or 
the Malay of the Straits of Malacca have been, respectively, in- 
fluenced by Dutch, English or Portuguese. 

V The earliest Aryan influence came from Sanskrit in an epoch 

not yet accurately determined. It seems to be the prevailing 
theory that inmigrant tribes coming from Mid-Assia settled along 
the shores and spread theniHclves over the Peninsula, Sumatra, 
Java, Borneo and Celebes, but their further progress over the 
many islands more to the north and eiist appears to have been 
checked by older and lest? conijuerable race.s. In one way or 
another these tribes must have made the island of Java their fa- 
vorite abode or the court or focus from which Hinduism ir- 
radiated with a force decreasing proportionally with the distance 
to the countries it endeavoured to reach. This is proven by the 
fact of Javanese having become the recipient of a larger number 
of Sanskrit words and in n greater degree of purity than any 
other dialect of Malay derivation, their number decreasing as we 
recede from Java. Further research as to the comparative 
number of Sanskrit terms passing into Javanese and Tagalog; 
will show that while in the former the proportion may be rated 
at the eleven per cent, it siearcely reaches in Tagalog one and a 
half per cent of the whole aggregate of words. This percentage, 
as may naturally be inferred, is somewhat, but not much larger, 
in the southern Filipino dialects. Bicol and Bisayan and still 
more in those spoken in the Sulu islands and in Borneo, but yet 


the propoi'tioii is not sutrh as to constitute any of thcni a com- 
posite language on this sole account. 

We subjoin a table of words of Sanskrit origin, which are, 
among others, made use of in Tagalog. This is mainly done to 
show what deviations both in meaning and in spelling, the words 
have undergone in their adaptation to the language, and at the 
same time, to instruct pupils as to the general way of Tagalizing 
words when they may have recourse to English words to express 
some new idea, a thing which tliey cannot help but do oc- 
casionally in Tagalog. 






Kaslilii (1) 













( 10,000) 



Yota, aanfiyota 


■; amra 







Tin or lead. 





P r3pati 









\ Thought, cure, 


A kind of ftalfron. 

C Uinta 

' anxiety 






Wall, stronghold. 




Bow, arrow. 


To cut. tu kill 


A kind of Bword. 






To piiriltiii 


Free, liberated. 

It should be noticed that the very miscellaneous character 
of words imported into Tagalog from Sanskrit and the absence 
of many terms incidental to the ethical and religious Hindu 
institutions will tend to prove the small degree of influence 
Hinduism had in moulding the character and customs of the 
inhabitants of these Islands at those times. 
» « 

The influence coming next to that of Sanskrft came later ' 
with the irruption of the Arabs and added a Semitic element to 
the language. While it put a step to the flowing into the vernacu- 
lar of any new terms of Sanskrit origin, it, however, retained 
those already in general use, supplementing them with those 
appropriate to the ideas of a new and more advanced civilization, 
and above all with those relating to the Mohamedan religion in- 
troduced to the partial displacement of the worship of Budha. 
But the greatest revolution to the language came to Malay 

(1) Sanskrit word:? iiro liL're tranel iterated |nt(> Roman characters, 


hrough the lutrocfuction of the Arabic chara^er~Tn generaJ 
writing, especially in Literature, which is still preserved iu the 
Straits Settlements and elsewhere. (1) This revolution did not 
travel far into the different parts of the Malay Archipelago and J 
the same causes which opposed ttie advancement of Hinduis 
in the Philippines, but chiefly the strong check wliich Moliam-J 
medanism encountered in comparatively recent times on tli« 
part of Spaniards after the conquest, prevented its adoption by; 
the inhabitants of the Islands, who continued to write in their 
ancient rudimentary cliaracters. This fact and the introduction' 
of the Spanish alphabet, so simple and rational in structure, 
must be noted to the advantage of the learner of Tajjalog. 
While a student of Malay must determine beforehand whether 
he intends to fpeak or to write the language or whether 
both things ai-e aimed at, and in the latter case, the difficulty of 
obtaining any fluency in reading a new character often appears] 
so great as even the discourage him from making a begiuDing,! 
the learner of Tagalog will enjoy the inmense advantage of learn-J 
iug at once both the speaking and the writing, and on account^ 
of a fairly strict correspondence between Spanish Prosody and 
Orthography, he will be easily led to write any Tagalog word hq 
has not been previously acquainted with, if it is distinctly uttered 
to him. 

The Arabic element in Malay is not accurately determinable J 
for new words and expressions are constantly being introduced.) 
In Tagalog. however, the same has had but little influence and 
perhaps does not number one per cent of all the words, it having 
besides put a stop to by the introduction of the Spanish elementj 
Some Arabic terms are still pouring into the Moorish dialects olf 
Mindanao and Sulu Islands where Mohammedan rites prevail yetj 
to some extent. 

We subjoin a set of words of Arabic origin, used in Tagalog. I 








Bruins. i 

i Submission, ohe- 


( Tositcross-ledged 


f dience. 


} (tlip respectful 

' posture in churcU.j 








Wine, liquor. 








Dull, stupid. 








To relish. 

(1) The scholar will derive more valuable philological information 
from the words of Marsden, Crawford, Ahbd Favre and Maxwell on 1 
Malay, from which, but especially from the latter's some of the idea^ 
set forth in this sketch are taien. 







) Measuring-Btring 


1 To mark out with 
( a line. 






To prostrate 


To kneel down. 

^i ill am 

k Amen, peace be to 
< you la salutation) 








Judge, jutlgement 






Blush, ashamed. 


Married party 


Married party. 


Occult science 


Awful, dark place. 

Chinese is another element added to Tagalog through a long 
and close intercourse of Chinese with native people. Opinions 
have been expressed to the effect of Malay being of a primitive 
Mongolic origin. As for Tagalog, it might perhaps be true that 
Chinese was the earliest influence the language of the aborigines 
and first settlers received and that which it was moulded after, 
for although actual Tagalog is mainly dissyllabic, there is not 
wanting evidence of a monossyllabic tendency, but if so, the 
primitive Chinese element has been so far either assimilated or 
corrupted as to be hardly recognisable in the language of a 

The easily determinable portion of Chinese is that which 
has come to Tagalog since the discovery and falls short of the 
amount that one would be led to infer from the fact of Chinese 
influence in other respects. 

This may be due partly to difficulties of compenetration' in 
the character of the two languages and to the conquest having 
given rise to a necessary preference for Spanish; but chiefly to 
that inbred disposition on the part of the Chinese race to shut 
others out from acijuaintanco with their national institutions 
and racial characteristics and to the natural reluctance of the 
Islanders to adopt the manners and speech of a class of people 
whom they saw despised and held aloof, and whose religion, 
practices, and even dressing, on the other hand, they were 
forbidden to imitate. Thus, a race of people, who, from the 
remotest epoch, have been so widely scattered throughout the 
Archipelago, and, in many other respects, so connatural to 
its native population, could only leave behind in the language, 
such terms as generally designate those tools and sorts of food 
which natives soon adopted and partook of; or kindred names, 
the latter mostly confined to the use of a particular class of 
people, as shown in the following table. 

Signification. Tagalog. 

Tcha Tea 

Pi-sau Knife 


j To propel aboatliy wielil- I n li 
/ ing an oar at the etern ' 

I (A loosely twUled pith of 

< a tree used ns wick for Tientwii! 

( cocoa-nut oil lanipe) 

t (A kind of paste mailc 

j into aslender worm-like Sitanjon 

f form, used for soup) 

^ (A kind of vennic 

■ U(-edfor!i sortof pastry) 




Mis mi 

(. (A kind of cake or relish 
Pan-sit < made of mii/i. 

( s).H. etc.) 
!^o-si Key l^usi 

Turniis used only in finnu' itistrli'ls, 

lutr-tiau His or their falhc 

In-ma Godmother 







Sara-ko Third brother Samco 

Sa"-<:hi Third sister. Sansi 


^mall knife. 
I To pro|ieI a l(oat by 
< wiuldtn^ an oar at 

f the slern. 

t (I'ilh of a tree s. 
' vingas wickforo 
f coa-nut oil lamp 

\ A kind of Chino 

\ A kind of raketblj 

f failed. 

;'ci!illy liy cliine 


i (Grandmother. 
I grandmother's eii 
< ter and exteneivelj^ 
^ any old woman.) "j 
I {The grandfatbori 
j brother and exta ' 
f Bivelyanyaldmu 
( (Sister-in-iaw;i 
J properly, the i 
I of the first-bo^ 
[_ brother.) 
\ The brother, thi^ 
/ in age. 
\ The sister third i 
I - age. 

* * 

As has been hinted elsewhere in this outline, SpaniaH 
is by far the largest Aryan element introduced in Tagaloj 
and that which supplies its many deficiences and impart 
to it its comparative efficiency and comprehensiveness. 

The aboriginal dialect previous to the admixture of Bp 
nish is but the poor vocabulary of men hardly raised aboii^ 
savage life. The purely native element in Tagalog profusivelj 
furnishes all the requisitive terms to express the phys" 
objects surrounding men leading a primitive life in the forei 
and all that has to do with their food, dwellings, agriculturJ 
fishing, hunting and domestic affairs. As soon as the analyaa 
reaches moral ideas or conceptions in science the lack of ag 
propriate terras commences to tie felt, and it will be seen tha 


their sense its to be conveyed to the native mind either hy 
metaphors and round-about expressions or by having recourse 
to Spanish. Hence many Spanish words, unaltered or distort- 
ed, passed into the language to express those things or ideas 
that natives were not and could not be acquainted with in 
their isolated condition of life before the conquest. From this 
it will easily be inferred that a previous knowledge of Spanish 
is of assistance in the study of Tagalog, not only on account 
of the numerous Spanish a words that found their way into the 
language, but chiefly on account of the ortliographical frame 
which is wholly Spanish. On the other hand, natives prided 
and they still, to some extent, pride themselves, on ueing sucli 
Spanish terms and expressions as may best command the belief 
of their being conversant with the latter, and this in a way 
that is sometimes destructive of tho Tagalog syntax. 

It is not here intended either to exhaui?t the number of 
Spanish words made use of in Tagalog or to go deeper into a 
matter that is treate<l more at length in the part devoted to 
Grammar, where every Spanish word lias been noted and explain- 
ed. It is only as an illustration that we give hereafter a 
table of some terms borrowed from Siianish. 










The H.)ly Virgin., 


( The Hnly Vir- 
' sin. 


Holy Ghnst 


Holy GhcEl. 





To butt. 





Sheep, riini. 


fCIog. (a kind on 
Bhoe worn by 1 
] people in Ifith 
[ century) 




\ To ainfepw t.i thf 
t priest. 


\ To confess to 
i the priest. 


tiJasB, tutiiblor. 

Baso or vaEO. 

GlasB, tumbler. 






S|iaiiiard, Sprtnisli. 

Castila. (Corrup- 
tion of the Bp. 
word Cntlilla). 

I Spaniard, Span- 



Pisos. raisos. 








Father, priest. 



Father, priest. 





Having thus sketched the strange elements of which Ta- 
galog is made u\>, it only remains for us to give a brief ac- 
count of the character and peculiarities of the language. 


Tagalog is tBe most important dialect of the PhlUppiaMi; 
This is not on account of its being six)ken by the largest 
proportion of the inhabitants in the Islands, for Bisayans are 
in greater number than Tagals; but on account of Tagalog 
having become predominant and becoming more so every day, 
as the language uf the most cultured part of the whole po- 
pulation and that which any average-educated native from 
other Districts must soon learn on his coming to Manila for 

The similarity between Tagalog and the other dialects spok- 
en about the Islands is such as to make it easy for natives 
from different parts to understand each other by using their 
respective dialects for general conversational topics. The 
same must be the case with foreigners if they succeed in 
acquiring something more than a superficial knowledge of the 
language, as they can scarcely fail to understand and be 
understood at every corner of the Archipelago, if they speak 
Tagalog with some degree of fluency. 

It will not appear irrelevant, now that the similary of the 
Filipino dialects is to be considered, to say something about 
what it consists in as regards Tagalog and the two dialects 
next to it in importance, Bisayan and Bicol. While the cons- 
truction remains the same or nearly the same throughout 
tliem all, only some words vary from one to another dialect, as 
is even the case with any one of the dialects, from one place to 
another. In many an instance, words that are rarely, if ever, used 
in one dialect have a general use in the other with the satue or 
analogous meaning; sometines terms of identical signification in 
both dialects, retain in spelling the same vowels while one or mora 
consonants vary and are replaced by others according to cert- 
ain rules. It is by studying this affinity and interchange abi- 
lity of certain consonants that the scholar will be enabled to 
understand many words of the southern dinlocts. A change which, 
among others, ^oes not fail to occur, is the softening of the 
// of Malay and the southern dialects into L or into /> for 
Tagalog, as seen in the following table. 


Not to have or 

to be. 
Letter, wntting. 
So carry, to take. 
Sun, day. 






















Carigos, pari 

.OS. Maligo. 















Many words arc either equal or fo similar ai' appears 
from the folluwilig table: 




Woman, female. 




Man, malo. 






Balay or 



Sky, HeavF-n. 

Lagnit. • 







To walk. 











PSiio. (1) 

As regard;^ thu amount of effort necessary to acijuire a 
knowledge of Tagalog tliat will be of practical advantage to 
tho learner, it may he said that Tttgalog is a language of 
which it is very easy to learn to speak a little; it is, liowever, 
very difficult to acquii*e the idioms of natives. Facility of ex- 
pression and the accurate use of idioms can only be acquired 
ity much practice in speaking with natives. Correctness cannot 
be entirely learnt from grammars, and instruction derived from 
books must be supjilemented by constant practice. 

Tagalog is thought to be a poor language and so it is, 
but not perhaps so much so as is generally supposed. That 
it often fails to furnish us with words for abstract ideas is a 
deficiency which it has in common with all uncultivated lan- 
guages or rather with all races wdio have not yet risen to the 
height of our civilisation and development. 

■ Tagalog as compared with Malay and the other dialects 
of Malay derivation is a great deal more free in construction 
and more concise. This is partly due to the influence of 
Spanish, hut chiefly to Tagalog being richer in sense-modifying 
particles than any «f those dialects. The flexible power of such 
particles and their manifold combinations with each other 
^ must be closely observed by the learner if he aims at some- 
thing more than to clothe English sentences with Tagalog 

One of greatest difficulties to bo encountered is perhaps 
that regarding the right accentuation of Tagalog words and 
the best course to be recommended to the student in this res- 
pect, is to observe how natives pronounce and accentuate in 
the' respective lacality. 

The lack of uniformity of expression throughout the 
agalog region is such as to make it difficult to teach the 
jUoquial language without imparting to the lesson the dis- 

(I) Most of tliPBe terms are iitso common to the dialect of llocos, 
. but it differs more from Tapalog in construction, than the latter from 
LiBicol and Bisayan, and even from Malay. 

XI 1. 
marks of a particular locality. TIil- eon^tructi 
language and the perioral body of -word!* remainH. of course, 
the same or nearly the same, but in m'ery Province or 
division of a Province there are peculiar words and wcpres- 
siona, and variations of accent and pronunciation which 
belong distinctively to it. Words common in one district 
sound strangely in another, or it may I)l> they convey different 
meaning in the two places. It has been our aim to supply 
a work in which only »uch terms a- are common to the 
whole body of Tagalog-speaking people appt-ar, and the student 
may rest assured of his being understood everywhere in the 
Tagaiog community if he makes use of them. 

Natives speak more tersely than European^, but th' 
abrupt sentences which seem rude to western ears convi 
no idea of impoliteness to the native mind. 

The written language is more pompous and less idi 
matic than the eoll(K|uial dialect, if. however, the subji 
of speech is carried away from common topics to the 
teranco of passionate feelings, the natives' imaginative po' 
displays itself in an overHowing of metaphors, riddles 
highflown expressions. 

The advantages to be derived from ac(iuiring a langai 
so peculiar in character will be better appreciated by ti 
desmen and people fillinfi official duties in the Philippint 
when they perceive the ease with wliich they can transj 
their respective business by dealing directly with natives. As 
for the scholar, over and above the enlargement of mind, he 
will enjoy the benefit of getting deeply into the innermost 
character of a race of human beings whose proceedings, oth- 
erwise, defy explanation. Any other study which dofs not 
necessarily embody their manner of casting thoughts, howev* 
ethnological it may be, would fall short of the purpose. 

We are not in a position to make any authoritatji 
statement looking forward to a further development of thi 
language or as to whether the political change in the Islands 
will promote or cfceck its progress; Imt if Tagaiog is to 
continue to bu the vehicle of the thoughts of so many million 
people, a magnificent future may be anticipated for it. As 
receptivity, not originality, is the main feature of every tribe 
of the Malay race, so their language shows that capacity for 
the absorption and assimilation of foreign elements which 
has made English one of the most exhaustive languages ever, 
spoken in the World. '^ 




Tagalog 13 now written in the Roman character brought 
over by Spaniards and the Spanish alphabet, in its adoption, 
has been modified to suit the peculiarities of the language. 

Although tlie introduction of the Spanish alphabet fully 
superseded and swept away the ancient rudimentary aborigi- 
nal character, the use of which is at present thoroughly dis- 
continued in the Islands, the interest of the student may be 
proniiJte<l by giving him, before passing over to the modern 
orthography of the language, the following summary account 
of what characters the primitive alphabet consisted in, as still 
to he found in some European and Malay dictionaries. 

Tlie characters made use of in writing by natives pre- 
vious to the arrival of Spaniards, were seventeen, viz: 



/. i. 







Jh ;=^ 






Gah Ngah 












Sah Uah 



Every one of these consonants carried along with it the 
inherent vowel sound uf («/(); a tittle placed above indicated 

the sound of ch-ih thus, (J hch-hlh, and tlie yame dot placed 

under tlie consonant madt- it xouml "h-uli ^^ ^ lnh-Iuh.anam 

forth for thereat. Independent vowel characters wpreused only 
when a vowel came alone, or two vowels came togi-ther in 
the word to express the last of them in the diphthong, as. 

for instance, in ^y^ J ly ^ ^3^o< ''to snatch". It ifi easy to 

conceive how deficient this system was to represent the Phonetii^ 
of all the vocables, as syllables in the composition of which, 
an inarticulate consonant, alone, or two, one articulate and 
the other not, entered, could not find adequate means of ex- 
pression in writing. Thus, in many cases, the reader's mind 
was left to conjecture from the context, which word of those 
expressible by the same characters was meant, and the wozk 
of the writer ought to have consisted in his selecting saoh 
vocables as could less entail confusedness, thus narrowing 
the art into a profession, kept by a special rank of people, 
and drawing a line of separation between the spoken and 
written language. 

This matter of the primitive alphabet having been out- 
lined, we pass over to the practical part of it, and since 
Spanish Orthography has been so far introduced in Tagalog, 
the following remarks as to the sound of vowels, Spanish 
consonants used in Tagalog, and combinations with each 
other should be learnt by the student. 

There are in Spanish, as well as in English, the five 
following vowels: 





the sound of which corresponds nearly with that of the i 
letters in the English words: 






besides Y-y, which, when it comes at the end is consitj 
as a vowel. 

The same vowels are made use of in Tagalog; but I 
sound of A-a is independent; those of E-e, I-i; O-o, 
U-^i are, in the majority of cases, respectively, freely ex- 
changed, to suit euphony or the taste of the speaker; so 
that, properly speaking, the fundamental vowel sounds in 
Tagalog are only three: A-a, I-i, U-u; I-i, or £-6 having the 
broad expanded sounds lying between the vowel sound iq 
"sheep" and in "bed" passing through the vowel sound ia j 
"bid" and somewhat in "first"; O-o or £/-«, tliose betwe^j 
"Ball" and "Bull". 


Ail the r>panisli consoriiints are made use of in Tagalog, 
Imt the peculiar to the latter are: 

B-b, C-c, D-<l, G-g, H-h. L-1, M-m, 

N-n, P-p, Q-q, R-r, S-s, T-t, Y-y, 
and sometimes, although improperly, V-v is used for B-b 
or for U-w. (1) 

Over and above these consonants borrowed from Spanish 
and having, generally, the same sound they have therein, 
there ie another. Ng-hg, peculiar to Tagalog and a very im- 
portant one. The Tagalog alphabet consists, therefore, of the 
following twenty written characters. 

A, B, C, D, E, G, H, I, L, M, N, 5Jg, 0, P, Q, R, S, T, U, and Y. 



A-a, absolute vowel sound, always having that of the same 
letter in the English word "Far", example: Am (pron. dh-gah) ■ 
"to dawn"; tiso (pron. ah-soe,) '*dog"; Aoala, (pron. ak-bdh-lah) 
"occupation". A, is freely met with at any portion of the 

E~f, variable vowel sound, generally exchangeable for I-i, 
having the sound of English e in "bed" or i in "bid. E-e, is 
but rarely met with at the middle or at the end, and ne- 
ver at the beginning of words (some not-altered Spanish words 
excepted.). It can be considered as a superflous vowel doomed to 
disappear and be replaced by I-i without detriment to the lan- 
guage. It is however still preserved in some words as in ma- 
aeldffi OT masdldn, (pron, malir-seJi^ldhn or mahsay-l'ihn,) "pru- 

(1) Nfitive pedantry, quite of late, has put in use Jf-fr, IT-iu and other 
Bomewhnt injudiciona novationa, people forme-rly engaged in plotting against 
Spanislk rule thus paying homage to the woik carried out in their secret 
lodges or Catiponans and to its hieroglyphical writings. While there may be 
good reasons for the use of K-k, we fail to see what the reason may be for 
writing Cawit instead of Cavite. and which other Orthography could better auit 
Tagalog, than the Spanish one. It is not that we consider the latter, in its 
(ippliofttion to Tagalog, as entirely irreformahle, but that such needful changes 
as, po doubt, it requires, be done according to linguistic principles and ■ not 
from political prejudice. In so far as the matter stands we do not favour 
these novations and the student is hereby informed that such words as Knpatid, 
"brother" or "sister"; Gawd, "work"; will always be spelt in this Grammar 
Capaiid, (iand. 

XVI __^_^ 

diBh";*'delicate"; habde,hohnye or fcrt/j/fy. (pron. hdk-bah- 
bdh-yeh or bah-by,) "woman", "fomale". 

I-i, variable vowel sound, exchan^faWe for E-e. having foJ_ 
its principal sound tliat of ea in "meat". It i» prfdomiiiant 
and l>ecomea more so every day for replacing that of £"-(?, 
I-i, can be found everywhere in words, hut at the befcinn- 
ing is not «o frpf[uent as A-a and 0-». ExainjilL's: Ibig ob" 
yhig, (pron. ee-hig) "to wisli", "to love"; IdA. (pron. ee-ndhM 
"mother"; JH/'i-w/t, {pron. ineav-K'ihii,) "ouce"; Tahi, (pron. tak 
hee,) "to sew". 

O-o, variable vowel sound, exchangeable for U-u, mainli 
sounding nearly as O in "Off". Example: Otavg or Uhing {pron 
du'-tang or oo-tmig.) "debt"; Coc^ (pron. Coh-e(k.) "nail of thj 
fingers". O-fJ, is much more frequentlv met with at the beginn 
ing than U-u; but in composition when the final u of a root- 
word is to be appended by some suffix, o is generally chang 
into u. P^xample: CXd, "head"; Olohan or better Ohthan, "big 
headed" or "bolster". 

U-u, variable vowel sound, exchangeable for O-o. soundin 
like u in "bull". Few words begin with this vowel ; but is frequent! 
ly raet with aLtlie middle and,although not so much, at the end 
Examples: Uald, (pron. Oi>ah-ldh,) "nothing"; Piiti, (pron. 
tee), "whiteness"; jmcdu or jincuo, (pron. jx^o-cdh-oo or paw-cdlu^ 
oh,) "to wake", t/ generally replaces final o in root-words whei 
the latter are recompounded by means of a suffix as said above 

What is said about the interchangeability of E and 
O and U must not be construed to mean that either < 
them have an equal phonetic value in writing. E, if written 
should always be pronunced as e in "bed"; /as / in "mill'^a 
O, as in "roll" and U, as n, in "bull". Thus, nativeaj 
when they want to produce the vowel sound of "bed", wril^ 
e and so forth for the other vowels. What is generally 
different, especially in polysyllables, is to pronounce i 
write £■ or 7, O or U; I an<l U, however, being prevalend 
but if for reasons of taste, for tlie sake of euphony, or tt 
suit the peculiar local manners uf speaking, one of the^ 
interchangeable sounds is preferred, it should be writt< 
accordingly. The broad scope of the vowel sounds account^ 
for this expansion, as no misconception can arise from pn^ 
nouncing one way or the other, there being, properly spealg 
ing, only three vowel sounds in Tagalog. 4^ 

Looking further into the matter, a scientifical researcfl 
1 prove that natives pronounce the second and third voweff 
in a way sharing nearly equally of the sounds into which theg 
can be expanded, somewhat after the manner that the vowflj 
e is pronunced in the English word "pretty", for the f<M 
mer, and something as an intermediate sound between 
in "roll" and u in "bull", for the latter. 



3-b, sounds as in English, no matter what part of the word 
it comes in. Examples: Bala, (pron. bdh-tah.) "eliild": Tabd, 
(pron. tuh'bnh,) "fatness"; Dibdib, (pron. deeb-deeb,) "breast". 

C-c, has the palatal sound it has in "cart". Examples; 
cagaf, (prun. cah-gdtt, *'to bite"; Bdcaf, (pron. fcftA-raA7,) "iron"; 
Ihlacol, {pron. pah'lah-c6ll) "axe^; liac, (pron. ee-idck) "kniic'\ 
This letter in modern Spanish, when coming before e or ?', 
sounds like English f/i in "think". No such sound of th exists 
in Tagalog: tlius, if any Spanish word in which c fulfils the 
above-mentioned conditions is made use of in Tagalog and it 
is preferred to preserve the letter, it should be pronounced s. 
For instance, Cebrilla, (Sp.) "onion"; is to be pronounced Sebolla, 
(that is to say, Seh-hoh-tlah, and not thek-bok-llah, as it should 
liave been); but it is much better to Tagalize the word by writing 
Spboya, i>iboya or Sibuya, (pron. i^eh-bih-yah, or Sce-bok-yah See- 
bo6-yak, the last being the best Tagaltzed an<l pronounced of 
the three. 

Owing to the palatal sound which this letter has before 
rt, o, u. or a consonant and to the lack of fixedness in the 
orthography of the language, C is written by some people to 
represent the sound of qn in "cont|Uer". Thus, aquin, "mine"; 
is written by some acin; but we consider this an impro- 
per manner of writting and it is only mentioned to acquaint 
the student with it and to enable him to understand such 
deviation when he may find it used in other books, for no- 
thing of it will be foun<l in this Grammar, where aquin and 
similar articulations are always written qu. 

D-d. It is not so dental in Tagalog as it is in English. 
Its sound is so mild aw to resemble tliat of R with which it 
is interchangi-abii- in iiuiTiy east's. Exainjiles: Doga. (pron, dnn-gde,) 
"hlood" ; '^uitihic iir B'liiihx-, {pron. hohu'dOrk iii' hmni-doclc,) ''moun- 
tain"; Capntid or C(ti»iiir (pron. Cifi-pnh-ieM or Ctih-}>a h-teer,) 
"brother" or "sister". D-d, at the end of a word may be writ- 
ten d or r ^tlic terminatitin d being preferable) and the sound 
ehares of both letters, somewhat as in English; but in root- 
words, initial d is generally changed into mild r in composi- 
tions where any particle ending in a vowel is prefixed; for 
instance: dam), "much"; caramihan, instead of cadamihan, "majo- 
rity". The same is the case at the end, when the writing with 
d is preferred, as from p Had or pdlar, "lucky" ; capalaran instead 
of capaladan, "happiness". In the middle of a root d is more 
used than r when a consonant precedes; r, on the contrary, 
is generally preceded by a vovfL'\;pmidac,{pron.pan-ddck\ "dwarf" ; 
sira, (pron. see-rah),"io destroy". 

G-^, sounds as in English in the words "get", "grave", 
"fiuger". Examples: Gtibi, (pron. G<ik-bce,) "night"; pagod or 

pa-gor, <pron, pn/i-ijod {trimli-'jiir,) "wt-arincws"; tfahif (pron.rfffA— 
Idhfj), "a kind, of fisli". C^g, has in Spanittli two r^ounds, a }mrHh 
guttural one, wtronger than that of the English //, and an(»ther 
niild, according, respectively, to it« coming before e and i or 
any other letter. In the Spanish Hvllabh's t/ue fpii,n docs not 
sound at all, (1) it being onlv a sign of pronunciation, indicating 
thaty isnottobe pronounced gutturally, hut that itHounds asthe^ 
same letter in "gate". This i« sonK'tinies disregarded inTaga-l 
log, some people writing ghd6 inwtead of tjiiivii'i, fpron. (;ww«-foA.y i 
"gold", etc. Now, if the proper rule,- of the Spanish I'rosody 
are to be applied here as -elHewhere in Tagalog, ^(ji/rj should 
be pronounced lieen-tde, while (juintO. which is the ei)rrect term, 
should sound yeeii-toe, as it sliouhl be. The student is warn- 
ed that the articulations ge in "gelder" gl in "gift" will al- 
w^ays be written in this. Gamniar indifferently <p'^, f/iii, or 
g-e g-i, the hyphen being used, especiiilly in composition, for 
the same purposes as tlie insertion of the n, as explained 
hereafter. G^g, when at the end of a particle should be dis- 
tinctly pronounced in a very mild and particular way some- 
what resembling the sound it has in the English word "dig- 
nity". Hearing it, however, pronounced by a native will 
convey a better idea of its sound. Any disregard on tins 
point might lead to many misconceptions, for nwdali, and 
magdali, although both of them are compounds of rfo/i. "swift- 
ness", differ broadly in sense. To what has been said abont 
the insertion of v, the following is an exception. When any 
particle ending in g is to be prefixed to a root beginning 
with i, the u may or may not be inserted; but in the latter, the g of the particle should be separatwl from the i by 
a hyphen, thus to denote that g has the mild sound which 
it would have, had u been inserted. Example: Ibig, "wish' 
"love" ; pag-ibig or pagutbig, (pron. pog-gec-bceg,) "to wish", 
love"; and not paJi-kee-beeg in the first of these cases. Th) 
hyphen may also be used when the root to which a particli 
ending with g is to be prefixed, begins with the same con- 
iionant, as in gaud, "work"; pag-gand "working"; or when 
should be separated from any other consonant with which 
it might have a different sound, as mvc-ha, (pron. moock-lidh), 
"face"; dvc-h,d (pron. dook-hdh), "poor" ; or to indicate that two 
consonants do not fuse into each other, as in bulac-lac, (pron. 
booh-lack-ldck), "flower". 

H-h, sounds exactly as in English. Examples: Hahgd, 

ch . 


(1) There are t-ome cases in which the v iiiserled between g and any 
of the vowels c or i, pounds, both in Spanish and in Tapilog; but then 
the crema (**) should be ueed. For instance, vim means "word"' ' "" 
galog: if a imrticle ending in (/ i» to be prefixed, (as mig is Hometimefi), 
thus forming inntiuica, "to jirouounce"; {pron. iniy-ooci-to/i), the crema 
necessary, for otherwise the compound resulting would he innrpncn am 
it should have to tx* pronounced maii-iife-knh, destructive of Ihe Pound mmti 




(pron. 1iah-lah-g4h), "price"; halayhdy, (pron. hah-Ii-hi,) "to put 
iinen to dry". H-h, is never a final consonant. (1). 

L'!, sounds as in English. Examples: Locsd. (pron. iM'h-o) 
"jump", "leap"; talabd, (pron. tah-lak-bdhj "oyster"; cambdl, 
(pron, cam-biihl,) "twin". 

M-m. Its sound in Tagalog does not differ from that which 
it has in English. Example; JIfoAai, (pron. Mah-hdhl,) "dear"; 
saUmat, (pron. sah-lah-matl,} "thanks' ; gotovi, (pron. <j6h-Umi,) 
"hunger". M-m- and not N-n is generally used hefore h and 
p in root-words: Sdinhii, "to mourn"; tavijial, "slap". 

'N-n, sounds as in English. Examples:: JV/icafl {pron. ndh- 
ciih-oh,) "stealing"; (OTirfa, (pron. ^an-tfa/i,) "oldnes"; rfa'aw, (pron. 
ddli-ahn.) "road" 

Ng-tiff, This is an exclusive Tagalog consonant and a 
very peculiar one, hoth in character and in sound. The latter 
is produced by expelling the breath towards the roof of the 
mouth so that a portion of the air should come forth through the 
nostrils. The student sliould have it pronounced by a native. 
Examples: Ngayon (pi'on. l^gah-ydlm,) "now", "at present"; sangd, 
(pron. sang-dli,) "branch" bf a tree", Ng, is never a terminal 

Ng-iig, at the end of a word may be a part thereof or a 
euphonic ligament; in either case, both letters have a nasal 
sound, g having the mild, but still perceptible sound it has 
in "dignity" as above said; but if ng belongs to the word and 
the latter is suffixed with any aditament beginning with a vowel, 
7i,g is changed into tig and the sound is the nasal one peculiar 
to the latter; for instance: Magaling, "good", "sound"; caga- 
lingav, "goodness", "soundness". Ng, always comes hefore a 

P.-p. It has the same sound as in English. Examples: 
Ihra, (pron. Pdh-rah,) "like"; ^>acpac, (pron. pack-pn'<:k,) "wing"; 
daquip, (pron. dah-kecp,} "to seize". 

P.-p, replaces / in all Spanisli words, in which the latter 
enters, when they have been Tagalized, the sound of / being 
exotic and of very difficult pronunciation for a native. Thus, 
for instance, favor, "favor", is Tagalized into pai'or and so on. 

Q-q, has the same sound as in French or in the English 
words "antique", "conquer", and should always be written qu 
(the V. being soundless) with either e or i following. Exam- 
ples: quilala, (pron. Icee-ldh-lah,) "to be acquainted with"; ^we- 

(1) The fact that h is frequently met at the end in Malay words when 
written iu the Roman character and tliat of the same consonant new Iwing a 
final letter in Tagalog, constitutes a deficience in the latter imputable to thosu 
only who first adapted the Spanish alphabet and prosody to Tagalog. The 
importance of appending fc to a final sharply -accented vowel does not seem to 
have appeared to their mhids, nor they seemed to rpaliite the simplicity 
resulting from writing gandnh, batoh, etc, instead of gnnitd,bat6, etc, to iorm 
the derivatives ragamlahan, latohin, thus doing away with one of the greatest 
difficulties in the language. 


hrada, (pron. kay-hrdh-tlak .) "wreck". In inserting the u due 
attention is paid to SpHnisli (irtograpliieiil rulei* wliich _Ta- 
galog has been built upon; but owinj;, however, to the samo 
causes as explaineil for the niisiuwi* of C antl G and to a 
different employing of Q when Tagaloj; began to he written, 
still Q_ alone and not Qu is found in t<(ini(t ancient books 
■ and even now some person;* write qibo instead of ifnibo and 
so on for analogous articulations, a practicn whieh is, on no 
account, to be recommended. Q^ is never a final letter. 

R-r. The sound of this consonant is somewhat to bt* 
compared to that of the same in Englisii when it comes at 
the middle of a word. as. for instance, in "very"; but in so 
far as it shares that of D with which it is frequently inter- 
changeable, the student would do well to notice how it is pro- 
nounced by natives, ^-f in never found at the beginning but at 
the middle or the end of words; at the end. liowever. d is 
preferable to r. Examples: viaralnl, (pron. mtih-Tiili-lu-rl) ■"per- 
haps"; Idcar or Idead, (pron. Lih-air or Idh-cadd), "to walk"; 
toid, (pron. tor-610 ''to point out"; As for its interchangeahility 
with i), see thie letter. 

S-s, has the sound of English s in "flame", "yes". Exam- 
ples: Siyd (pron, see-ydk,) "he or she"; lisaii. (pron' kesan,') 
"to leave off"; labds, (pron. luh-h-iss,) "outside". .S'-a, replaces C 
in the Spanish sillables ce, ci, za, zo, zu, (pron. thay, the^h, thak, 
tlioe, thoo) {pron. th as in '"think"), in all Spanish words made 
use of in Tagalog, this strong sound of th not existing in the 
language as above said. Cebolla, Ciceron. znyato, Zoilo, zueco are 
Tagalized into sibuya, Stseron, mpaUi, SoUo, sue^u). 

T-t, sounds as in English in "tea". Examples: T6nay or 
i0.nay, (pron. (dmt-i or toO-imie), '"true": pn/uy, (pron. pah-i' 
"dead"; at, (pron. at,) "anil". 

Y-y, at the beginning uf a word or a syllable and befon 
vowel, is considered as a consonant, and as a vowel i 
end. Its sound is that whicli it bears in English in 
"day". Examples, yaco/) {pron. ^o/i-ca'^j>.) "to embrace"; < 
(pron. dee-ydh-iah,) "therefore"; baybdy, (pron. by-bie.) "h 
This letter is used for Spanish LI as Tagalized in cebolla, 
¥ preceded by a consonant is never to be found 
end of words. 


Persons consulting Spjinisli-Tagalog dictionaries must J 
aware of the indiscriminate use of some letters: E and J 
and U, C and S or Q, 1) and R, Y and 1, LI and F, _ 
gui and ge, gi, Qu and Q, looking for the same word written " 
the various manners in which it can be, that they may 
at it some way or other. 

Although Spanish Prosody could not be so fully applied 
to Tagaing, this has been however done in so far as its 
applifiitiiin is not destructive of the peculiar character of the 
hitter. The student's work, therefore, may be advanced bv his 
previous! V being ac'|Uinnted with the following prosodical re- 

A syllable in Tagalog may consist: 

A) Of a single vowel, as a in a-ca-ta, "to guess." 

B) Of one vowel and one consonant or vice-versa, as in, in 

in-sic, "Chinese;" ha, in ha~bd, "length." 

C) Of one vowel between two consonants, as pan inpan-hiCf 

"to go upstairs". 

D) Of (ine vowel and two consonants, provided the latter 

be not fusible into each other, as ang in ang-cam "race", 
"ancestry". ^ 

E) Of one consonant, one vowel and two consonants under 

the same conditions as above, as livg in ling-cod, "to 
wait upon". 

F) Of two consonants and one vowel, one of the former 

being a liquid one, as eld in ba-cl'i, "astonishment". (1) 
Words consisting of two similar portions are excepted, 
as in bulac-Iac, "flower". 

G) The same combinations as in F, followed by a consonant, 

as clar in Im-clar, (2) "reed-net for fish"; (fishing-enclo- 
sure), crot in si-crot, "a kind of play with pebbles", 
jy) Of one consonant, one vowel and two consonants under 
certain conditions to be explained hereafter, as Iocs in 
loca-d, "to jump". 


A consonant between two vowels joins the second vowel, 
(unless the last vowel should be separated for pvii'poses of com- 

(1) In this the language has been influenced by Spanish Prosody, 
for the liquid consonants wpre formerly, and are still, pronounced separa- 
tely by some people, especially l>y those who have been kept aloof from 
inlerconrfe with Sfinniards. Thus, harld, i% pronounced by them (tnc-Ja and 
fO forth for similar articulations. 

(2) CombinatiouH F and (I are not found in the first syllables of 
yenuinf T.igalog word». 


position wIuMi th(» affixt-s /// or (/// ou^ht to h<- j)n»c<*(l(»(l hy 
the aspirated sound of //, as rxplaintMJ furtli(»r on.) Exaniph»s: A-hfi 
**oh;" ha'fa,"'c]\\\(V\ Dissyllabh^s consisting of two <M|ual ])orti<)ns 
an* excepte<l. Exanipl«*s:ar-(/r, **notch":o/-/>/, 'Mnad'\ ( 'nnibinations 
into wliicli / or r (Miters witli a consonant witli whicli either 
of the former can he fus(*d an* consi<h*r(Ml as a sinjich* consonant 
in root-tagalofi; wonls, for tlu» purposes of division, as in i-cli, 
'^sliortness''; ha-hld, **coinplaint'\ ''charge^'. Tliis is not jriMierally 
applicable eitlier to derivativ(»s and contractions or to root- 
words ending in a gravely acc(Mite<l vowel C), \\\wn the latter 
is to be separated for purpost^s of coin]>osition as above in<licattHl. 
Examples: Mof/'la-ltris, '*to tak(* out": jnii-lin, **cut it": pacf^d 

When two consonants come* between two vowtds, to eacli 
vowel a consonant is joincMl. Exain])les: llnn-iis, -to be in 
familv wav"; hlv-hiii, '*stilb ouiet'\ 

When three consonants come b(»tween two vowels, the two 
first c(msonants join the first vowel, as in Duiid'CnL "lengtli 
measure from the thumb to the extremity of the little finger 
stretcJfed out". 

The case of three consonants coming between two vowels 
only occurs in cases as in the preceding example when g comes 
after n followed bv a consonant, or in combinations in which 
/ enters fused with some other consonant. 

Every final consonant joins the preceding vowtd to form 
a syllable therewith. 

Everv final vowel thus acccMitcnl C) should be considered 
as separated from the pre*ce<ling letters and forming a syllable 
by itself. This is of the utmost importance as serving to distin- 
guish many words which are written alike and only differ in 
the accent. Thus, ha-ta, means **child"; but hai-a, means '*to 
suffer"; ha-sa, means -Ho wet": but has-a, means "to read", and 
so on for manv other words. 


The most difficult thing in Tagalog is perhaps to lay down 
proper rules on the accent, and thos(^ follow but a vain phantom 
who seek to prescribe^ exact modes of accentuation for voca- 
bles regarding which even native authorities an* not agreed 
and of which the pronunciation may vary according to locality. 
The experience of Spanish friars and Tagalists sufficiently })rovo8 
this; there are words in their dictionaries written in as many 
as three different ways. 

The written Spanish accent indicative of the syllable upon 
whicli a particular stress is laid has been somewhat inju- 
diciously applied to Tagalog. Some grammarians go so far 
aB- to admit of seven different manners of accentuation: some, 
four; and some others, three; wdiich they represent by (') acute; 


(*) grave, iiml ('^i, ^-in-uniilfx. There are even others who make 
use Diily. either of the first or the lii'st two. while most writers 
do not seem to yckiiowh-ilge any; fur, whatever they may think 
thereof in theory, tliey, at least, use none in practice, leaving 
rather tlie reader's presupposed knowledge to pronounce in the 
'proper manner or in tlie way tliat may better suit tlie local 
pecui arities. The fact is that the Spanisli accent has been 
carried away from its province and that it waa intended to 
make it explain linguist peculiarities which would have better 
means of expression by other orthographical signs. The raatler 
stands however in such a way as hardly to be changed, and 
the adoption of a method being necessary, we have, for pur- 
poses of the teaching, adopted that which seems to be the 
simplest, and we admit and shall make use of two accents 
in this work; the acute ('), and the grave (^), the latter always 
bearing upon the final voAvel. and this merely as indicative 
of words, the enlargement of whicli requires the insertion of 
h when any additament beginning with a vowel is to be suffixed 
thereto, and thus it may be that the student may not find 
it employed outside this work. (1) Nor should learners be dis- 
couraged by finding sometimes the same word either differently 
accented or unaccented. Jt is that in some cases the accentuation 
is intlueuced by the word preceding or following, or by the 
sense to be denoted, in a way which practice alone can teach. 

To a thorough understanding of the matter the following 
rules are established. 

Unaccented words ending in a vowel, or in u or s are grave. 
The stress in this case bears upon the penultimate sylfeble. 
Examples; Am/o. "to think"; }>ayan, "town"; gatas, "milk". Pron. 
acdla, bdynn, gdfas. 

Unaccented words ending in a consonant oi and s excepted) 
are acute, {ictns). The stress here is on tlie last syllable. Examples; 
I^iyat, "lean, meagre"; maiioe, "fowl. Vtoii. pay df, inanOc. 

Words ending in a vowel thus accented C\ should be pio- 
nuunced acute in a peculiar way: the last vowel should be pro- 
nounced separately from the rest, so as to constitute a syllable 
by itself and. moreover, the grave accent it bears is an indi- 
cation that if the word is to be enlarged bv in or an suffixed, 
in or ail siiould be written and pronounced fa'ti, haii. Examples: 
G(>7idi, "beautiful": cd'inii'luhan, "beauty"; tabt, "aside"; tabilian, 
"secluded j)lace"; /(("•, "man"; calanuhun, "mankind". Any de- 
viation from tliese rules will be marked by the accent. Thug, 
hinti-, "calf of the leg"; bucA, "to lay open"; cunilA, "their";, tatld, 
"three"; tami^. "sweet": sala/min, "looking-glass"; nhould be 
accented, for otherwise they would be grave, while dctpat, 
'■worthy". iUang. "debt"; lilhm, "dei)th"; on the contrary, are 
accented to indicate that they are to be pronounced grave ins- 
tead of acute as thev should be if no accent marks were used. 

(11 See note, page xix. 


The accent nerves in many caaes to distinguish words wlii^ 
although written alike, differ in meaning, an galag, "mil' 
and gatfis, "path"; gdling, "source", "origin", "coming from' 
and gating, "fair", sound", healthy"; gacii, "afterwards''; and 
sacA, "to till", "to farm". 

For the proper accentuation, care should ho taken with 
regard to Avords ending in a vowel or in n when they, for 
reasons to be explained, receive the euphonic ligament of g 
or ng. Thus, for instance, hintt. which is marked as an acute 
word will also be so marked in Ihe phrase hinting inatabtr. 
"big calf of the leg"; to indicate that it is the eanie word hiitti 
linked to the following one fahd for the sake of euphony. In 
the same manner and for the same purpose, the accent will 
or will not be employed respectively in salaming rnahal "costly 
looking-glass"; hayung waiatjvi, "large town" 

Words ending in 3/ or in two vowels will always be acceuti 
on the vowel bearing the stress, y being eometinies a vow) 
and sometimes a consonant, and the joining of two vowels 
always constituting a diphthong for the effects of prununciatit 

By paying attention to the foregoing rules, students 
be assisted in attaining a desirable pronunciation. They rau 
however, understand that tlie adoption of the two orthograliical 
signs of accentuation in this work is merely a matter of ex 
expediency, as most books written in Tagalog are deprived 
such characters. 


The joining together or two or three vowels is frequently 
met with in Tagalog words. For the purposes of pronun- 
ciation they to not constitute diphthongs or triphthongs in the 
English proaodical sense, as each vowel preserves its pro] "" 
sound, ua, uto, ui, in, sometimes forming syllables by the 
selves; fiiTto, "laughter"; ^ttwi, "skill"; (/aw/, "work"; irio, "di 
ger", biiuiri, "star". 

will ' 
'stiy . 




tlv f 

TTie accent in rehtioii to the sfrudurc mid invaiiing of wordi 

Some knowledge can he derived with regard to the accenti 
syllable of a word by considering its structure and meaning, 
general rules which, of course, admit of many exceptions, 
following are laid down : 

Acute liciita) words are : 

Root-words ending in a consonant, both syllables, or \ 
last two syllables of which are equal or similar in structuj 
Examples: ca/ftca?/!., "to take away"; lastds, "tounsew"; 


lae, "flower"; calisqnis, "fin uf fislies"; /inlof/uipquip, "folding 
of the arms". 

Root-words or derivatives the last two syllables of which 
end in ay; as baybiiy, "sand"; ialaytfiy, "to circulate". 

Root-words and derivatives ending in a consonant pre- 
ceded by one vowel and two couaonants; as tamjml, "slap"; 
baloctot, "intermingled". 

Grave words are: 

Polysyllabic root-words ending in consonants and consisting 
of two equal dysyllabic parts; as gonawgonam, '%o muse", ga- 
lang-gdlang^ "reverence. 

, Dysyllabic root-words ending in vowels and consisting of 
two equal parts, as coco, "lukewarm"; coca, colloquial word for 
"eldest brother"; pipi, "mute", "dumb". 

Derivatives from acute or grave root^words when they have 
been enlarged by a suffix, as from 6a('', "stouc"; batofnn, "made 
of stone; from samd, "accompanying"; aamakan, "accompanied"; 
jmnhic, "going upstairs"; pankican, "staircase". To this rule 
some imperatives are an exception. 

No rule can be laid down for words not comprised in the 
above divisions. 

As for the meaning, generally words denoting celerity are 
acute; as tacb'^, "to run"; lipad or lipar, "to fly"; those import- 
ing motion in quite a general sense are acute or grave according 
to the idea which is to be conveyed with regard to the degree 
of acceleration in the action. ThuH, liicad is grave and means 
"to walk" in the natural way; while DUtglacad, which means 
"to walk much", "to walk" swiftly"; is acute. Words denoting 
slowness are generally grave in accent, as; ttguil, "to calm", 
"to refrain from"; tahan, "to stop". 


Under certain conditions to be explained in the text, words, 
having a particular mutual dependence are linked to each 
other by means of particles or connectives adhering thereto 
or placed between them, either to suit euphony or to impart 
a particular relation. Tlie ligaments made use of for this pur- 
pose, are g, suffixed to words ending in ?t, when they should 
be linked to the following one; ng, affixed to those ending in 
one or two equal vowels, and iia, {>lHced between those ending 
in a consonant (n excepted) or two different vowels, and the 
following word to be linked thereto. Ay or oj, 1/ or i is likewise 
a connective to be placed between words entailing a verbal 

The illustrations hereafter will convey to the student's 
mind the understanding which is required at this stage. Bayan, 
"town"; inalaqui, "lar^a" ; bay ang mtilaijut, "large town"; m-afeti/», 


"good"; tiiuo "iiiaii", "person"; 7/w;'»"//)','/ tmid or t'luon^j mahtUi, 
"good follow"; maHcrd, "naughty": (nine, son or or daughter"; 
malfcot lilt anac, or anac no. malicot, "naughtv son or daughter"; 
huii'.lru: ■"niontaiii"; maUitu, "high"; mnj bniiihv ay matiios, "tlio" 
mountain is high". 

At or ( is sometime!* a connective used between caut<al con- 
junctions and the word following, as in D> <ic6 parordon, sa- 
}>affca,t, acO,i, may gaud, "L shall not go tinwe, because 1 have 

Some words undergo certain contractions on account of 
briefness or euphony. In ay and «/, "and''; for instance, n, may 
be dropjjed when the word immediateiy preceding ond« in a 
vowel. If it ends in ?i. hoth the u of the word and the a of 
ligaments may of tlie droppeil, the faKhinn in such case liaving 
established the jnitting of the ( or y-'l i-emaining of tlie lig- 
ament between two commas; (1) as in fjah',f. drtio, for gabi at 
drao, "night and day"; canmn' yan,t, cahaua Ian iuAi}n<\ of caru- 
nuiigan at cabmialan, "wisdom and virtue"; Si PedroJ. mahiiii. 
instead of Si I^tlrn ay mabiitK "['etter is good"; /i//f.), viahabn. 
instead of iydn ay mahaba, "that is long". 


Reading in Tagalog is therefore as simple as in Spaniph: 
it merely consists in reading and pronouncing every letter {ex- 
cept u when it is inserted between g or 7 and certain vowels 
as stated), according with the sound assigned to it, in the 
chapter devoted to Orthography in this work. 

The student, before passing beyond to the Grammar, should 
try to comprehend as fully as he can the foregoing remarks 
and to read an<l pronounce correctly the following exercise; 




Mala(|Uing toton 
Mah-lnh-kbiq luh-t<,h-t)h 

aiig calungculan 

ami riili-l(Hiti'!-cii6-lnlia 

< ireat 

our (of US) 




In love 



at gunialang 
at g'M'-mdh'laug 
ami revere 





ania at 
ah-m,ih at 

iiii i,„n, 
(T-n'ili p.'il/-rfih 




fallier and 

mother according 


fl) This work not being reformatory in kind, we confine mirs^eivfs 
lo the teiiching of the language as il is at present writtfii; hut there is 
little douU that Tagalog ruquirea reformation in thiu and some other pointe. 



Tra >/.9. 




Prov . 

Prov . 







Trail a. 













sinavsav co 

see-ni'Si coh 

explained of me 






(any) value 


sn inyo 

sah in-ghioh 
to vou 

datai)&ua ,t, 
da h'ta li-p ih-ooah t 
however (it) 

nang is'ng 
nang ee-sdng 
on (other) last 



(will not have) 




if not 

laug-c ih'pan 
united (haekcMl) 












at caiicol na 

-af rah'OO'Coll nah 
and corresponding 






gaua; cundi 

ga h'Oodh ; coon-dei* 

works, if not 




of ours 

(a) soun<l 






of course 











of them 





ma h -toh -toh-oo-eer 









devoting devotion) 

n ih'tin 
of ours 




canili, cun 

cah-nee-Uih, coon 
them, if 










■at nasasalatan. 

a / // a h'Sah -so h -Idh -fa ?/ . 
and destitute. 


Great, no doubt, is our duty to love and revere our parents, 
as I have explained to ycm last Sunday; but such love and 


respect will be to no purpose* if the latter «ire not hacked 
by good and conscious works, if not, I say, accompanied by 
a proper obedience on our [>art to their just injunctions, and 
bv our assistance and attendance to them when thev are sick 
and destitute. 




The (iefinile article tkf., in the eingular, is expressed in Tagalog by 
nng, which may be said to ^tand for the English definite article, though it is 
rather a particle capable of expressing many other relatione. Ang is used 
only before common, abstract, and proper nouns of things. Proper nouna 
iif persons (personal names] take in Tagalog, contrary to the English 
usage, their proper definite article fli. As for other proper nouns, natives 
pay: Ang Panig, ang Ptlipinns, ang Maynila, ang Cacife; "The Pasig," "the 
"Philippines," "Manila," "Cavite." The Indefinite article a or an may be 
expressed in Tagalog by the numeral adjective "one," isd. 

The (sing.) 
Have you? 

Yes Sir, I have. 

I have (some.) 


Have you any hat? 

Yes, I have a hat. 

Have you my bread? 

Yea. I have your bread. 

j (,Mayr6on ca po7 (indeterminate.) 
f ;,Na sa iyd bag^? (determinate.) 
\ Oo, po, mayroon ac6. (indet.) 
( Sa Ba aquin po. (det.) 



;,Mayr6on ca pong mmhalelof (I) 
Oo, mayroon ac6ng sambalelo. 

fiNa ea iyo baga and tinapay co? 

Oo, na sa aquin ang tinapay mo. 

Common, abstract, and proper nouns of things in the singular, pos- 
Eessive pronouns and clauses serving as subject to a sentence, are gen* 
erally preceded by the particle or article ang. 

The subject of a sentence, whether a noun or pronoun, may be 
placed either before or after the verb it governs, the order being gov- 
erned by considerations of euphony. 

Mny.oin and may, (its root) are constructed between two nominati- 
ves. Mayroon may be used alone, ntoj, always requires some object of possession 

I ) Ci>rru[itir)n uf ilii? SiJiiuisli wr>rd lombreru, "hat." 

I hnvf, ai' an active v«rb, followed hy a noun in an indeterminate 
^nt«, in tran^Ul^ hy mny or mayroon. ( 1 ) It the noun refers to MXne 
I'pecific or partit^ular thitiK, it i^ tran»lAtt-tl with a/i anil the objvtire c*at 
(ablative of place) uf thv noun or perfotial pronoun which ii> the eubj^^t 
in Endlinh, the literal tranxlation bein); "your bread iw with me", Sa f 
sometimes used before cny. 

Numeral afijectives are not conpidered ac determinative, utiles Ihey 
themselves are otherwiw determined by some word having a delermi native 
character. Example: Mayromi oecinj dalavang pnco. "I have two nail»"; siijr 
ilntaudng paco ang nn wi aqvtti. "I have the two nails". (Literally, the 
two nails are with me.). 

Properly speaking, the interrogative wntte ii^ not indicated in Tags- 
log by any sign or particular manner of construction; but by the employ- 
ment of Buch wordw as hayi, enyd, etc., their use being optional. The 
interrogative pigns, taken from Spanish, are however, largely u^ed. Thej' 
)<houl(f be placed both at the beginning and at the end of the sentence. Ttw 
tone of the voice, alone, may sometimes mark the interrogation pulfiriently. 

Meat, fl 




I writing paper. 

( written upon. 

ne, or of me. (jKesofisive). 
Thy, thine, or of thee (po9».);yoi 
yours, or of you (pons.) (in the sing- J Iy6, mo. 

Lamenn (2). 

Laman. (Tag.); cim^, (Sjian. ). 

\ Anufii (corruption of Spanish 
} atirar.). 


Sulatan, (Tag,); poprl. (%\An.). 


Aquin. CO, 


My hat. 

My Uble 

Your (sing.) bread. 

Have you may hat?. 

Ym, Sir, I have your hat. 

Haye you your table? 

I have my table. 

The king. 

The bishop. 


Which?, which one? 

Which hat have you? 

I have my hat. 

Which one? 

What table have you? 

I have your table. 
What? (nominative). 

\ Ang luimttalrlo co. or, ang aquing mm- 
t haUlo. 

Ang Inm^m to, or, ang aquing Ifim^^M. 

Ang tinitpay mo, or, ang iyong tinapay. 

.... ■ • L ■ \ ang samhaUlo tof 

.Na ,a lyobig. j .„»i,„i„g„„4„fcfc, 

) Oo, po, na sa \ ang sambaleio mo. 
( aquin ( ang iy6ng sambalelo. 

i ^Na ea iydbagii | ang lamesa mo? 
J (or caya) ( ang lying lamesa? 

., - \ ang lamesa co, 

Ang hari. 

Ang obispo (Span.), 

(And?; iani baga? 

iAHn?; ^alfn baga? 

^AHng sambalclo ang na »& iyd?. 

Ang samhalelo co ang na sa aquin. 

^Ang alin?; ^alin bag^? 

^Anong lamesa ang na sa iy6?. 
\ Ang lamesa mo. ) 
i A„i iy6„g lame» i ""' "" '^^ "*""■ 

iAn6?; ian6 bagii. 

<]} Ua^ ami 

(2) Th>; »t>an 

inayriiun ma}' W wrlltei 
9h worJ mesa llBed willi 

a nil proaoUuc«d 


The possessive pronouns and the possessive case of the personal pronouns 
are alike and have two forms, one prepositive and the other postpositive. 

Interrogative pronouns take sometimes the article when they come 
alone in the sentence; but it is a practice which is not to be re- 

Ang is likewise a relative pronoun standing for "what" or "that 
which", as in ialing sambakh ang na sa iydf and similar cases. 


Have you any br^ad? Yes, Sir, I have some bread. Have you my 
bread? I have your bread. Have you the meat? I have the meat. 
Have you your meat? I have my meat. Have you the salt? I have 
the salt. Have you my salt? I have your salt. Have you the sugar? 
I have th^ sugar. Have you the water? I have the water. Have you your 
water? I have my water. What paper have you? I have my paper. 




Inflexion for gender ie unknown in Tagalog, and the pexen are generally 
distinguished by the addition of Huch words as Inlaqvi, *'male"; hahayf, 
"female", in the case of living things. In a few instaneep, the distinction 
In gender is expressed by different words, as in amd, "father"; in^. "mot- 
her, etc. 


Mr. Branagan 
Dr. Martin. 

Si Juan. 

Si ortiz. 

Si Sefior Robinson. 

Si Seftor Branagan. 

Ang Sefior Branagan. 
j Si Doctor Martin. 
( Ang Doctor Martin. 

Christian names and surnames in the singular and nominative case 
require the particle Si before them. When used with titles, they may be 
preceded by the same particle or by that of common nouns, according 
to whether stress is laid on the name or on the title. 

The father. 

The mother. 

The brother. 

The sister. 

Eldest brother, (first born). 

Eldest sister. 

My eldest brother. 

My eldest sister. 

My father. 

My mother. 

Ang ama. 

Ang in4. 

Ang capatid na lalaqui. 

Ang capatid na babave, (1). 

Si coya, Si caca. 
Si ate. 
Si ama. 
Si in4. 

The article Si of proper personal nouns may be also used before 
common nouns to indicate living beings unique in kind and pertaining 
to the speaker. When animals are named after persons or bear specific 
appellations by which they are known, such nouns may likewise take ft 
in the nominative. Thus, of a horse known as Babieca, may be said. 
Si Babieca. The use of Si in reference to a person who is not an in- 
timate relation of the speaker is mockery. 

^1) Babaye^ **wonian", ,,fi'iiialt'*' may W written hafpatji, 6a6«l^ 6a/4y. 

Thou, you (einp.) 


Rice-field, farm. 


Power, authority. 

Strength J force. 



Icao, ca; icio po (polite. J 


Buquid, or, buquir. 

Lilro (Sp.) 


Cabagsicun, calacaean. 

Dios, (Sp.); Bathala, (Tag.) 
J Dahon, (Tag.)[ pohas, (corr, 
I word ftiy'o, "leaf.") 

Icdo, in used alone and prc-cedef the vorh; rn, follows it. 

The house of John. 
John's house. 
The power of God. 
God's power, 

The leaf of the book. 

Book- leaf. 

Loving (pres., participle.) 

An cay Juang bahay. 

Ang bihay ni Juan. 

Ang capangyarihan nang Dios. 

Ang sa Dios na capangyarihan. 
\ Ang dahon nang libro. 
( Ang s» librong duhon. 

Dahon libro, 



Common and proper nouns of persons in the poesespive case are im- 
mediately preceded by the particles nanff or m. ni or cay respectively; 
»a and cay being used when the object of poBseasion comes before the 

In nouns common to both genders, the distinction in sex is made by 
adding Iftlaqni (male) for the masculine, bahaye (female) for the feminine. 

Dion is used as a common noun. 

Compound nouns, in which one of the member qualifies the other, 
are generally formed in Tagalog in a manner contrary to that of English, 
viz.: by naming first the principal noun and second the qualifier, no 
ligament being employed if the first member ends in a consonant. 

The particles used in place of artiiles arc declined thus; 
Article for common, and proper nouns 0/ ihinijs in the singulai 


i Ace. 

\ Cause or plac 
) InBtrumrnl, 

The. Ang. 

Of the * ^^- "^"^' "^■ 

^^ '"*■ } (contract). (2) 

To the. Sa. 

The. Nang, sa. 

In, by, at the. Sa. 

By. tlirough, with the. Nang. 

(1) Fur a lu'ltiT iinderHl 
se divided intu rfnliir ci"' 

in I^lin, anil llii' 'ihhiin 

(2) Xn,.a y nmlnutr.l i 
I other t>'K>k>' nill ii<>t U- 

r i-tf lliJH niallfr wt (.■onsiiler the Englisti objective 
■fi't ubjecl.), 'teeuintive (liirert obifct) niiil ablati'vt 
BUbdividwJ into Ivpal an'l in'frvmntlnl 
g. Such Clin traction, Bltlmii^'li fni(iu'iiily mt^t with 
I thiH uramniar, ae it will I-- fii^lrm tive of the 

yyiimAy and tiie sliulent might Ite induced into a false proniini'iittimi tJiereof, 


Article for proper notirw of perwontf. in the Hnyular. 

Nom. (1). 

P068. Of. 

Object. ( all its divisons). To« at, in, by, with etc. 

^ • 

Cav, ni. 

Deeienfian with a common nottn. 





\ local 
I inst. 


Of the. 

To the 


In, at the. i 

By, with the. ( 

-{ Weapon. 


Sa or nang. 


Nang. sa. 


DcHenHan u^th a proper noun of per$on. 

Object, (all its divisions.) 


Peter's, of Peter. 

Peter; by. to. etc. Peter. 

Si Pedro. 
Cav Pedrong. 
Cav Pedro. 

.. ni Pedro. 

Not to have (active verb), not to 
possess; there is (or are) not. (in- 

To have (active verb.); there is (or 

I have no table. 

Have vou not the meat? 

There is some salt. 

There is no sugar. 

He or she. 

Is there any |mper on the table? 

Theire is no sugar in the water. 

Is there anv house in the farm? 

There is^ none. 

Have you the leaf of the bix^k? 

I have it. 

Have I anv book-leaf? 






Mav, mavnSon. 

Uala ac6ng lamesa. 

Ac6.i. ualang lamesa. 

^Uala baga sa iyo ang laman 


May asin. mayroon asin. 

Ualang asiical. 


^MaynSon bagang papel sa lamesa?. 

Ualang asiical sa tiibig. 

^Mav bahav cava sa bdquid? 


;:Na sa iyo baga ang dahon nang libro? 

Na sa aquin n^. 

e.Mayrt5on baga ac6ng dahon libro? 

Jtfiay« is used without any ligament. As for mayroon and naldy when 
they come before a pronoun* the nominative of a sentence, the ligament 
passes over to the pronoun. If the nominative comes before, the ligament 
may be emploved. iMmyroon rang papel hagd.? Vald acong papel. Other* 
wise: ilemOyi^ wmyroomg papel:? aeoA. naldng papeL 

^ffm^ is m particle largelv used in Tagalog, which carries the sense 
to its most complete expression, as in, na .^ aqnin H^ra; "I have it in- 
deed**; VmUi^j ''There is absolutely noneMt should* be carefully dis- 
tiosoMied mm mm. 

(1) Ttett is mm e^wvalent in English. 

When the subject in a sentence comes before the verb, the verbal 
ligament ay-i should be placed between. No ligament is used in the 
contrary case. 


Has my father any salt? He has none. Have you a mother? I 
have. Has the king any sister? He has none Has the bishop any 
brother? He has. Has John any water? John has some water. Has 
he any house? Certainly, he has a house. Has God any power? Yes, 
indeed, He has power. Has your love any force? Yes, my love has 
force. Has God love for man? Yes, God has love for man. Is there 
any book at your house? Yes, at my house there is a book. Has your 
mother's love any force? Yes, indeed. Which book have you? I have 
Peter's book. What farm has your father? He has the king's farm. 

f ; 



A definite plural nunilier i- exj»res-t-i :r. TAi:A\>2 bv the use of ^ the 
}iarticle mnhja or such coiltn.'iivr :.\:mir.i* j i'*^ ::vr* a.- fdffi. Jnhaf, //t7an« 
•all." Sometimes, however, the nun'.U-r rvmain- ir.iiennite and should be 
gatheretl from the context. When there •> v.^'/i.'.v.z t.^ ?how whether sin- 
sular iir plural is meant, the n^ur. n::sy i>-r.rr.'.**y K^ assumed to be in 
the plural or u<eil in an inditiniu* •^^ 

Tlie (plural). Ar.i! mi:.i. i'abb..» vM- 

You ipluraH. ye. ^.\iyo: v\iyo j*-. i*"«]itf. 

We. T.kvo. oAmf. -^uiia. t-ata. 

They. Si la. 

No. H : r. vii . ;:.i la . 

_ ot. P;. iv.r..r.. .;;.:. 

IX'* not. vpr^^hibitive^. Hv^v.aj:. 

Clothes. I\im::. 

LAX>king-glas^. Sa'.an;::: nanc mue-lia^ 

Monev . Sci l/i p: . i ■: ". ao. 

Understanding, judgment. Ba::. ca^a::an. 

Anything which is c^hhI. the idea i u. .♦ • . — .-.a 

% ^1 ^ . But I. vr.>^t-woT\l . 

of giHHiness. \ 

Gixxl. iudj.). Main;::. 

Anything bad, the idea of wiokiHlness. Sam^i. .Tvv»:-word.*. 

Bad. (adj.) Masama. 

Anything pn^tty, the idea of pn^ttiness. n>|;i::. rvv^t-woni- 

Pretty. M:ir:ou:t. 

Anything lH»autiful. the idea of Ivauty . ivarndk. . T\s>t-wonl,) 

Beautiful, (adj.) Magano.;. 

Ugly, wicked. Paf^cii, lupit. 

Anything old. Tandi. (nv^:-word.» 

Old (in ago.) (adj.) Ma:ar*da. 

Man, iH'nton, creature. Tax;v\ 

Dog. Aso. 

Child. Ba:a. 

|T \ <^^^Jyi^ (oorr. frt>m Si^an, word ra- 

' ?•«!." .\ ♦ 

Mare. l\ibayop.g bal^ye, 

JudiciouH, pru«lont. Mabaii. 

The Ux)king-gluHHeH. Ang manga salamin. 

(1) Mniigit^ will nfton U* mot with «vM)tnu't«M in(«^ w^m: but for tlie Miiue reasons 

XplHllllHl ftir l)tf ill tho HIH " 

nut U* iihihI ill tlilH vriiiiniinr. 

an explaiiiiHl fur i)g in tho wvoiu) www of tho i«n\\>tin)! 1os!^>ii. such i\mtracUoii will 


The men, the persons, the people. 

My brethren. 

The old person. 

The good (judicious) child. 

The good horse. 

The beautiful woman. 

The pretty tlogs. 

The uglv mares. 

Ang mafiga tauo. 

Maflga capatid co. 
J Ang tauung matandd, and mataU- 
( dang tauu. 

I Ang batang mabait, ang mabait 
I na bata. 

If Ang cabayong mabuti, ang mabuting 
f cabayo. 

Ang babayeng .magandi, ang magan- 
dilng babaye. 

Aug msfiga asong mariquit. 

Ang ma&ga mariquit na aso. 

Ang maririquit na ago. 

Ang asong maririquit. 

Ang mafiga asong maririquit. 
,Ang manga maririquit na aso. 

Ang manga cabayong babayeng pil- 
fig it. 

Ang mafiga piiflgit na cabayong ba- 



One person, a jwrson. 

Two children. 

Ysing taao, 
Dalauang bata. 

Common nouns and adjectives are put in the plural by using the 
particle nmHja, to lie placed between that which indicates the relation of 
case and the noun or any attribute thereof, unless the number is in- 
dicated by a numeral adjective. Nouns in the vocative case (nominative 
of address) or in apposition, drop ang in the plural. 

The adjectives formed by a root-word and the prefix ma, may, also, 
be put in the plural by repeating the first syllable of the root if such 
syllable consiete of one or two letters and the first two letters thereof 
if it consists of more, the use of vianga being optional. 

The nominative case of the first person pronoun has three forms in 
the plural: tayo, nami, guila,. Tayo, should be used when both the speaker 
and the person addressed are included in the notion; rami, when only the 
s|>eaker is concerned. Thus, an American speaking to a native must say; 
tnyo;i, vuimitmntdy ,'we are mortal"; earning mniiifa amerirano,i, mnpuputi, 
"we, americans, are white. 

Qiiitd is exclusive or dual; as exclusive, it means, you (thou) and I 
alone; an dual, it is possessive with regard to the speaker and nominative 
for the person ejioken to; it is womewhat as, Ihmi. nrl... by me. 

Root is the term which denotes but the simplest idea of a thing, 
a quality or an action, and which requires some elaboration to express 
the various relations, the thing, quality or action is capable of. There are 
substantive, adjective and verbal roots. Roote possesing substantive force may 
lie made to mean a quality by prefixing the particle ma, as seen in the 
above instances, they being thus converted into as many adjectives. Roots 
having an adjective force may be, and generally are, expressed without 
any elatwration. 

Ma is the prefix most frequently used for making adjectives from 
substantive roots. Adjectives are also made from verbal roots by em- 
ploying other affixes in several ways, to be explainetl in subsequent lessons. 

The illustrations in the vocabulary show that adjectives in Tagalog 
may come liefore or after the nouns they qualify. 



The urtiflf in On- /Junil. 


I Aiv. 

The (pluruh. 

An>; maftga. 

Of the " 

Nang manga. !«a mai^fra. 

To the " 

Sa niafiga. 


Nang maAga. sa mail^a 

Ohieot.-, I '^ 'i * In, at. from, etc the. Sa niafiga. 

: Abl. 

r ' "iuT""" ) ^y- ^'^^^' ^^'^ ^'^•* ) ^'**"*^ manga. 

/VWf iixfrkM itf a ^omiiinH lunm itt fhf i^ttrnf. 

Som. The. Ang. 

l\>ss. <M the. Nang. >a. 

; Dat. To the. Sa. 

. AiV. The. N.inp. sa. 

' Kx'al and Fn>m. in. - Hon<5,.>. - raaftga Imhay 

Object.^ •causal. at, ete. the. ^ 

I Ahl, j instnnn- With. hy. fn-vni. 

l^ental. the. ;^ Nang. 

/Vrf^nwViw Of* »i }}a»n in thr f Jural tri^A an a»/fr<"firr. 

Nom. The. Ang. i 

Pass, Of the. Nang. sa. . 

I I>at. To the. Sa. manga ast^ng 

I Aiv. The. ' ugly Nang. sa, ! (.laiigit. 

Obie^^t 1 K^calaml In at. dog^. ^^ | maftga iiafigit 

^ ' I . 1 » • causal. from, etc, the, 

^ ' ' ^ iiistrum* With, by, etc. 

I^ental. the. 

na aso. 

Nanc. ' 

Proper nouns have no plural. It is, however, a ivculiaritv of Tagalog 
that pn>)ier nouns of (arsons should be pnveded by Stwd. the plural of 
5i, not when pcrsions In^aring the s^nH^ name are meant: but when the 
principal |>erMm, the one who is as head of the family iv association is 
to be i^iweeenled togtaher with his or her intimate' relations or with 
thoM connected with him in other r^)H\rt5. ^ind. is declined as ioUowa: 

Nom. Sina. 

Km. Nina. oana. 

Ol^ect^ (all il< diTiaiona.) Cana. 


So, for instance, "Jane and her family" (or persons in any intimate 
connection with her), is declined as follows: 



Object. ( all its divsions.) 

Jane and her people. 


Nina, cana. 


Edward and his people. 

The farm of Thomas' family. 

Astor & Coy. 

To Russell & Coy. 

Sina Eduardo. 
{ Ang biiquid nina Tomas. 
( Ang cana Tomiis na buquid. 

Sina Astor. 

Cana Rusel. 


Have we undertanding? Yes, we have. Have they any good clothes? 
No, they have none. Have you (plur.) any bad looking-glasses? Yes, we have 
some bad ones. Have I your pretty horses? Yes, you have them. Have 
the judicious children my beautiful dogs? Yes, they have 3'our beautiful 
dogs. Have they my fine books? No. Which hats have we? You have 
Peter's hats. Has John my old brothers' good horses? He has none. Htas 
Peter's father my children's old horses? He has them not. Have old peojple 
love for children? Yes, Sir, they have love for children. Have John's fanuly 
any good houses? No, they have no good houses, but (1) they have some 
pretty farms. What farms have Peter's family? Peter's family have beau- 
tiful farms. Have they the ugly houses of John's family? They have not 
the ugly houses of John's family. Are there any books on the. tables? Th^re 
are no books on the lables. Have your sisters aqy old dogs? No, they have 
no old dogs. 

(1) But, cundi. 





As has been indicateil in foregoing chapters*, the Tagalog language is 
distinguished from other Malay dialects by the employment of certain 
endings or separate particles intended to link words, clauses and sen- 
tences to each other. The proper use of ?uch conneriire9 or linking-parti- 
ties is more a matter of practice than of theory, as euphony, in many 
cases, determines whether they s^hall he used or not. 

Hereafter we give such explanations as may be useful at this stage; 
but this matter being both so inip«>rtant and abstruse, we refer the stud- 
ent to the sixty ninth lesson, where some further rules are given on 
the subject. 

The mutual relation between a substantive and its qualifying word 
should be indicated by a ligament added to, or following the first word, 
unless the second be a monosyllable. According as the first vocable, whe- 
ther the substantive or the qualifying word, ends in h. one or two dif- 
ferent vowels or a con^onant lexi^pt ii\ the ligament employed should be 
f, a<r or ra. n?s|:^ctively. Examples: haiang maliroi or imalinl na ftafu, 
**naughiy boy"; wnQ hdha%t or hahtiji mo, "your (sing.) house"; itong i»i, 
'^ihis other": ivina dah^vanfj Uhroy "those two books": ianong fawo?, "what 
per^^n?"; i-Mo wo mnlinao, "clear day". 

The subject, be it a noun or a pronoun, of an active affirmative sen- 
tence should b« linked to the verb by means of ay-i (1) if the subject 
preotJe* ihe verb: but not when this order is inverted. Examples: Aco,t\ 

rvairMMr. pmniprndfCK «iro. "I entered**: ana ihon ay JbiiH^miiA«iii, hmngmu- 
»«i «iw i<V»«i, "the bird sings". 

Two clauses havin«r mutual connection should likewise be linked bv 
•M., Eicample: Own dnmitinj #i PfArt\ iiy Nm^i'iV oi. "if Peter arrives, 
cv» awav"*. 

A clause serving as subject of an active affirmative sentence should 
be linked to the verb in the same way. when such clause precedes the 
verb, but, onlinarilv. not when the or\ler is inverted, as: amg pag-ibig m 
Pm itv «.)cnii%ii>«'^ M MN\ or. ii«<r/^pxi/>*' "^ ^^ Uiho amg pag-Aigm Diot^ 
'tv> lv»v>f i^kKt ennobles man", or. "it* ennobles man to love Cjod". However, 
the ligament mav be prvserve\i even when the subject follows the verb, 
when for the sjike of greater emphasis the verb is preceded by a rela- 
t:ve prvRoun or u:«^i in the |^rt:cipial sense in Tagalog. as: cmg magmMpa- 
f%-y% « rt?%o .»% .?%5i i^iji-sH: *j PiVvt, "wh.^: ennobles man is to lore isoli". 
In comfv^und active sentences the pri:^o:pal and the secondary sent- 
ence are linked to each other by means of -ir-t. when a conjunction of 

.1' Ibe $i«ile«it w iK^ttie^i that i^im, ,prv^r.. alV. fv' » by 
^^-' Tjy ^ «r laiher ia a naaner equally 9hannc i^' Ksh » 


cause ie used, aw: hiudi nco riacabnbati m })agfa,l, uald acong snlamin, 
"I cannot read, because I have no spectacles". 

When an interrogative word is used to start a Bentence, the verbal 
ligament ia replaced by the nominal one, which, in thiB case, stands for 
the article or the relative pronoun, as: i»inong nagndcao?, "who stole?", 
ianong sahi mot "what do you say?"; literally, "who ia he who stole", 
"what is that which you say?", it being indifferent to say, einong or sino 
nng nagnarno^, anoiuj or ana ang mlii ma^; the latter forms are however 
preferable as being both more idiomatic and emphatic. 

The ligaments are not generally used before monosyllabic words or 
expletive particles, nor before the particles serving to establish the rela- 
tion of case, for instance: damit m dmo drao, "daily wearing apparel"; 
lalaqvi man, babaye man, "be it man or woman"; avg catoualhtnian 6 gloria 
bagd, ''bliss, that is to say, glory"; i((i,i, eand Pedro, "this is for Peter 
and his family". 

The ligament is also dropped before the possessive pronouns it put after 
the nouns they qualify, as; salnpi niya, caniying aalnpi; "his or her money". 

The numeral adjectives drop the ligament when they come befoie the 
restrictive prefix ca, as in 4pat entnua "four persons only". 

No ligament is used between the subject and the verb if the form- 
er is preceded by some negative or prohibitive particle; for instance: Di 
aeo ningmacdin, "1 do not eat"; houng lumdcad, "don't walk"; hindi cami 
magnandcao, "we are not thieves". 

The verbal ligament may also be dropped for euphony' sake if the 
word serving as the subjet ends in i. Ex. Ang pantali napa lid; "the tying 
rope parted". 

We have said elsewhere that the a of ay and at may be dropped 
when coming after words ending in a vowel, and that if they end in 
n, both the n and the a may be dropped. This is not, however, the case 
when at and ay are followed by a monosyllabic word, as, for instance, in 
(HI cagalifigan at m cabaiialanj "tor goodness and virtue"; ang caldoua, 
ay sa Dios, "the soul is for God". 

The preceding remarks refer to ligaments considered as euphonic 
characters; but tliey may, too, express by themselves essential and very 
important relations of other kind. Thus, to be, in its copulative aeose, 
when it takes a noun or an adjective for predicate, is expressed by the 
ligament ay-i] and the endings g, ng or the particle 7111 stand sometimes 
for relative pronouns and cannot, therefore, be dropped. 

To be at, to be in, etc. (in the 
sense of to dwell, to reside, to 
live at, to find one's self at). 

To be, (copulative verb). 

At home. 

At church. 

At school. 


There i '"<''*^il''iiiS ^ place near the 

' I person spoken to. 
There \ '"dicating a place far away ) j, , 
^'^'^^- ( from both interlocutors. ( ^°°"- 
To be here, Narini, narit6. 

To be there (yonder). Nariyiln. 

To be there (far away). Nar<Son. 

Where? iSaan? 

Na (and a name of place in the local 

abl. case). 
Na (and an adverb of place) 
Na cay (and a name of person), 
Na cana (and a collective personal 

Ay,i, iiga. baga, g, ng, na. 
Na sa bahay. sa hahay. 
Na sa simbahan, sa simbahan. 
Na sa fficiteld (Sp.) or escuelahan. 
Dini, dito. 

[ Diyan. 



'. 5he? 

Where . 

' are ' "' 
^^ thev? 

AVhere is mv eldest bmihtr?. 


-^.N&^ian?. nmhian?. ;«ian nanSon?. 


He is at home. 

WTiere is vour mother? 

She i* with Henry. 

She is at chnrch." 

She is at Docot familyV. 

Not to be at. 



I> it TOU? 

Oh! ves. it is you. 
Is voor |ia}.)a at the farm ( or o-^un- 

No. Sir. he is not at the farm, he 
is in the forest. 

ban Si c: 
r ffirjL 
na ^a bahar. 
narwn ang ink 



Na ^JL 



Na cay Enri^iue »iya. 

Na €« >iml>ahan Hva. 

Na cana Docot. 

Uala «va. 

Nanay. nanay. inang. (colloquial). 

Tata. tatanp.'taUy. Utij. (colloquial). 

,".Kao liapi? 

Aliaa!. icaio f^ga: icao figa pala. 

;.Na >a iHiquid baga ang tatay mo? 

l^i pi^. uala siya sa biiquid, na 
tfiibat ^iva. 

"To l^'\ whenever it asserts presrn^^e is translated by na and a noun 
of place in tht- local ablative ca>e, or by prt-fixing lui to anj' word de- 
monstrative in character. 





WoihU lumber. 

Chrystal, glass (matter^ 




My father is gvxHl. 

My sister is Wautiful. 

Is his brother l^ul? 

His bnuhor is bad, but mine is got^J, 

Is their ring u gold one? 
Yes, their ring is a gold one. 



Patalim. binalon. 


Caht»v or cahuv. 




P:inulat. 'Tag.'-; ^Jvma (Sp.). 

Ang ami oo.i. ma but i. 

Mabuii ang ama co. (better) ang aquing 

\ Ang at^uing capatid na babaye ay 
' macanda. 

;.Masama l^ga ang caniying capatid? 

Ang cai^Htid niyi.i. masama; figuni.t. 
ang aqui.i. mabait. 

^Aniinto baga ang caniling nngsing?. 

iV. ang singling nila,i, guint6. 

Whenever **to bt»*' is the copula ami has no other value than to assert 
some attribute of the noun is not translate^! in Tagalog bv any specific 
word, but the meaning may Ih^ convey^ni in several ways. If a noun or an 
mljective Is \ised as the prtHliVnte of another noun or pronoun, it is enough to 
insert fiy^i In^tween them to indicate the copula. As fly-i is not generally 
usi»d in interrogative senteniMv when the subject comes'after the verb, the 
relation is then ex))n«8sed by some expletive or completive particle. Some- 
times the ligaments or the arrangement of wor\ls serve to exiness the same 
rt^lation of copula, aa when a rt«lative pr\moun is understood, for instance: 
nng himal na tnuo, *Mho virtuous mai\'\ or. *^the man who is virtiiou8'\ 



Where is your father? My father is at home. Where is my brother^s 
son? He is at church. Where is their daughter? Their daughter is at church. 
Where is our son? Our son is at school. Is the child here? No, the child 
is not here, he is in the country. Are yoiar sister's children there (yonder)? 
My sister's children are not there (yonder.). Where are they? They are at 
home. Is it he? It is he. Is it you? (plurals It is not we. Are my mother's 
brothers there? My mother's brothers are not there, they are at John's. 
Is the mountain over there? Yes, it is over there. Is your ring a gold 
one? No, it is a silver one. Is your table a wooden one? No, my table 
is a glass one. Have your bishops any iron rings? No, they have no iron 
rings; they have some gold rings. Are our looking-glasses made of silver? 
No, Sir, they are made of glass. Have you any steel books? No, I have 
paper books. Have your sisters any wood pens? No, they have no wood 
pens, they have some steel pens. Have I any wooden hat? No, I have no 
wooden hat, I have two cotton ones. 





The demonstmiive pronouns ir. Tur^^ritc ajr ibcisp tm1«id of in this 
leason. They can be useii eithrr a> a.iwifrftf i.r a?- tme fffonoiins; when 
used as adjectives ihey cenerilly y.Tvwiie ibe tiohh which they qualify. 




Shoe^ boot. 

Wool, down. 


The Earth, (the worlds 

Earth, (matter). 



Something, anything. 

Have you anything? 

I have ^>mething. 

Nothing, not anything. 

I havt^ nothing.' 

The cKnh, 


What (what thing) hrtw 

1 have your j^t^vl \m^\\. 

What (indet») havt* you? 
1 ha\^^ mmn^ bread. 
Wine, anv kind of liquor. 


My eandientiek. 




* Simi'iii. »nv.t-wo(rd. raSr. -to spin''; «f- 

Media*. (Sp. » <]»]nraH. 


Balai, ■ Tax.j: 

% Sapin, ^Tair.»: 
' w. zaytfitoi, 

RalahiKi. ^Tair. : lama (Sp,\ 
s Sivttfit-. vcc'TT. from S}v w. rtn^o); ^tou 

' 'Si'.). 

\ Ang Inpa^ anc sangcalupasn, 

f daigdigan. 


Oati, caiihan, 


Anl^mJlin. halang na 

ii ;;M«ynv>n c^ng anomin? 
f ;M*y anoxnan ca? 

Maynx-^n, may anoxnan aco, 


Vala acong ancvman. 

Anc cjivtx 

SnK^n ^corr. from Sp, word, 

;..\no l^aca anc na sa ivo? 
^ Ang iyong plumang patalim ang na 
f SH aqnin. 

' Anonc niavnvin ca? 

May tinii|iay aco, 


<\\t"«* v^p.^. ropf ^corr, from Sp,<w//), 

Sw vOhincA'^. 

(^>«fVN> v^^^rr. from Sp, word ^vefo) 
\ Ang Aqxnng rn'narlr''\i (Sp). 
f Ang candolero co. (Tag.U sasaugan). 

l.\Und. hibir, tali. 


Something good. 

Anything good. 


That (that near you). 

That (far from the Interlocutor.-). 

This hook. 

That table, (near yoii). 

That church (lar away). 

The neighbour. 



Panali (root-wonl, tali, "tying") ; pantali- 

Bania nang niabuli, anomun mabuti. 

Anomjin mabuti. 

Yari, yeri, ito, 

Yyan, yan. 

Yadn, yoil, 
( Yaring libro, yaring librong yari; itong 
( libro, itong librong itl>, 

Vyang laraesa. iyiing lamesang lyan. 
) Yadng gimbahan, yaong simbuhang 
( yacin. 

Aug caapidbahay. (I) 

Mugcaapidbdhay. (two). 

Potojig or puiong. 

Palfisio. (corr, from Sp. word palnno). 

The particle in prefixed to a root beginning with a vowel or inserted 
between the first consonant and vowel of those beginning with a con sonant, or 
ponaonanta, forms a new word which inilicateH the result of the action. 
Thus, from aalid, "to spin"; nnulid, "what has been spun", "the thread". 

Sang, is a collective particle which if prefixed to a root indicative of 
a divisible thing, expredsee, with the suffix an, tiie whole contents thereof. 
Thus, lupit, "earth;" tainglupdin, "the world," "all the inhahitants thereof." 

When mny is used for "to have" it must he followed by the thing 

"No," in response to a question with the verb "to have" is generally 
translated by uald; in response to other mie.^tions, hinili is generally used. 

Pan, prefixed to a root indicating a manual action, forms the instrument 
which serves to execul* it. Thus, from g:ilat, "to write;" pnniilat, "pen;" 
tali, "to tie;" paniili, "tying-rojie." The change of g imd ( into n will be 
explained in further lessons. 

The Tagalog demonstrative pronouns are those in the vocabulary. Ynri 
or yrri and r( i stand for "this;" yari-yeri is dying away and being rapid- 
ly replaced hy il6. Yyan, yaan-^on, stand tor "that;" iydn, pointing out 
a thing lying near the person addtessed, and yton-yon pointing ouf objects 
far away from both interlocutors. The plural is formed by immediately 
preceding them with the pluralizing particle -mnfuja. Tagalog employs the 
repetition of the demonstrative pronouns in the nominative to render them 

Cfi, is one of the most important prefix particles and is used in sev- 
eral ways. When rn is prefixed to nouns or verbs denoting, respectively, 
persons or collective reciprocal actions, it denotes one of the corresponding 
parties, If the compound so formed is prefixed by -nutg, it is made plural 
without requiring the employment of manga, which can, however, be used, 
and indicates two, at least, of the parties. 

Dfrlenfiim nf thr ilevinrmt rative prnnm 



Of this. 

Yari, yerf. Ylu, 
Dini sa, niri. Ditd sa 

Iiuiwe" and ra, particle indicating 
e gf the oorresponilio); iiartiea. 



I Ace. 

i local and 

To this. 

upon, etc. thi> 
By, with, 
etc. this. 

Dini sa. 
Dini sa, niri, 

Difi sfl. 
Dito sa, nilo 

Dit.'> s 




local imd 





Of that. 
To that. 

Yyaii. ya(5n. Yoi 

\ Diyansn, Drfonpa, / Nivoon 
( niyiin. nivadn. \ ■' 

( niyiin. 

Diyiin pa, 
) Diyiin pa, 

D<^on na. 
Doon sa, 


upon, etc. that. 
By, with, 
etc. that. 

j Niyiin. Niyfl(ln. ] 

Niydn or 

Niydon or 


In the possessive and direct object cases the particle sa. which prece- 
des the nouns, follows the demonstrative pronouna, the reanon lieing that 
it refers to the thing pointed out and not to the pronoun. The two forma 
of the posaesaive case should be used in the way and coses already explain- 
ed for those of the personal pronouns. 

Of tl 

To or for that bishop. 

These men (iiersons). 
Those dogs' meat. 
To or for those childro 
Those hooks (object.). 

Yt6ng tauo, it6ng tau6 il6 (emiihatic). 

Niydng bata, niyang batang iyan. (emph.). 
) D6on Ba obiBpo, d»)on sii ohiapong yon 
( (emph.) 
\ Yt6ng maflga tauii. 
\ Yt6ng manga taiiung it6. (emph,). 
\ Diyan sa manga asong carni;. 
I Aug came niydn maiiga aso. 
) D6on sa manga bata. 
t r)(5on sa maiiga batang yaon. 
J Niyadn maflga libro. 
) Niyaon manga librongyai'm. 

It should be noticed that owing to the inflective character of the de- 
monstrative pronoune in their declension, the relation of case ia expressed 
by the pronoun if it comes before the noun, and by the latter if com- 
ing first. Thus, "that boy's book," is rendered, ang lihrn niydng bata. 
or, nny Ubro -nnnci lintn iyiSn, and so forth for the other caR«^s. 


Have you my gold ribbon? I have it not. Have you anything? I have 
nothing. Have yon my steel pen? I have it not. Which pen have you? 
I have my good silver pen. What have you? I have nothing. Have you 
my steel or my silver pen? I have your steel pen. Have you my Buap? 


I have it not. Have you my candlestick? I have it not. Which candle- 
stick have you? I have my gold candlestick. Have you my string? I have 
it not. Have you my good wine.^ I have it not. Have you that book? 
I have it not. Have you that meat? I have it. Have you anything 
good? I have nothing good. What have you pretty? I have the pretty gold 
ribbon. Have you anything ugly? I have nothing ugly, I have something 
fine. What have you fine? I have the fine dog. Have you your glass pen? 
I have your fork. Has he this oj- that crown? He has this, he has 
not that. Have my sisters the clothes of these children? They have 
not these children's clothes, they have those of their brothers. Is that 
pen for that man? That pen is not for that man, it is for those women. 





The following are the interrogative pronouns in Tagalog: lanol, 
"what"?, "which?"; laliUyl "which"?; (discriminative), and ^ww)?, "who?". 
The first two may he used as adjectives and may be preceded by the 
article ang\ iino can neither be used as an adjective nor, as a general 
rule, takes the article. 

The merchant, the tradesman. 

The Frenchman. 




Nail, (iron spike\ 










The Englishman. 

Sheep, ram. 
Butter, lard. 
Bed-sheet, quilt, 

Neither nor. 

Neither I nor you. 

Have you the needle or the pin? 


cnldcal, "merchandise"); ang comer- 

cinnte vSp.) 
Ang taga Pransia, ang pranses (corr. 
( from Sp. word Francia and f ranees,) 

) Panbucds nang prongo(Tag.); tirabuson. 
( (corr. from Sp. word tirabuzon). 

Pamocpoc {root, pocpoCy "to strike"). 
Serbesa, (corr. from Sp. word cerveza), 
Tinta, (Sp.) 
Polot, pulut. 

Tongcod, tungcod or tungcor. 
Dedal (Sp.) 

Aspiler (corr. from Sp. word alfiler,) 
Orasdn (corr. from Sp. word horas and 

an to denote the place where hours 

are marked.) 
Ang ingles (Sp.); ang taga Ynglater- 

ra, (Sp.). 
Tupa (from Sp. topar, "to butt.") 
Laman nang topa. 

Mantica (corr. from Sp. word vianfeca.). 
Boton. (Spanish) or bitanes, 
Man. (always postponed). 

Hindi man hindi man or rin. 

hindi hindi naman. 

A CO man, icao man. 

Hindi man aco, icao ay, hindi rin. 

^Na sa iyo baga ang carayom 6 ang 


I have neither the iieodle nor the 

Who (aingO- 
Who haa? (indet.). 

Who has? (det.). 
Knife, cutlass. 

Who haa any knify? 

Who has the knife? 

The man has a knife. 

The man haa the knife. 


Who has the purse? 

The woman has the purse. 

Who has it? 

Peter and John have it. 


Either or. 

Be it or. 

Either by night or by day. 
Either at home or at church. 
Be it man or woman. 
What countryman are you? 
What is your country? 
I am a Spaniard. 
My country is Spain. 


Of what country are those iwuple? 

Those people are Chinese. 

Those people's country is China, 

Glass, (tumbler). 


Ganta ( a measure about 1/25 of the 

Peck. I English bushel, 


Uala sa aquin ang cariiyom man, ang 
aspiler man. 

iSino? ^eino baga?. 
) iSinong mayr6on?, ^eino ang mayrdon?; 
( ^.sinong may?. 

iNa sa canino? (bagtl). 

Itac, (Tag.), cwkiUo (Sp.). 
\ iSino caya ang may itac? 
t tSinoiig mayrdon itac?. 

^Na sa canino ang itac?. 

Ang tauo ay may itac. 

Na Ba tau6 ang itac. 

S6pot or siiput. 

;.Na sa canino ang suput? 

Ang siiput ay na sa babaye. 

^. Na sa canino baga? (ang suput). 

Na cav Pedro.t, cay Juan, (ang siiput), 

O. (Sp.); cun. (Tag.) (little used). 

Maguin magufn, 

Magufn sa gabi, maguin sa arao. 
Maguin aa bahay, maguin sa simbahan. 
Lulaqui man, babaye man. 

i iTagft saan ca? (bagii) 

Taga EttpnRa acd; acd,i, laga Khjhii'ih; 

Castita acd; acd,i, castita. 
\ Esjiafiol (Sp.); Castila (corr. from Sp. 
'( word Cagtilln) 
, \ iTaga s^n caya yadn mafiga taudhg 

Yadng mafiga tau6 ay maflga insic. 
\ Yadng manga taudng ya6,i, taga Song- 

( song. 
Vaso (Sp.). 
■ ' Salop. 

The particle mnjmy, prefixed to a verbal or substantive root, forms 
the frequentative noun for what the root means; vum, under the same con- 
ditions, forms a verbal noun indicative of what a pcreon is engaged in 

Tagil, placed before » an or the name of a place or country denotes 

An, affixed to a root denotes jilace, or the thing or person on which 
or on whom the action is accomplished. 

The fashion is going on somewhere among natives to have the noun 
subject of an active sentence, again represented at the end by the third 
person pronoun. Ang tavd ny may t(rar «j«, "the man has a knife"; ynonq 
mnhga tnvong j/<»o',i, vmntfa innc fild, "those (jeople are C'hinese". The stu- 
dent is hereby cautioned against this manner of expression which, although 
not entirely ungrammatical, should be used sparingly. 

Wood house. 
Gold ring. 

Steel pen. 

Btthay na cahoy. 

Singling na guintd. 
) Plumnng patalim, asero (Sp. word arcro 
I corr.) 


Compound English nouns one of which expresses the matter a thing 
is made of, are generally expressed in Tagalog by means of the ligaments, 
the thing preceding the matter as above. 

One glass of water. Ysing vasong tiibig. 

Two gantas of rice. Dalauang salop na big^s. 

The relation between continent and contents is likewise expressed by 
the linking particles. 

Clothing for children. 

Damit sa mafLga bata. 

Lamesang sulatiln, lamesa sa pagsulat. 

Compound nouns one member of which denotes the use for which 
the other is intended, are generally translated by inserting the particle 
sa, which is also used as a translation of the preposition "for". 

Declension of interrogative pronouns. 

Object, (all its forms) 

Of whom? 





Object ^ 


local and 
1 i n s t r u- 
1^ mental. 


Of what? 

For or to what.? 


In, a^, etc. 
By, with, 
etc. what? 

j iCanino?, ^nino?. 
^Sa canino? 

^Ano?, ^ang ano? 
^Sa and ?,.... ^nang ano.' 
^Sa and? 
^Sa and?, ^nang ano? 

^Sa an6? 
iNang an6? 






Of „ 
For or to,, ^Sa alin. 

„ iSa alfn?, ^nang alfn?. 

^Alin? ^ang alin?. 
iSa alin?....inang alin? 

^Sa alin?. 

local and In, at, 
causal, etc. which? ) 
instru- By, with, ^ ,. . 

L mental. etc. which? \ ^^^^^ ^^^^^' 

Sino\ is used for persons, and is not generally preceded by the ar- 
ticle. The second form of the possessive case should be used only when 
the question has not befen heard or understood. 

The plural is formed either by repeating the pronoun or by using 
the pluralizing particle before or after the noun to which it makes re- 
ference, if there be any, as is frequently the case when "to be" enters 
in English to put a question, as shown in the following illustrations: 

^Sino-sino yaong tauo? 

iMafiga sinong tau6 yadn? (somewhat 

^Sinong mafiga tau6 ya6n?. 

XT \ Who (plural) are those 

" ^°^* ( men? (people). 


b ( Whose (plural) are those 

I rings?. 
r,„t For whom fplural) are 

"'^^- I those hals?. 

What pajiprp are thecc? 

What kiiiJ uf hiiusei^ : 


J iCanicanino (1) iyin maiiga Bingeiiifc' 

\ iSa canicanino baga yaiSn mafign sairi' 
I baljlongyadii?. 
f^Aiib aning papel it6? 
' iAning maiiga papel it6?. 

^.Mafiga aiiftng pajiel it6?. (somewha 

iNang an6 an6iig b;lhay, il6ns ran 
I figa pacong iti? 
j tNang manga aning bihay, itftng 

maftga pacong it6?. (somewhat i: 

1 proper). 

■ jNang anftng mafiga biihay ilo mafiga 

[_ pacong it6? 

I Sa mafiga Lihay na c^hoy. (nang, 

< may also bo used, although not no 

( properly). 

I (.Ali'n-aling candelero nng na sa ijfl? 

< ;. Manga alingcandelero angna saiji.' 

( iAling manga candelero ang na sa ij b > 

( Ang sa obispo mafiga candelero ang 

j na sa aquin. 

1 Ang mafiga candelero nang obispo ang 

( na ea aquin. 

[ ^Sa alin-aling mafiga liari, ma- 

I figa p(5tongna it6? 

For which km." If'- tl.pse omwns? J iS» "'I-g i»«fB« !■«", it«ng maflg. 
'^ l>dtong na ito.' 

f tSft mafiga aUng hari mafiga 
l^ pdtong na it6? 

The posessive case with so should preferably be used in answering a 


Alia may serve for persons and things; and, only for things. 

Of the wood h..i 

Which c:indleHticks hiivc you? 

I have the tiirijiop's candle? ticks!. 

Who are you? (sing.). 

Who are they? 

What do you want? (cing. ). 

What are you doing here? 

What is his busineas there? 

What do you wish? 

I wish. 

You (sing.) wish. 

He or she wis he?. 

We wish. 

You (plural) wish. 

Thev wish. 


^Sino-sino (bagjl) silii? 

lAnA ca?,^anQ ca baga? 
\ iAan6 ca ditd?, (,an6 ca dito?, ^nag- 
i nan6 ca ritft?. 

i Aa n6 siya ddon ?, ^ nagaanf) siya rdon ? 

;,Aning ibig mo? 

Yhig CO. 

Ybig mo. 

Yhig niya, 

ybig natin, fbig namin. 

Yhig ninvfi. 


Ybig, in this sense, is ji pnsjive and invariable verb for to "wish", 
"to desire." 

Natives avoid as much as they can the employment ol third person 
pronouns in reference to things. They generally repeat the noun or 

(I) It is a ^neral nile that rejietitions oE eyilablea or words for various purpoHec 
in TagftliTg do not imibs ljeyiin<l, rcBiXHitively, tlic second letter or Becotid uyllable Uie- 
reof. Thus, eanieaiii jm, inateai! uf raninocaninu, since caninv is a three-sy liable 


try to construct in such a manner as to render it unnecessary to uso 
the pronoun. Examples: imahult hagd ang libra?, "is the book good?"; 
mahuti nga, "it is good," "certainly, it is;" instead of mabutl siyd. 


Has the king the glass or the steel pen? The king has neither the 
glass nor the steel pen. Which pen has the bishop? The bishop has 
the fine pen. Have you the stocking? You have neither the stocking 
nor the pin. Has the Englishman the corkscrew? The Englishman has 
neither the corkscrew nor the needle. Is the merchant here? No, he 
is not here. Has the Frenchman my umbrella? He has not your 
umbrella. Is the corkscrew on the table? The carpenter has it. Who 
has their hammei? The carpenter has neither the hammer nor the nail. 
Which merchant has any beer? The merchant of my town has two 
glasses of beer. Whose ink is that? It is my brother's. What ho- 
ney have the Englishmen? The Englishmen have some good honey. 
Which walking-stick has your mother's daughter? My mother's daught- 
er has no walking-stick at all, she has her thimble, her needle, her 
pin and my watch. Are there any sheep in Spain? Yes, there are 
some. Is mutton good? It is very good. Who has my mother's bed- 
sheets? Peter has them. Is my knife made of iron? No, it is made 
of steel. For which person is that purse? That purse is for my sist- 
ers. Are you Spaniards? Yes, we are Spaniards. Who have m}' 
rice? The Englishmen have it. Is that ganta yours or my son's? 
That ganta is neither yours nor his. Where is John? John is not 
here, he is either at church or at school. Is he not at home? He is 
at home. What is your (pi.) country? Our country is France. What 
countrymen are those people? They are from this country. Are those 
people Chinese? They are not Chinese. This house is not a wooden 
one. Those looking-glasses are not silver. These rings are not gold. 
What are you, gentlemen? We are carpenters. 




Declensions are given hereafter of all the Tagalog personal pronouns 
from which the possessive ones are derived. That of the third person has 
three dictions in the plural; Tayo^ Camiy Qvitd or catd, "we". Tayo is used 
when the person addressed is intended to be included. Cami, on the 
contrary, like the royal "WE" in English, excludes the person addressed 
and is therefore the correct pronoun to use in prayers addressed to the 
Deity. Catdy has very little use in the nominative case; it is rather dual 
and partakes of the possessive case. Quitd, is also used in this lat- 
ter sense. 

Declension of personal pronouns 


Nom. I. Ac6. 

Poss. Of me. Aquin, (prep); co, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Me. Sa aqufn. 


Nom. Thou. You. Icao, (prep.); ca, (postp.>. 

Poss. Of thee. Of you. Iy6, (prep.); mo, (postp.), 

Object, /'all its divisions). Thee. You. Sa iy6. 


Nom. He, she, it. (1). Siya. (1). 

Poss. Of him, of her, of it. Caniy^, (prep.); niyii, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Him, her, it. Sa caniyA. 

(1) SipAf "it", is not generally applied to inanimate things, unless the latter 
are personified as in fables, etc. 





( We, (both, the speakers and 
Nom. < the persons spoken to, in- ^ Tayo. 

( eluded) 

Poss. Of us (of all of us). .Atin, (prep.); natin, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Us. - "" Sa atin. 


( to not included). ) 

Poss. Of us. Amin, (prep.); namin, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Us. Sa amin. 


Nom. We, (thou and I alone). Quita. 

Poss. Of us. Canity, (prep.); ta, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Us. Sa canita. 


Nom. We. Cata. 

Poss. Of us. Ata, (prep.); ta, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Us. Sa ati. 


Nom. You. (ye). Cay6. 

Poss. Of you. \ Ynyo, (prep.); niny6, (postp.), 

Object, (all its divisions). You. Sa inyo. 


Nom. They. SilA. 

Poss. Of them. Canild, (prep.); nila, (postp.). 

Object, (all its divisions). Them. Sa canili. 

Personal pronouns like possessive pronouns have two forms in the 
possessive case: aquin, iyo, raniyd, amin, canitd, inyo, canildj are prepositive, 
that is to say; precede the verb in passive sentences; co, mo, niya, 7iatiny 
namin, ninyo, ta, nild and the nominative quitd (as dual) follow it. The 
nominative ca is likewise put after the verb in active sentences. Quitd, 
and catd are used indiscriminately. They both have very little use in 
the nominative case. 


Posseasive adjective pronouns, as stated before, are expressed in Ta- 
galog by the poseesBive caee of the personal ones, those of the lalter 
preceding the verb, alao precede tAe noun when used as possessive pro- 
nouns, and the others foHoW it. Possessive pronouns may be, and ge- 
nerally are, preceded by the piirticleB (artieley) of tonimon nouns and they 
are declined and made plural in a similar manner. The same restric- 
tive and dual sense exieting between atin, avihi, and nmita; and tiatin, namin, 
la, as personal pronouns exists too as possessive pronouns. 

Our soul. 

My house. 

My hands. 

Your (sing.) fingers. 

Hie or her eyes. 

Our t«eth (those of the jierson address- 
ed included.) 

Our tongue (thai of the person address- 
ed, not included). 

Your (plur.) clothes. 

Their eyebrows. 

\ Ang 
I Ang 
J Ang 
< Ang 
\ Ang 
( Aug 
\ Ang 
I Ang 
( Ang 
( Ang 
i Ang 

atin calol6ua. 
caloloua natin. 
aquin bahay, 
bah ay eo. 

aquin mnflga camay. 
manga cam;iy co. 
iyong maiiga daliri. 
manga daliii mo. 
caniydng manga mats. 
miiQga mata niyd. 
ating niHfiga figipin. 
manga ngipin natin. 
amiiig dila. 
dila namin. 
inyong damit. 
damit ninyo. 
canilang manga quilay. 
manga quiiay nila. 

The possessive absolute pronouns aro expressed by the prepositive 
forms of the possessive case preceded by thi- article. 


Yours, thine. 

His, her."*, its. 


Yours (plur), 


Ang aquin. 

Ang iy6 

Ang caniya. 

Ang amin, ang atin. 

Ang iny6. 

Ang canila. 

The dative case with the article is aJso used for this purpose. 
Thus, a^uf «a canila may be employed for "theirs", etf. 

Girl, maid, lasw. 
Youngmaii, bachelor, latl. 



Intimate friend. 


Trunk, chest. 

Bag, sacE. basket. 

I.ady, younglady, mi-itrees, 


Binata, bagong tau6. 

Mananah^, (Tag.); sastrt, (Pp.). 

l'anadcfo,.{Sp.); magtitimipay, (Tag.). 

Sutla, (Tftg.);Mrftt, (Sp.). 

tiuimrin, (Tag.); hafa. (Sp.). 
i Sfsiu, mani5c na sfsiu; poyo, (corr, from 
( Sp. word polio.) 

Ldpis (corr. from Sp. word, Idpii). 

Caibigan, catoto. 


\ Sicohttr. (corr, from Sp. word rhom 
} lah). 


Bayong, bacol. 

Maguino6, guinoong babaye. 


Peasant, countivman. 


Kini^man. relation. 

There, thither 

To p> there, thither. 

To ^it down. 

To say. to tell. i<ome:hingV 

To s|^»eak. 

To ^}ieak. to pronounce. 

To do. to make, ^^omfthin^^ 

B -'. vi.rr. fr »in >p. word. hoieUa). 
Maj-a*^:a. mazhubuquir. 

Par V.r.. ac-.i^e and paseiTeJ (1) 
l':-> or i-r-.t •r^>»t?: umu|f6. (active.) 
Sar: r»:»: ' r^'^ihin. \paMiTeA 
CV.i:- r..: . znafiro^ap- *active). 
Ui .i r-: n:aju:ca. tact.). 
I i.i j - » n- •: : gaoin. (contracted pass. 

4' • 

If j>i is pretixed to an advvrb «"■: :*.i:r. :r.e verh of motion indicated 
by the adverb i* formeti: when prei^xei :-' a r.'»un ■'•! place. *a should 
W inserted K-tween to form the verr- • : r:. :: r. : war is that place. 

A verbal hhM onlv fXi«rf<^"i :r.r .-."• -■-..:: : :•-.! ff the action and 
should l>e assixMated to sonit^ j-:ir: :•'.♦• : » •x:r— - ::.•- several tenses and 
meanings it is capable of in thv :i'*::vr v :.> :r. ::.r ja^rive. it may be 
prefixed bv v-i over and al»ove "thtT : rvdx- > .: n.jv jimi: of. and &uf fixed 
bv in or nn ai^cordinir to the svnsi- v:.. 

Do not go there (<inj:.>. 
Do. (plur.) 

To go to the farm, into the couniry. 
Sit down here. ^sing.). 
I>?t them not co into the countrv. 

Don't say it (sing.>. 

Don't do it (plur>. 
She is not mv mother. 
Are thoy not yvMir n^lations? 
T-et John sit down there. 




« I 

' 1 

I ■. .... . 

v...^ -/...:.i: pAs.ibuquid- 
.•v..:j ::. :.j Sii :■-:.: n (prohibiting). 


■.% .;ivc in composition) 

n,-»- o,> -'a «*, V:l 


I'r.if y.-.r.yo b:ija camaganac sila?. 

U n; ■.: ; o .: : v a :; Si J iian . 

The subjoi^t, be it noun or pnM"i«^i:r.. of an ao::ve sentence is put in 
the nominative case: if the sentence i> ;i i-assivo one the suVmccI should 
w put m the possessive case. 

In spile of what has Innn said K !>rc w::h n^pird to the position of 
the |H>st positive form of the |H^sst^ssivo i.ise o: '.■^rsoiial pronouns, these 
an\ nevertheless, placed before the verb in ser.' bt-srinning with an 
adverb or a negative particle. The s;»me may also be the case in inte- 
rrogative sentences, as in: 

What else should 1 sav? 

^. .\no jvi a:;g siicat cong sabihin? 

He and 1 {\m>X\\ of us) 

You ising.^ and John, (both of you). 

lie and fheir mother (both of themV 

You (sing.) and they. 

He and hia master. 

Jesus and His mother. 

Alfnnl and his children. 

When two personal pronouns or a 
wMitence. the personal pronoun, U* it s 
nominative case and in the plural, and 
|x>sw»ssive case of the propter numU^r. 
cond and thinl person should Ih' kept. 

0am: r4iyA. 

Cayo ri Juan. 

Sila nar.*: oanilang ina. 

Oavo ni'.a, 

Si]a nang oniying {>aflgin6on. 

Mac- ina r.i Jesiis. 

Si Alfrciio nang caniying maftga anac. 

prvMunm and a noun join in an active 
ingular or plural, may be put in the 
the noun or the other pronoun, in the 
The orderly arrangement of first, se- 
as it would K' a fault to say: tUi mo^ 

k\) In Tugalog, tntraiipitive av well a« transitive vt^rbs iiave a 


instead of cayo niya, to indicate ''he and you". The same peculiarity existe 
when a collective or companionship noun formed with ma<j is coupled to 
a [wraonal name, mag, hiing always with the noun of the principal correspond- 
ing party. 

Theae forms ol construction peculiar to Tagalop are however obsolescent 
and being replaced by the more natural ones of the western languages. 

From the demonntrative pronouns the f<jllowing largely uaed adverbs of 
place are derived: 

H„-» ■ \ (indicating a place very 
^"^' J near to thi si>Jakcr). 


I (indicating a place equi- 


Here j distant from both inter- 


( locutors). 


t (indicatinga place nearer 


There < to the person spoken to 


f than to the speaker). 


There, ( (indicatins; a place far 

' Doon. 

thither- ( from boih interlocutors.) 

To come here. 

Parini, parito 

I (motion to the place whe- 

To go there. J re the person addressed 

Pari van. 

( stands). 



Has this man the pencilV He has it not. Have I the chocolate? 
You have neither the chocolate nor the sugar. Has my friend your stick? 
He has not my stick, he has my umbrella. Is your house pretty? Our 
house is not pretty; but it is good. What is that you have in your hands? 
What I have in my hands is a pencil. What is that they have in their 
fingers? What they have in their fingers are rings. What have I on 
my eyes? It is spectacles that you have on your eyes. Have we any 
teeth? All of us have teeth. We, men, have a tongue? Yes, we, men, 
have a tongue. Are natives' noses beautiful? No, they are not beautiful. 
Are their eyebrows pretty? Their eyebrows are pretty. Where is the girl? 
The girl is at home. Wiio is the father of this youngman.? The father 
of this youngman is the tailor. Who has the baker's silk.? My sons have 
the baker's silk. Where are her chickens,? Her chickens are at the farm. 
Who has our friends' jwncils.? Nobodj'. Are they our friends.? They are 
our intimate friends. Who has my relation's chocolate? His friend has 
it in the trunk. Where is the lady's? bag.? The lady's bag is not here. 
Where is the chest-key? The peasant has it. What are those bottles 
made of? Those Iwtlles are made of glass. Have you any male-servant? 
I have no male-servant, what I have are two female-servants. Are your 
relations at church? No, my relations are not at church, they are in town. 
Where is the church? The church is on the mountain. Is that lady hia 
mother? She is not his mother. Are we good friends? We are good 
friends. Who are your friends? I have no friends. Are John's relations 
your friends? They are my friends. 




SuWtantive? aro fitht-r i»ri native or tltrrivatiw. the former being those 
which in their orijirinal ^igIliti^ation art* substantives. A difficulty which 
attends the classification of Tairaloi: word> into various )>arts of speech, 
aci*ordinp to the system aiiplii^l to Euroju-an language?. con!»i<ts in the 
number of wonls which, while yi»t unnHHiifie<i by |iarticlej«. are either verb 
or substantive, adjivtive or advfrb, acci^niinc t«» tht* c«^ntext, or, more gen- 
erally, according to |*articlcs whicli jireivile «ir are i»refixed to them. 

The noun, as a rule, undergivs no vluinire to denote number, gender or 
case, the latter Inking expressed, lu* in English, by )»re{ioeitions. 

A nH>t while still rt*taining a certain predominant character which 
render* it, to s^mie extent, classifiable as nominal, adjectival, verbal, etc., 
expresses but the simplest idea of the thinn, quality or action and hence, 
genenilly, it retjuires the ass^viation of certain jiarticles to develop the 
various notations the idea is capable of. 

The congi»niality of tln^e jvirtivK^s with the language 19 such as to 
cause Si^metimes a rix^ having a definite nominal forx*e tu l»e combined with 
noun-building ivirtides to form either s^xMudary derivatives or substantive 
terms which differ but little frvnn the original meaning, somewhat in the 
manner of the diffeixMnv in signifii\^niv in the English words, "recipro- 
cation'*, "reciprocity**, "rtviproi'alntvs*'; 'gratitude", "gratefulne*?'*, etc. 

Substantives in TagaK^ an* fornuxl fn^m all parts of speech, hut es- 
l^ecially frt>m adjtvtives ^adjectival or quality roots) and verbs. 

The prestMit lesson is int^^ndini to illustnito some of the commonest ways 
to form nouns. Other ways are to Iv found in further chapters throughout 
the grammar, as it would Iv inivnvenient to acquaint tlie pupil with them 
at this stages 

Substantias us^mI in a general sense take the article in Tagalog. "Ri- 
ches aiv merv vanitv*', An^ iMviin^^imt,!, wtWjf'iri •^iW^^^iii. 

Went (thitherV Xaivtrtvn. 

Came. Xajxarito, na^iarini. 

I (to the plact* when^ i 
Went there. \ the |x*n*on addrt^sstni ^ Naivariy.'in. 

( stands^ N 

Went honH\ Nai>asaKshav. 

^v^_^ ^ ^ \ motion to a distant ^ Naiv-^ivaroon, or. n^^paroroon. 

"^^- (pUce^ V 

To he |^nng into town, Na^vapa^K^ivan, or, napasasahavan. 

To W coming on. hon. ' ^:*^M«nl6.■or. nai^riritd. 

^ * Na|\^panni. or. na]«annni. 


Old, worn out. 

Crashed, broken into pieces. 

Entire, whole, sound. 




White thing. 

White (adj.). 

Black thing. 

Black (adj.y. 

Great, large thing. 

Great, large, grown up. (adj.). 

Great, excellent, remarkable, 



Sound, healthy thing. 

Sound, healthy, (adj.) 

Wise, (idea of wisdom). 

Wise. (adj.). 




Greatness, growth. 
Greatness, excellence. 

Soundness, health. 

Abstract nouns may be 
to the root. 


Manhood, humanity. 

Manhood, masculineness. 


Wisdom, learning, (in action) 









Puti (root). 






«°"^- j Daquila. 

Diinong or dc^nong. 
Mariinong or maronong. 
. Caputlan, 

formed by prefixing ea and suffixing an-han 

Pagcadios. . 





The prefix pagca, may likewise form abstract nouns, especially of com- 
mon and proper nouns or adjectival roots expressing attributes of mind, 
the nouns so formed partaking more or less of the verbal character. 

Accompanying, companion. 
Embarking, fellow-passenger. 





j quarrelling-person, 
( enemy. 


similar, coequal. 











limca is prefixed to a root denoting and idea of association, fellow- 
ship, reciprocity or likelihood, a verbal noun indicating ope of the mutual 
parties is thus formed. If two of the mutual associated parties are to 
be meant, mag should be prefixed to the verbal noun already formed. 

Two companions. 

Married couple, (husband and wife). 

Two brothers or sisters. 





Two brotherfl-in-law. 
Two siBters-in-Iaw. 
Two friends. 


If three or more of the corres|)on<1iii^ parties are to be ezprcBsed (this 
manner of expression iH'ing selected) ra, ^houId be repeated if the noun \b 
not dual in character; and the firnt syllalilc of the root if it is only formed 
with mag. 

Three or more brothers or sisters. 
Three or more companions. 
Three or more brothers-in-law. 
Tliree or more married couplrs. 


In common nouns denoting correlation of consanguinity or mutual de* 
pendenco, mag, is prefixed to that i>f tht* principal correlative party to express 
his or her ass(K.*iation with the secondary rorresiK)nding party. 

Father and son. 
Mother and daughter. 
Master and servant. 


If more than one of secondary as.«<M-ijitcd parties are to be expressed. 
the first syllable of the principal one should be re^ieated. 

Father and children. 
Mother and children. 


Mng, is also prefixed to one of the associated parties when it is coupled 
to a proper i>ersonal noun, but then the latter should be put in the poss- 
essive case. 

Jesus and His mother. 
George and his son. 
Marv and her father. 

Mag-ind ni Jesus. 
Mag- a ma ni Jorge. 
Mag-ama ni Marfa. 

An-hariy if suffixed to a substantive root indicative of a natural product, 
the noun of the place for sueh product to Ih» found, is formed. 



Pal ay 













halamanan. • 





If ca is prefixed to these first derivatives, the second derivative thus 
formed will be more collective. 

Rice-field, Tract abounding with. Palayan, 

Plantation of > ,^ , c? 

plantain-trees 1 ^^- ^^^' Saguingan, 


The same suffix forms the place of iK^rformance with a substantive root 
implying a verbal sense. 













Father-in-law or mother-in-law. 
Son or daughter-in-law. 
Short, little, small. 
Nolxxiy, no one. 
Buffalo, (animal). 

Bianan. (lalaqui or babaye). 

Manugang. do do. 

Mali it, munti. 

Uahi sinoman,i, hindf ; isi ina,i, uala. 

Calabao, damiilag. 





Broom - 



Somebody. Bome one, any body, 

any one, whoever, whosoever. 

Any, anything, whatever, what— 

Whichever, whichsoever. 
How much?, how many? (when a 
number in inquired after). . . 
How much?, (when measure ie inquir- 
ed after). i- , . I 

An interrogative pronoun followed or suflixeil hy the adverb man ia 
therebv convertfd into an iiulefinite one. 


f^galnn, piii^galan. 
Ualfs, panguiiHs, 

/ Sinoman, balang na tauu. 

I Anoman, anomang bagay. 

Alin man, alin mang bagay. 
( illiia?, iilan bagji?. 
. iGaano?. 


Did your uncle go there? My uncle did not go there, it iw ray aunt 
who went there. Did your wife's friend come here? He did not come 
here, he went home. Did Alfred and hiw master go to your house? They 
both went to our house. Where are John's two companions? They went 
into town. Did they go there? Yes, they went there; but the three brotli- 
ers Cms are coming. Did not Peter and his father go to the country? 
Peter and his father did not go to the country, they went to church. Are 
the wife and the husband going there to the forest? They are going to 
the town. Is your clothing new or old? My clothing is old (worn out). 
Are their looking-glaBsew entire (sound) or broken? They are not broken, 
they are worn out. Are my mother's sister's cats white or black? My 
mother's sister's cats are neither white nor black. Is your sister's virtue 
great? My sister's virtue is great. Is the wisdom of Ood, great? The 
wisdom of Cod has no equal. Who are wise? The sound are wise. Is 
the whiteness of our souls a beautiful thing? The whiteness of our souls 
is a beautiful thing. How many fei low-passengers are they? Peter, John 
and Mary are iellow-passengers. How many companions are you? George 
and I are companions. How many enemies came here? No enemies came 
here. Are Mary and you alike in face? Yes, Mary and I are alike in 
face. How many brothers are they? They are two brothers. Are you 
master and servant? Yes, we are master and servant. Are you father 
and son? No, we are not father and son. Are they sisters-in-law? Ye.*, 
they are sistere -in-law. Are they friends? No, they are not friends. Did 
John and his brother go into the forest? John and his brother did not go 
into the forest, they arc at .school. Did the father and his children come 
here? The father and his children did not come here. Did Jane and her 
mother go to church (mass)? No, Jane and her mother went to Cavite. 
Who is at home? No one. Where did my uncle's buffalo go? Your 
uncle's buffalo went into the fields. Did his bird go into your father-in- 
law's house? No, it went into my son-in-law's. What is coin made of? 
Coin is made of gold, silver and copper. What is your name? My name 
is Anthony, Where have you my servant's broom? Your servant's broom 
is not here. Is your foot well? It is not well. Where are the teeth? The 
teeth are in the mouth. Has anyhoily gone to Iloilo? No one has gone 
there. How much bread has my sister? Any bread she may have, is little. 
For which man are thope birdf? For whichever man. 




True relative pronouns, as well as the copulative verb, do not exist 
in Tagalog. The mere arrangement of words may dispense with them; but 
most frequently the article and the nominal ligament render the English 
relative, somewhat after the manner of English, where it is understood in 
phrases like "the man you saw" or is included in the present participle, 
as when we say, **the boy writing the letter" etc. 

The illustrations in this lesson will convey to the student further 
information on the subject. 

Street, road. 

Way, thorouhgfare. 

High, road. 

Will, good-will, disposition, inward 


Memory, recollection. 

Gratitude, gratefulness, obligation. 

Noble, precious, dear. 

Rascal, impudent fellow, cruel. 





Ox or cow. 

But. (conjunction). 


Another, one more. 





Pocket-book, porfolio. 

Garden, orchard. 


Corn, Grain. 


Principal, head, leader, lord. 

Lansangan, daan. 


Carsada (corr. from Sp. word calzada,) 

L6ob, calooban. 


J Utang na 16ob, (lit., debt from the 
( heart). 





i Tagapagsaing, cosinero, (corr. from Sp. 
( word, cocinero), 

Baca (corr. from Sp. word, vaca,) 

Cundl, datap<5ua, iiguni, subali, alin- 

tana. ^ 

Ibd, is^. 

Isd pa, ila pa. 

Taga ibing lupafn. 

Taga ibang bayan. 


Tagaragat, magdadagat. 

Tag6an nang sdlat (lit., hiding-plape 

for papers); cartera, (Sp.). 


Halaman, pananim. 


Tamb6bong, camalig. 


Quatry, place full of stones. 
Bolster, upper end of a bed. 


Olohan, olondn. 

Subtantive roots expressive of some kind of matter or of things no^ 
capable of being made abstract, are prefixed with ca and suffixed with an 
to denote place or assemblage, as already said. 








Feeble, weak. 





Mafiga balicat. 




Na, ng, g, (linking-particles). 

That, which, who, whom, (relative, 

What, that which, the one which. Ang , ang na. 

The man who is coming here is my ) Ang iawdng napaparitd,i, ang aquing 

father. \ ama. 

This woman whom you love is my ) Itong babayen^ sinisinti mo,i. capa- 

sister. \ tid co. 

The letter which you wrote to me. Ang sulat na ysinulat mo sa aquin. 

What I have is my sister-in-law's um- Ang na sa aquin, ay ang pAyong nang 

brella. aquin hipag. 

That (conjunction). Na. 

Tell John's son to go into the country, j ^tS^"d"5 'i. ""'"^ '" "^"^^ "* ^'^*" 

Do not tell him that I am here. \ ^^^^^ '"**'^S ^^^'^^^^^ "* ''""'y^ «« 

( aco,i, narito. 

In the preceding examples the English relative pronoun is expressed 
by the ligaments, which, in this case, cannot be suppressed. 

Students must understand that the mere replacing of the verbal ligam- 
ent by the nominal one or by ang with the objective case before a verb, 
is a sure indication of the existence of a relative pronoun. Attention should 
be paid to the difference of sense in the following phrases: 

The man is coming here. 

The man that is coming here .... 

You love this woman. 

This woman whom you love. 

You wrote the letter to me. 

The letter that you wrote to me. 

I have my sister-in-law's umbrella. 

What I have is my sister-in-law's um- 

Ang tauQ ay napaparito. 

Ang taudngf napaparitd 

Ytong babayeng itd,i, sinisinta mo. 
Ytdng babayengf sinisintd mo. 
Sinulatan mo ac6. 
Ang siilat na ysinulat mo sa aquin. 
Na sa aquin ang pdyong nang aquing 

Ang na sa aquin ay ang payong nang 

hfpag CO. 

This one, this other. 

That other, that over there. 

Yt6ng isi, itong iba. 
Yyang isd, iyang iba. 

Yea-itong isd, circumscribes more the number of things among which 
the one pointed out is, than itdng iba etc. 


Is the stone for this house? iAnghal6,i,dil6aa bahay naitdbagi? ■ 

No, it is for thait other, that over there. Hindi, diyan sa ipa. 

Is this bread for that child? ' v-aon? ' ■ ' ** 

It is for that other. Doon sa is:!. 

Before (adv.), a while ago. Caflgina, 116011 una. 

Afterwardfi, by and by. Mameii, mamaya-maya. 

Yesterday. Cahaimn. 

The day before yesterday. Camacalaui. 

Some days ago. CamacailiJn. 

Just^this morning, before in the nior- j Canginang umaga. 

\Vhen? (.Cailan? 

Catnara is a ijUiral prefix which indicates as many past days, 
expressed by the root it is joined to. 

Three days ago. Camaeatatlo. 

Ten days ago. Camacap6uu. 

"To be", not having a speuifie expression in Tagalog the relation of 
tense can only be conveyed by some adverb or term exjiresslve of time , 
if not otherwise inferred from the context. 1 

We were yesterday at the country. Cahapo,!, cami uaroon sa hijquid. 
Were they here at our town some ^Camauaila,!, naritobaga sila sa atin^ ' 
days ago? bavan? 

When w.. your fatlm-in-l.w'B father \ fP"""" ,S'„ "f-i";! rH" ''"""^ 
■'■,„,, < bianftng lalaqui naroon sa bahav nane 

atyol,r.o„.,„.l™,? ) raanSBsngmong lalaqui? ' 

He was there this morning. Narilon siyil canginaiig umaga. 1 

Were vou ever Marv's household I , .,.| 1 - ^ -■■».. « 

■' .., •' 1 iAlila caliaganoong una nma Maria? 

Yes, I was formerly their servant. Oo, ac<5,i, aliia nila noon una. 

Shall you iH. at church? \ i"""?'" " l»8" » .imbahau mama- 

■^ ; ya-maya.' 

I shall he there. Acd,i, nariyan mameit. 

He will soon be Mary's husl)and. Siyil mamea ang cay Mariang aajiua. 

The preceding illustrations are merely illustrative, for any word is capa- 
ble of being verbalised in Tagatog, and the same expressions will be bet- 
ter constructed by conjugating the nouns in a way which will not yet be 
understood at this stage. 


Whose are these trees? Aly father's. Whose do you say? My fa- I 
ther's. Whose children are those? Mine. Which gun has he? He 
has his own. Was your wife on the street yerterday? She was there 
the day before yesterday. Was anybody on the road? Nobody was on 
the road. Has man a good disposition towards (iod? Yes, man has a good 
disposition towards God. What is memory? Memory is a power of our 
soul. Have we gratitude toward our parents? Yes. we have gratitude 
toward our parents. Are noblemen rascals? Noblemen are not rascals. ' 
What have you on your head? What I have on my head is a hat. Will 1 
my cousin soon be a cook? Your cousin will not be a cook but a tailor. 
Has ray mother-in-law an ox? She has two oxen. Has the foreigner 
some of these plants in his garden? No, he has not any of these, but he 
bai others. Is the sea large? The aea is large. Where are the s 


The seamen are at the garden of our neighbour. Have they any grain in 
their pocket-books? They have no grain. Where are your granaries? My 
granaries are at the rice-fields. Where are the aristocracy of this town? 
The aristocracy of this town are at church. How many plants have you 
in his garden? I have no plants in his garden. Was his hair black? 
His hair was black. Where are located the forehead, the lips and the 
neck? On the head. Are shoulders on the head? No, shoulders are not 
on the head. Is the orphan-boy strong or weak? He is weak. Is that 
man coming here your brother? My brother is the one going there. Are 
those letters for your father? ^e letters for: my father are those on the 
table. Is that one the woman whom you love? The woman whom I love 
is my mother. What shall Ijaay to ipy sister? Tell your sister not to 
go to Iloilo. Shall I tell them to go into the country? Don't say that. 
Which of these two books is for my cousin? The new book is for your 
cousin, this other is for your son. Is that bottle for this child? No, it 
is for that other. Did you go to the garden before? I did not go there. 
When did John come here? It is some days ago that John came here. 
Did your sister-in-law's mother go into town yesterday? She went there 
the day before yesterday. 




It is to be noted that besides other ways of intensification, there are 
quite a number of words in Tagalog, which may properly be called parti- 
cles, intended to impart an intensive degree of sense to the preceding 
word; these corresponding closely in meaning to "certainly", "indeed", 
"most", "exceedingly" and similar English terms, though some of them may 
be considered as expletives and are sometimes untranslatable. Among them, 
nn or din, may be parsed as the Tagalog reflective pronoun, the English 
"self", as in siyd riii, "he himself"; etc. Sarili is also used somewhat as 
a reflective pronoun and means "own". As to the signification and place 
in the sentence of such intensives the attention of the student is called 
to further explanations in this lesson. 

Moon, month. 













The month of March. 


Have vou the letter which my brother 

I have not the letter which your 

brother had. 
Which horse has he? 
I have that which they had. 
The beginning. 
The middle. 
















S Bouiing Marzo or bouan nang Marzo 
\ ang ngalan. 


iNa sa iyo baga ang siilat nang aquing 
capatid? or, na na sa aquing capatir? 

Uala sa aquin ang siilat nang capatid 
mo, or, na na sa iy6ng capatid. 

^,AHng cabayo ang na sa caniya.? 

Ang canild ang na sa aquin. 







Lingo, (corr. from Sj). word, Domingo). 

Ang mula. 

Ang pag-itan, paguitan. 



The end. 

Aug cal»|>u 

i»u. ang liangun. 

The trunk of !| tree. 

Ang i«jno. 











What?. »hal then?. ( 

n a tone n 

' { ;.A,v .nM. 

Whon pii3i4es»ion. in meant, the English personal pmnouaB in claiiees 
of relative or discriiuinntive wentcuees miiy l>e rendered in Tagalog by the 
po^ee^sive ones, the verli "to liave" remaining untranslated as i^een above. 

Intensive particles are always placed 
intended to inlenBify. The principal are: 

iter the wordf which thev are 

How?, how now?. 

Yes, indeed; nmel eertainlv. 

Of course, 

Then, therefore. 

f, Caya?, ;,bagji?. 

^ga, nanga, din, mandfn. figam. 

Ay an6, mangyari. 



Cnyd, li'iya, ha 

intiTropative and r 


Why?, ie it you? 
It itt I myself. 

How!, was it the women who stole? 

Yee, the very women themselves. 

Even they tbemBelves did. 

It is you indeed, it is you yourselves 

I myself. 

Thev themselves, 

what 1 

iluhitative eenwe. 

tVcio bagji? 

Ac6 figa. 
{ l^rifi mafiga babave hagii ang nagna- 
I cao? 

Oo, ang mafiga babave din or figa. 

Siltl nga, mand(n. 

Cayd nga, cay6 f\gani. 

Ac6 rin, acd din, acd nga. 

Sila rin, sila nanga. 

fnyd may l>e used in the secondai^ clause or sentence as a coordinate 
causative conjunction. Except in this cise, intensive particler^ are not used 
to start a sentence. They are to he put immediately after the monosylla- 
bic pronouns and immediately before the iwlysyllabic ones, unless the lat- 
ter I wg in the sentence in which case the particles should come after them. 

He had to tell me something, that i 
the reason whv he came. 

i May Baeabihin siya sa aquin, c 
I parit". or, naparitd siya ay i 
( Babihiii sa aquin. 

Nanga is generally used as the plural of iii/a. Abda is an interjection 
very largely in use to express astoniiihment, surprise, etc. 

Bnpd, may Im used in an affirmative sense as an alternative conjunc- 
tion, serving nn explanatory to the preceding word or sentence, as in: 

Bliss, that is to say, the glory of (Jo<l, j Aig_jMiloualhatian, gloria baga nang 

Btigd may likewise be used in a' conditional or dubitative 8entenee< 
it being then an expletive term rendering-the expression round ami euphoniC' 

If you, then, tove your parents. 

All these and many other emphatic particles are very largely used by 

Clin cay6 figa.i, sungmisintA sa iy^ng 
mafiga magdiang, or, cun cayo baga... 


native? ami account for their innat«* tendency to exaiQ^rate and to carry 
wonls to their utmi»^t dejfree of intentsity. 

Mmh is a iiost}>osiitive |»article which rin'UmHcril>es the senfie of the 
word preeedinjr in an op]n»?*itiv#» sense. 

Though I. even I. 

Thiiugh Peter cam*- here. 

Although a man W virtUi»u». 

Is it. by chance, their father that 

man who is ixiniin)! hi*re? 
^ Yes, indeed, it is hf himself. 
Wa? it he....? 
How!, how now, are thev. then, here 

in town? 
Most ivrtainlv. 
Is that true? 

Yes. indeeil. it is al»s«»lutelv trut\ 


Whv!, is it vou who sav it? 

iM iH>urse, it is Wf . 
Is this your child? 
It is. 
Oh!, how tall! 

Is that the same woman vou love? 

The verv same. 
Wt*ek, a week. 

Aco man. 

Naparitd man Si Pedro. ^ 

Banal man ang tauo. 

^.Caniling ama cava yaong tau6ng 

;Alma!, si^-a iiga. (pala). 

I'.Siya baga ang....? 

/.Ay ano. naritd Aga liaga «ila sa 

<>«i. n);ani; 4^«. figa. 

;.Tot4K> cava ivan? 
\ Tot4W>ng totiKi. toto6 f&ga. toto6 man- 
/ din. 

« (.Ay and. cayo naftga Uagi ang nag- 
f sasabi? 

Ay an6. cami liga. 

;:Ytu [lala ang anac mo? 

Siva i^ga (pala). 

;Altaa!. malaqui ilga. 
^ (lYyang habayeng iyan fSga baga ang 
' sinisinti mo? 

Siva rin. (Aga>. 


Jibing dahiua. 

Ysang Hngi>. 



What tree is that? This tree is oak. (molauin>. Are its leaves large 
and l^autiful? Cerlainlv. WhoM^ 50ns are the^^e children? Thev are mv 
sK>ns. And that iHie, whii^e s^^n is he? He is mv friend^s. How manv 
months are there in a year? There are twelve months in a year. Name 
them. Januarv, etc.. How manv davs are ihen^ in a week? There are 
Steven davs in a week. Name them. Sundav. etc.. Wliat month is this? 
The UKUith of April. Are you here in the month of April? I am not 
here in the month of ApriL I am here in the month of Joly. When 
do you g\^ to the farm? I gv> [yfWl gv^^ to the farm on Thorsdav. Are you 
luU ii\ town on Tues^lav? 1 am in town on Sundav. \\'hen io vou (will 
you> g\^ to Manila? I gi^ to Manila on Saturvlay. Is he going to church 
on Mondav? He is «v>ing to church on Sundav. What dav is this? (to- 
ilay>. It is Friday. When do they gv> to the garden? They go to 
the gar\len at the ivmmencement of the week. What is the last day 
in the mouth? The end of the month is Wednesday. What month 
is at the end of the vear? The nK^nth at the end of the vear 
i< iVwinU^r. What cv^lor is the trunk of that tree? The color of the 
trunk of thi^^ trw is rxnl. Is it not vollow?. No. it is brown. Is the 
dav dark? No» it is not vlark. What dav is at the middle of the week? 
Tliurs^lay is at the mi Idle of jhe week. What then? Nothing at all. 
Why!, is it that therx* is no VuhI here vni Earth? Yes, indeed, there 
is one inni here everywhere. Why!, is it the brv>ther of Pete? who went 
there?. It was he himselt' who went tliere. What!, are von here? Of 
cv^urse, I am here. Then* i< innl ijreat? i>f c\nirse. He is great. Is 
it vvm then, wh\» are there? Ot wn\t^\ ir is I. Is it vou voaraelf who 


Went to Manila in October? I myself went there. Who stole any books? 
It was the women who stole some books. Are Europeans white? OhI, they 
are. Where is God? Wherever you go there is God. Who says so. 
Anybody says so. Is John at church? Although he may be in town he 
does not go church. Is that true? It is true. 






The numerals in Tafralog are exceedingly s'imiile. Tliey always precede 
the noun. 

Cardinal numbers from eleven to nineteen inclusive are formed from 
the digits hy preceding the latter with the particle InlA, "mnri'"; used as a 
co-efficient. Multiples of ten up to ninety inclusive have the termination 
potto, "ten"; ipoln, the word for "ten" in "Bisayan" and "Bicol" dialecta 
l)eing also used in several places.). The intermediate numbers are formed 
simply hy adding the units. Above ''a hundred," "indng tidan; and "a 
thousand", imng lil>d; the jiumhers proceed with equal regularity: 326, 
lattong diian, dnlaudng p6iio,t, rffli'w; 2.G41, (Inlawing Uho dnim nn rdiin, dpat 
nn p. 110,1, mi. 

Certain terms for high numberf have been borrowed from the Sanskrit 
language and misapplied to Tagalog, namely: lacad. {Sansk. laksha, 100.000.) 
and yola, (Sansk. nyota, 10.000.) The numbers represented by these words 
in Tagalog are imng lacsd-anng Itired, "ten thousand;" indng yofa-mng yoto, 
'a hundred thousand;" «angp6uong, yola "one million," 

To express a quantity which approaches what in English is called a 
round number, it is sometimes convenient to state the latter qualified by 
the 6g:urc in which it is deficient, using the word rulang-rolnng, "less," * 
"save;" as is done in the old-fashioned phrase forty striptK »ave one. Thus, 
insteald of iadng ddan siynm na p6uo,t, ualo "one hundred ninety eight;" the 
phrase rolang nang ilalaua sd dalavdng ddan, may be used. 

The ordinal numbers are formed from the cardinals by means of the 
prefix yfo., as seen in this lesson. 

The student will do well in trying to acquaint himself with Spanish 
numerals, for they are largely made use of by natives in counting. 














A pat. 







Labing ink. 

Labing dalau^. 

Labing tatl6. 











Thirty two. 


Forty three. 


Fifty four. 


Sixty five. 


Seventy six. 


Eighty seven. 


Ninety eight. 

One hundred. 

One hundred and nine. 

One hundred and twenty. 

Two hundred. 

Two hundred and fiftv. 

Three hundred. 

Three hundred and sixty nine. 

Four hundred. 

Five hundred. 

Six hundred. 

Seven hundred. 

Eight hundred. 

Nine hundred. 

One thousand. 

Eleven hundred. 

Two thousand. 

Nine thousand. 

Ten thousand. 

Thirty thousand! 

Seventy thousand. 

One hundred thousand. 

Two hundred thousand. 

One million. 

How much? (asking for price). 


How much is the price of that? 

Six dollars. 


Labing ipat. 

Labing lima, 

Labing ^nim. 

Labing pito. 

Labing ualo. 

Labing siyam. 

Dalaudng p6uo. 

Dalaudng p6uo,t, isii. 

Tatlbng p6uo. 

Tatl6ng p6uo.t, dalaud. 

Apat na p<5uo. 

Apat na p6uo,t, tatlo. 

Limang pouo. 

Limdng p<Suo,t, dpat. 

Anim na p6uo. 

Anim na p6uo,t, lima. 

Pitong p6uo. 

Pitdng p<5uo,t, ^nim. 

Ualong p6uo. 

Ualong p6uo,t, pito. 

Siyam na p6uo. 

Siyam na p<Suo,t, uald. 

Sang daan, isang daan. 

Sang daa,t, siyam. 

Sang daa,t, dalauang p6uo. 

Dalaudng daan. 

Dalauang daa,t, limang p6uo. 

Tatl6ng daan. 

Tatl6ng dda^t, anim na p6uo;t, siyam. 

Apat na daan, dpat na raan. 

Limang daan. 

Anim na daan. 

Pitdng daan. 

Ual6ng daan. 

Siyam na daan. 

Sang libo, itdng lib6. 

ising lib6,t, isang dian. 

Dalauang lib6. 

Siyam na libo. 

Sang lacsa, isdng lacsa. 

Tatlong lacsa. 

Pitdng lacsa. 

Sang . yota, is' ng yota. 

Dalauang yota. 

Sang p6uong yota, sang angao-afigao. 



/.Magcand ang halaga niyan.? 

Anim na piso. (Sp. peso.). 

Cardinal numerals may be preceded by the article in a determinate 
sense, as in English. Ang tailing pisos na ybinigdy co sa iyo^ 'Hhe three dollars 
I gave you". 

Labty which precedes the digit numbers to form the first denary, means 
"more" and is linked to the number. In the same way the different parts 
which a number is composed of are linked to each other by means of the ligam- 
ents. .4m, comes before the last expression of the quantity, and not before 
the denaries as in English, except when the number is decimal. 


Only. but. Umang. 

Only one. Y»i Umang. iiai. 

Only two. Dalaua limang. dadalanii. 

Ten only. Sang pouo laniang, Basangp6oo. 

A hundred only. Sang daan Ijimang, sasangdaaii. 

A number mav be restricted in ^env" in the common war bv the adverb 
UwianKi or by repeating the first tyllaMe nr the first two letters thereof 
if consisting of more than two. Lawiana should be tised pustponed to the 
word it affects. 


Ordinal numerals are formed from the cardinal ones, by prefixing to the 
latter the particle yra, the first four being somewhat irregular in fomuition. 
Cardinal numerals beginning with a drop it to form the ordinal. Ordinal 
numerals are generally preceded by the article as in English. 

To precede, to go before. 
The first. 
The second. 
.. third. 
.. fourth. 



.. eigth. 
,. ninth. 
,« tenth. 
„ eleventh. 
.. twelfth. 
., twentieth. 
., thirtieth. 

„ eighty-ninth. 
.. hundredth. 
.. thousandth. 
., ten thousandth. 

In complex numbers only the first and mi-^t embracing one is ordinaliaed 
in Tagalog, contrary to the Knglish practice. 

The very first. Ang caonaonahan. 

The last. Ang huli. 

The very last. Angcahulihulihan. 

The very first man was Adam. Ang caunaunahang tauo av 8i Adiin. 

Oh! my liod! I, the very last among \ ;Aya! ;r>iosco!.ac6. angcaimlihalihan 
sinners. i nang manga niacasalanan. 

The extreme ordinal numerals may be superlativiied in Tagalog by the 
infix rci, the repetition of the n^-^t and by u>ing the suffix an. 

Mtich (num. adj.), manv. Marami. ^from dami). 

Very mtich, a great deal, u great many. Maraming marami. 

The majority, the moat. Ang caramihan. 

All. lAhat, ang lahat. 

Enough, (adv.), ) "^"'ifo)' *"'''' ^'^"' '"""* ^^' '^"*' 


. }iafigona. 


naona. ang unr. 



yea pat. 








ycalabing isa. 

ycalabing dalau'i. 

ycadalauang pouo. 

ycatlong pouo. 
yea liming potio. 

ycaualong pouo^t, siyam. 

* * 



ycatldng libo. ualdng dian, ipat 
na pouo.t. tatld. 

More than (a cardinal number follow- 
More than flight. 
More (comparative). 
More (adv.), still, even. 
All men are not virtuous. 
You say enough. 
Are you taller than Mb brother? 
I am taller than he. 
Has their father anymore chickens? 
He has Btill more. 
Now, (at preBent). 

> Labis Ba,higuit sa. 

Lahit; sa ualo, higuit sa ualo. 

Lalo, )nlo pa. 

Pa. (always postponed). 
( Ang lahal na tauo ay hindi maf ga 
f banal. 

Siya na ang sabi mo. 
j ;,LalQ ca pang malaae sa caniyii ig ca- 
( palid nalalaqui? 

Lalo acong mataas i^a caniya. 
\ i,Ang caniling ama, mayroon pang 
I sieiu? 

Siysi,!, mayroon pa. 



Ylan lamang, iilan, 

t>ome, few. 
Only a few. 

Yldn, may likewise be made ordinal by prefixing yea, ae quanticme 

iYcailangiirao iigay6n ilg bouan? 
Ycalabing tatld figayon. 
^Ycailan baga silii? 

What day of the month is to-day? 

To-day is the thirteenth. 

What place (in order) have they? 

Ma^ffa, preceding a cardinal numeral imparts a scn»e of indetermination. 

How many bags have they? iYliing bayong ang na sa canila? 

Some twenty of them, about twenty. Manga dalauang jmjuo. 

Mafujn. alone, and not nng mahgn, comes before n"unR in the plural 
when they are used indefinitely or in a partitive gense. 

Houses, , Matigft bahay. 

Men, people. Vafiga taud. 


63. — 128. — 215.— 519.— 631.— 911.— 1.342.— 3.0(X).— 7.894.— 10.fii4.— 2.5. 
SI3. — 37.018. — 70.800,— 100.526.— 362.214.— 836.B65.—1.232.03G.— 3.434.608. 
What is the jirice of that cheese? Three dollars. How many houses has 
your father? He hag none. Has your eister many looking-glafises ? She 
has twenty. Have your parenis all the rings? They have not all. How 
many children has the brother of Anthony? He has seven. Are all of 
them pretty? Three are pretty, the others ugly- How many brothers has 
your uncle? My uncle has five brothers. How many of them are male? 
(1). Three of them are male, the others are female. Has my aunt many 
trees? She haw some. Where are the two brothers-in-law? They are at 
Cebu. How many women were there yesterday? A great many. Are 
there no books at home.' We have many at home. Are there many dogs 
over there? There are only a few. How many cats has my cousin? He 
has only one. Are there twenty birds at j'our house? There are more 
than twenty. Where are they? They are on the branches of trees. Who 
told you there are many churches in Manila? My friends told me so. 
How many souls have we? We have only one. How many fingers are 
there in your hand? There are only four. Where, then, is the other? 
Well, then, the other is hidden. How many trees (trunks) are there in 

(1) In Tagalog, u heretofore explained, rnyttid indudee both brothers and sisters. 


thi? jrarden? There are a preat many. Hnw manr of them hare hranche? 
and how many have none? Th«i?e not having hranche.« are only a few. 
Who was the fir$t man? The first man wa> Adam. Anil the first woman? 
Eve. What place in onler has your sister at gchocjl? She \^ tlie fifth in 
order. What numher have vou? I have th»* 63>^th. Are vou nohle? I 
am the la«t uf men. Are all men had iwirkedr? No, only some of them 
are wicked. Are all women judicious^? The majority are judicious. Have 
you more than three pens? I have more than sixty. Is your friend older 
than his brother? He is^ taller, but he i« not older. Have you i^till 
more sons? I have two more. What day of the week is to-day? To- 
ilav is Tuesdar. And what dav of the month wa? vesterdav? Ye^terdav 

« • « * * ■ 

was the 2otb. How manv dollars have vou? I have sumtr tbirtv dollar^. 





The adverbial numerals are formed by prefixing maea to the card- 
inals, the first being altogether, and the second and third somewhat, 






three times. 

Macaitl6r, macatld. 



Macaapat. * 








97 ' 













Macalahing isi. 

Nineteen " 

Macalabing siyam. 

A hundred " 


A thousand ^ 


How many times?, how often? 


The restriction in sense may be made by repeating the first two 
letters for minsan and the first syllable of the particle for the others, 
besides the common way of using Idmang or both lamang ang the re- 

Once only, only once. Miminsan. 

Twice only, " twice. Mamacalaud. 

Ten times only. Mamacasangp<5uo. 

A hundred times only. Mamacasangdaan. 

These same adverbial numerals are used in Tagalog in some districts, 
to denote multiplication, in the same way as the suffix ^^fold" in English; 
macalavd lalong malaqviy "two-fold (doubly) greater or large". 

iNacaildnf, is used by some people for imacaildnf. Properly speak- 
ing, inacaildnf, expresses past time and tmacaildnf, present or future: 
iNaeaildn cang nacasald?, "how many times did you commit sin"?; ima^ 
rnildn rang paparoon?, "how often will you go there". Beses, (corrupt 
Spanish word for veces) (times) is sometimes used, i YIdng besea?, "how 
many times?", "how often?". 



These are formed by repeating* the cardinal nomeral or the two first 
iyllables thereof, if conMfttinfs of more than two. without any ligament. 

One by one. 


Two by two. two at a time 



Three by three, three at 



Tatlo Utlo. 

Four " four, four " 



Apat apat. 

Five "" five, five " 



Lima lima. 

Ten " ten, ten " 



Sang|)6uo sangpduo 

Dozen " dozen, a dozen" 



I^bi labinir dalauA. 

How manv at a time? 

^Ylan ylan?. 

Thousand bv thousand. 

Sangli sanglib6. 

Hundred by hundre<I. 

Sangda sangdsian. 

Every day, daily. 

Aran arao. 

Every hour, hourly. 

Oras oras. 

Every month, monthly. 

Bouan bouan. 

Every year, yearly. 

Taon taon. 

Every week, weekly. 

Lingo lingo. 

Everv Sundav. 

Do. do. 

• • 

Every Tuesday. 

Touing Marte:*. 

Everv Saturdav. 

'' Sabado 




'The half- is expressed either by ^117 ralahati, or ang yrnlauing AnAa* 
<l?ij, the former being far more in use. The other partitive numerals in the 
singular are expressed by the ordinals with the article, the word bakagui, 
''share.'* "pitriion''; being optionally used at the end. For the plural, the 
cardinals are used; the partitive, in the nominative case, and that indic- 
ative of the parts into which the unity is considered divided, in the pos- 
sessive, with hnhagui following: 

The half. 
The third. 
The tenth. 
Three fourths. 
The seven eighths. 

Ang calahati. ang ycalata ig bahagtii, 
Ang ycatl^ng (bahagui). 
Ang ycasangp6uong bahagui. 
Tatl6 nang apat na bahagui 
Ang pito nang ualdng bahagui. 

How many times did you come here ^.Nacailan-macailan naparitdca caha- 


How often does vour sister goto mas*? » «>;?;«»"» bagingin.g8imh4«ngc»pa. 

'^ ^ tui mong habaye. 

l^n .' 

Everv Sundav. 

Lingo lingo. 


These are formed by prefixing tig to the cardinals and by repeating the 

fiT?t syllable from five upwards. 

One to each one, one each. 
Two to everv one. 














A dozen 

to every one. 







Tiglalabing hi. 

Tiglalabing dalaui^. 

Tig-isang doaena (corr. from Sp. docena) 



How many to every one, at how many 

every one? 
How?, in what manner? 
How 18, are? 

Tig, may also come before cardinal plural numerals Indicative of the 
fixed or stamped value of a thing, without any repetition of syllable, - Thus, 
**five dollars coined piece" may be expressed, aalaping tiglimdng piso; "fifteen 
cents' stamp", seyong tiglahing liming sentimos; although na is more in use. 
In southern provinces tig serves to express the season anything occurs or 
is proper to be made: tighapon, "to do something in the afternoon." 

The distributives foi unities of price, measure, etc. are formed. by prefix- 
ing man to the root-word of the standard unity, the first letter of the 
root undergoing changes as follows: If it is a vowel or r, the last letter 
of the particle and the first of the root change into ^. If it is t, $ or 
d, both are dropped. If it is p, this and the last letter of the particle 

change into m. 




Twenty five cents' value. 


Twenty five pounds weight. 

Aroha (Sp. arroba). 

One ounce's weight of gold. 


Half areal, |0'06,J. 


One real. 


Half a dollar. 


Salapi, ising salapi. 


t^^andali, sang dali. 

Handbreadth measure. 





Belis, (corr. from Sp. word maravedi). 

At one bushell per head. 


„ $ 0'25 


„ 25 pounds weight , 


„ one ounce's golcl weight, 


„ half a real , 



,, half dollar , 


„ one real , 


„ one inch , 


Vlanandali, mandali. 

„ handbreadth , 

Manangcal, mandangcal. 

„ one dollar. , 


„ „ farthing , 


The body. . 

Ang cataouin. 

Time, weather, occasion. 


Ogporjtunity, awaiting of 

Pine weather. 

an op- 

> Capanahonan. 

Mabuting panah6n. 

Rough weather. 

Masamdng panah6n. 

At dawn, morning; early 

in the 

> Omaga. 

To-^morrow morning, 

Bucas nang umaga. 

In .the morQing. 


Sa umaga. 





Lfouse. crahlouse. 

Pig, swine. 

BotLT. wild \hm\t. 

To give, jiive. 


The giving. 

To give (some thing) 

How nianv times tliil v<ui irive hrea«l? 

Seven times. 

How nianv at :^ time to In? givt-n? 

Five at a time. 

1X> yon go to ohiireh every ilay .' 
Xo, I go to eluirch only once n ;vet*k. 

IXh*s lie i*ome liere everv Friilav?. 

Xo. he iH>mes liere everv Sun«lav. 

Ho\T many to l>e given eaeh? 

Two dozen to everv one. 

iiive ising. ) one bushell jht hea«l. 

iiivo ^phir.^ 2."> cents ^n^r hcatl. 

How much moncv shall I nive to 
everv one? 

iiive one n^al jht head. 

Shall 1 not give at the rate of one dol- 
lar to each? 

How is the weather ii>-ilay? 

The weather is tine. 

Is not the weather rvuigh? 

Oertainlv, it is rounh. 

When do you go to Paranaque? 

To -morr\>w morning. 

lXx*s vtnir father come hen* in the 
morning or in the eveninji? 

In the eveniuij. 


Daga, hulilit. 





Anacan. inahin. 

H«ihuv ilamo. 

Maghigay tindet) 

Xaghigay (indet.). 

Ang paghibigay. 

I hi gay (det.) 

;.Macailan naghigay ca nang tinapay?. 


c'.Ylang ilan liaga ang pagbibigay? 

Lima lima. 
/ c.Na|»a.<asafiimhahan ca baga arao 
\ arao. 

i Hindi. na))a))a8asiinbahan aco mimin- 
I >:in lingo lingo. 
/ ('.Napaparito siya baga touing vier- 



Hinili. na)ki(uiritd siya lingo lingo. 

^.Tig-ilan hagti ang (lagbibigay? 

Tigalauang dosena. 

Mangah:in ang ybigay mo. 

Mangahati ang yhigay niny6. 
^ ;.Tii:-ilan haga ang vbihigav cong sa- 
' lapf? 

Manicapat ang ybigay mo. 

^ «;. Hindi l^igsi mamiso ang ylMbigay co? 

j.Maano haga ang (>anah6n ftgay6n? 

.\ng panaho.i. mabufi. 

;.Ang panaho.i. hindi baga masama? 

Masamang tott>6. 

;A'ailan ca i>as;isa Parafiaque? 

Hucas nang omaga. 
I ,*..\ng ama mo baga.i. napaparitd sa 
f umaca «» sa gabi? 

Sa irahi. 


Which Uv^k have you? 1 have the tirsi. And where is the second? 
Mv brother has it. Is not iVtolvr the ninth month of the vear? Xo, Sir, 
iVtv^vr i- the tenth. Hv>w manv tinu^ did vour child purloin.? Onlv once. 
Piii your uncle go thnv times to the gar\ien? He went to the garden 
oi\lv once. Hv>w vio vvni give vour Kvks? 1 jrive them one bv one. but 
tnv master irives them thr^v hv thnv. IV vou co to scIkh^I everv Thursdav? 
I go thcrv^ every ilay. How manv hours an^ you at school in the morning? 
I Slay then* two luntrs. What i\ay of the wct^k do your children not go 
to schvvl? rhey do not gv^ to schvx^l on Suniiays. How many pens did 
you give tv^ every one? \ gave seven jvns to e\'ery one. How many 
did you say? I dul say !k»ven ^vus. How much money do vou give to 
each of their children? 1 give one dollar each. How mucb rice does 
their father give them? Their father gives one ganta each. And their 
uncU? Their ut\clc divs not give them even a f.\rthing each; their aunt 
gave tlien\ oi\ct^ -o ^xninds weight e.ich. What jvirts is man made off 


Man is made of t^o parts, body and soul. When shall I come here? 
Come at the end of the month and you will be here in good time. Is the 
weather fine in the month of October? The weather is rough in the month 
of October. When will you go to the garden? I shall go there to-morrow 
morning. Are there many mice in your house? There are very few. 
Are there rats at your farm? There are rats and birds. Has your son 
any lice in his head? He has none, but in his clothes there are crablice, 
Have you many swine? I have only a boar and a sow. 










There are several ways of forming the comparative of equality in 
Tagalog, according to its being of quantity, quality or thing. This lesson 
treats of the most usual manners of forming the comparative of equa- 
lity, but the student should try first to become acquainted with the 
following words used for the purpose. " 

Para, sing, casing, macasing, ga, ganga, 
pares, capares., parang; sing or casing, 
magcasing. (prefixed to the root). 
Ga, (prefixed to the root of the thing 
and ca, prefixed to the root of the 
[ quality). 

Capara, caparis, capantay, magcasing. 
^ Capara, capares, capantay, parapara, 
( magcapares. 
Para co. 

Para nang aquing capatid. 
Para niyd. 
Para ni Alfredo. 
Para nang aquing pinsan. 
Para nang bat6, parang bato. 
Ganit6, gaito, para nit6. 
Ganit6 ca..., gaito ca..., para nit J ca... 
^ Ganiyan, gandon, para niyan, para 
( niy6n. 

i Ganiyan ca..., gandon ca..., para ni- 
( yan ca..., para niy6n ca... 
Ganga nitd, para nit6ng mafiga ito. 
Ganga nit6 ca... 
Ganga niyan, ganga n6on. 
Ganga niyang ca..., ganga n6on ca... 
( Tinapay na casingdami nang alac. 
< Tinapay na caparis nang alac ang 
( dami. 

^ Ang mafiga itac casingdami nang ma- 
figa paniilat, or, magcapara sing- 
Ang mafiga itac at ang mafiga paniilat 
ay magcasingdami. 

As much as. 

As many aa. 

As I. 

As my brother. 
As he. 
As Alfred. 
As my cousin. 
As 8ton6. 
As this. 
as this. 

As that. 
as that. 

As these. 

as these, 

As those. 
as those. 

As much bread as wine. 

As many knives as pens. 


The comparative of equality may hu formed in awe ra I ways in Tagalog. 
The comparison of quality is formed either by prefixing sing or casing to, the 
root expresive of the quality or by placiug para after the adjective in full, 
wilh the poasesBive case of the thing or person Hi;rving as standard, at 
the end. 

L Hi Pedru,i, eingdllnong (or catiingdti- 
Peter is us wise us John. < nong) ni Juan. 

( Si Pedro, i, marunung na para ni Juan. 

r Ytong cuhoy na ito.i, uingtigas (or ca- 

Tbi» wood i, »s hard a. .tunc. ] v.*"^'*k' "'"'' ■,'"■ ,■ • 

1 Ytong cahoy na ito.i, matigact para 

(_ nang liiit6. 

If an idea of assemblage is to be expressed, riisinp with the prefix mn^ 
may be used. The same sense is expressed by sing and the repetition of the 
first syllable of the root, 

Richard and 


Richard is as wis 

Aug mugamH ni Ricardu.i, magcasiiig 
S Singdudiinuug ang magama Hi Ri- 

) cardo. 

My uncle's children are a 

Pareg, capiiren, miigriiimres, may be used bt'fore the adjective when both 
objects compared have Ijeen previously expressed, the prefix ca imparting a 
sense of companionship or likeness. 

An^; manga bata nang amain co at ang 
sa mafiga aquing pinsan,i, magcaca- 
paris nang taas. 

6'(t is prefixed to the nominative of the common noun with which any- 
thing is compared, the quality root following prefixed with ca. ■.■ , 

It is as white as pajier. Gapapel caputi. 

W« is also prefixed to thti jmssessive case of the demonstrative pronouns, 
Ihus forming adverbs or adverbial expressions; and if the comparison i.- made 
with an adjective, the latter takes ca. 

So, in this manner; so, as this 
So, in that manmer, as that. 
As large aw this. 
As old as that. 

Ganito, gaito. 
tianiytiu, ganoon. 
Giinit6 calaqui. 
Ganiviin catandii. 

Qa is also prefixed to the interrogative pronouns in the nominative when 
the extent of a quality is in questiop. 

To what degr«i is she virtuous.? f.Gaano siyit cabanal? 

To which (what» degree is it beautiful? ^.Gaalin cariquit? 
It is pretty like that. Ganiyan cariquit. 

When ga is prefixed to a 
tious imitation of the a<.rtion. 

'crb it imparts a sense of mockery or firti- 

Ai.ilyou ^mMlling. yau prela.dyou / „,„ ,,i|,i|i ,,, 
are sclnng. ) ^ 

As if he were weeping hard. i ,-, . ,„- .- _• • 

F«igni,.g he wa. »™pi,,g a great deal. 1 .lya. 

Gangtt may be employed jis pUiral. 

Aa these. 

As those. 

Gaciga 1 

i.ganga noon. 

. as thepe, 
. as those. 

Gitnga iiit6 ca. 
Ganga niyan cs 

, ganga noon ca. . 

The comparison of (quantity may be made by expressing the two ob- 
jects compared in the nomfnative case with viagcapareg, ma<icapantdy and the 
root of quantity prefixed with rn at the end, the translation being literally 
"such a thing and such a thing are equal in quantity". The poasesaive case 
of a proper noun may be used for the iKJssessive pronoun. 

My brother has not so many books Ang aquing capattd ay ualang ganit6 

as these. caraming libro. 

,r , . u ■ 1 • iL ^ Ann tinta nang aquing amain at ang 

Mv uncle basati much mlt us mv lather. ' ° . " ? ^ . T 

J uiit.1.^ uu. iM>uuv.i...n.<.D J i»vu I nang aquin ama magcaparis carami, 

Ca.para may govern the possessive case or the nominative of a com- 
mon noun. Para-para is generally used to denote plurality. 

Jewel, jewelry. 









Rich, wealthy. 

Riches, wealth. 

State, condition. 

Is he well? 

Hiyas, ulluija (Sp.). 

Sue lay. 


Gaua, pag-gaua. 



Bu lac -lac. 

Boco nang paa, b6ol. 





^Mabuli bagii ang lagiiy niya?. 


You and yuur son, are well? We are well. Has your male-cousin any 
flowers in his garden? Yes, Sir, he has many flowers. Has he any other 
plants? Yes, Sir, he has other plants. Who have some bousetf? The weal- 
thy have houses. Are there any good houses in your town?. Yes, Sir, 
there are some good houses. What more have you? We have some oxen. , 
Have you much more money? My balier has a great deal more. Has 
he more paper? He has mure. Has the sailor as much coffee aa 
tea? He has as much tea as coffee. Has this man as many friends as enemies? 
He has as many of the former as of the latter. Have they as many shoes 
as stockings? They have no stockings, Is my brother's hat as pretty 
tis mine? Your brother's is as pretty as yours. Are you aa wise as my 
uncle? I am not so wise as he. Is John as virtuous as my sister? They 
both are equally virtuous, Is that crystal as hard as stone? Stone is not so 
hard as this crystal. Is iron as white as silver? Iron is not as white as silver. 
Is ink as black as this? My ink is as black as that. Is my father's steel aa 
good as our uncle's? Both of them are equally good. Are these dogs as beau- 
tiful as those? These are not so beautiful. Is bread thus made? Yes, in that 
manner. To what degree is my father old? Your father is as old as mine. 
To which degree is my aunt's servant wicked? He is as wicked as a thief. 
How pretty is my bird? It is pretty as a flower. Is Anthony as judicious as 
I? Both of you are judicious. What does he wish? He wishes to feign as if 
he were weeping hard. Are they as red as those? They are as red m these. 


Is your jewelry as pi'eoious as fiy sister's? My jewelry is not so pfe- 
cious as your sister's. How many combs have you? I have two. Is 
your ear as black as my nose? It is as black as your wrist. Where have 
you your ankles and armpits? My ankles are at my feet, my armpits (at) 
under my shoulders. Are Cruz's family rich? They are rich. To what 
degree are they wealthy? They are wealthy as a king. Is your brother- 
in-law well? He is well. 





The simplest way of forming the comparative of superiority in Taga- 
log is to put the object with which the comparison is made m the abla- 
tive case (local ablative) by the use of the prepositions sa or cay. . "V^irtue 
is more precious than riches", a7ig cabannla,i, mahal so cayamnnany^^Peter 
is richer than John", Si Pe(lro,i, mnyaman cay Juan] **my brother is taller 
than I", ang capatir co,i, malaqui sa aquin; but it is both more idiomatic 
and more emphatic to insert the adverbs lalo, "more"; pa, still"; or lalo 
pa, "more still"; between the things icomparied, with the same construction. 
Thus, ang cabanala^i, lalong rm^hdl'M cayamafMn; Si Pedro,iy mnyaman pa 
cay Juan and ang capatid co lalo pang malaqui sa aquin, express better the 
comparative of superiority. Jjahis and lahis pa may likewise be used instead 
of lalo. Pa is used only in comparing a quality. 

More rand a substantive)... than. j ulopa S sufelaS) sa! 

}(The adjective) sa. 
Sii%fad?j: :.■.•; .•:.":; 
(The adj.) pa sa. 

1 Lalo sa. 

I Lalo pa. sa. 

-Er, -r than. ?-Pa sa. 

I Labis sa. 

J Labis pa sa. 

More gold than silver. Lalong guintd sa pilac. 

More water than wine. Lalo pang tubig sa alac. 

The countrymen have more oxen than Ang maiiga mag8asaca,i, mayrAjn la- 
the villagers. long baca sa maiiga taga bayan. 

My father has more bread than butter. \ ^V^ '^™*^ *'°'^' °»«'yr<5on lalo pang ti- 
^ ) napay sa mantiquiya. 

V V _ AU«^ T i Yc^o,i, mavrdon lalo pang pflac sa 

You have more money than I. i « „: ' " y & f 

^ ( aquin. 

But the Judge has more than either Sfgunl,t, ang Hocom,ay mayr6onpasa 

of us. ating lahat. 

Virtue is more precious than wealth. \ Lalong m^bal ang cabanalan sa caya- 

^ ( yamanan. 

Tane is vounper than I ®' Juana.i, lalo pang bata sa aquin, or, 

Jane is younger than i. ^ gj j^j^na j^ bata pa sa aquin. 

My sisters are poorer than they. j ^ h^T s^a^caTlf """^ **'^'-'''' *^"" 


I am shoFi^r tban my cousin. 
She is browner than her brother. 

Maliit pa ac<5 sa aquing pinsan. 
( Siya,i, lalo pang oayomangui sa oani- 
( yang capatid nalalaqui. 
( Ang maftga lalaqui malac^s pia sa 
( maftga babaye. 

Women are more beautiful than men. ^^<* P*°« magandd ang mafiga babaye 

sa maftga lalaqui. 

Men are stronger than women. 

The comparative of inferiority, both for quantity and quality, i» generally 
formed by reversing the terms. The adverbs colang *4e8s"; and alanjdny "insuf- 
ficient"; may also be used in this respect, as seen in the following comparative 

It should be noticed, however, that if the negative adverbs dt, himH 
are not used, colang has the force of a direct negative, as: rolang hait^ "un- 
judicious", "not judicious"; ctilang pilac, '^penniless". 

f Ang maiiga americano,i, lalong masi- 

Natives are less industrious tan Ame- J pag sa Tagalog, or, ang mafiga Ta- 

ricans. | galog ay culang nang sipag sa maiiga 

i^ americano. 

Natives' wealth is less than Ame- ^ A"« cayamanan nang mafiga Tagalog 

ay alafigan sa cayamanan nang 
maAga americano. 
^ Lalong marami ang mafiga babaye sa 
mafiga lalaqui, or, ang mafiga la- 
laqui culang nang dami sa mafiga 


Men are fewer than women. 


Relation, kinsman. 

Kindred, relationship. 

Consanguineous relation. 

Relation by affinity. 

The skies, Heaven. 




Custom, habit, temper. 




Picture, painting, image. 

The roof. 

The roof of the house. 

The thatching straw. 

The thatching straw plant. 


Cruel, bad-tempered. 


Hinlog, camaganac. 

Camaganacan, cahinlogan. 




Carbon (Sp.); uling na bato (Tag.). 



Asal, ugali. 


Manaanas, (corr. from Sp. ^prd nan 

Pintor (Sp.); manhihibo, (Tag.). 
Ang bubong. 

Ang sa bahay na bubong. 
Ang pauid. 
Ang nipa, ang sas.'i. 


The superlative relative degree is formed in the same way as the 
comparative of superiority, the word lahat or any other completive terra 
closing the sentence. 


Uh,> are Uh-»t.' "^1"" "*'"" ^""^ *='''** mayam«n? 

' ;.MiM» Mno aii|{ luarftiiuiii sa lahat: 

Which of them i> thr mu^t iniiu^ir- « /.Ah'n *a ra.iilianie maMpagsa lahat? 
iou$? « ( Lit., the indii^trioiu over all.) 

M„ ,^_ : ^i . « Aiitf anac o*. an>f lalo sa canila. 
V son IS thf ini»!it. , 7 .i * .i v 

' Lit. til*- niitrt* «u them.) 

Absolute siui-ierlatives arr fMrnn-tl in >«.-vt-ral ways. Tlie simplest is by 

using some of the followiiikE a^lvrrliM 

Very. much. exctf^eJiiigly. Liil*ha. maf^aquit, labis. toto6. 

Extremely. l»i -aiiala. fli luimac. di palac. 

Of thet^e. those that are simple in ^trjctun* may ci»me before or after 
the word they i|ualify; tht* oanimund nurs. after it. 

/.n/»-A<i an«l hif*i> havr a -t-n^r of rxt^-i- ^iimrvhat as the Enfrlish "'too" 
or "l*K> much": UftMi^uif. a >«-n«^- nl pl'-i^.ty a* wht-n "liar*!" is used in Engl- 
ish adwrhially. T"*"d i- a T»-rni i»f a*-"*-r: t]i«- i»th« rs are adwrhial 
ex|ires>i*ins. m«'anin>! 'Ui*: paliry**. ■ ii.ii i iilrulali!**". 

^ di luimac. 
I Banal >iya di >apala. 

She is extn^nelv virtuou^. J.Ii u*^' 

■ . • ■ • t t iui»— na. i • • 1 
> 1 V a.i. U\' ^ . . ■ f sivanj? Ki- 

' i;a. ui\ ill- i nal. 

li\>l 5s extremely wisr. An*: l»i*«* ay tMt«<ong mariinong. 

IVter is vrry ill. I.;.(>-hank! mayT-a*juit Si Pedro. 

TK^;* 1.., .K. -: I .* » » Ani: i-anilini: anac na liabave av labis 

' !'.a!)k! iranua. 

H ■.„,,. _• , I .\r.*: canivanu Mnrimkin. av mahagsic 

IS niasirr IS vervoruel. ■. ** =^ • *^ 

< v. A masaquit. 

Heaven is exivedin^ly ]iis;h. Ar.^ ian^it ay mataas na di sapala. 

'PK . 1.:.. *. • t Ant! li^^ion-.: nane Hari av mahal na 

tlie kin>;s crown is vitv urtvious. .. / - 

• ■ • ii; namac. 

n..w»^#.. j^ .. .- I • 1 * Ani: minamahal na di palac ay ang 

onestv IS nuicli esteenitM. . ' • *^ 

' pun. 

Another way to form the alksolute sui^^r'.ative is by repeating the ad- 
jeciixe in full and ins^Ttin^ the pr\*iHT '.isranient between. 

Very nnU M.ipulini! mapuli. 

Kxtn»niely Mack. Maitini na maitim. 

Tlie plural nunilvr is formtnt by employing ilie plaraliuBg particle 
for simple adjiviives; and either by usinj: the mrticle or by repeating the 
lirsl syllable of ihe nml. for thos<» prx»tixiM by »;•!. 

Mom i,ul«sirio»s .u.i.l.' * ;Maftpn«sii<ignam«ip^n^lag»» 

« ;Mas:iv:u na masipag na dalaga! 
ViTv ui;ly doi:<. >LHnp\ as^Mij: (viftgit na paflgit. 

.Vnc inanpi niabuting mabuting man- 

* * , Ar.s: mabuhutmi! mabtibiitmg man- 


rhe adjtviives nuiy ;i1m» Ik' ^^uivrlanvirtsi by rt»pealing the root (or 
ihe two lipii M-Ilabli*> !hor«>»ft .-4. U^inc precixtsi. and ^04 or IUin suffixed. 

iWp. profound. Malaiin:. 

Vrry di^^p. (h^i^itest, nio-t profound ralalinxlaHmar. 

Sweet. MatumU, 

Very uwwt, wweeleet. CaUmiHtamigaii. 

Whok-eome. Maij^uiiihani. 

Very wlKiksoiiif '' t;af?;""l'agu>iili«iialiaii, or, maguinha- 

I iiang maguiiihaiia. 

yiipt'rlativffi ur su|H.Tliilive fxpreseioiis muy Iw formed in a loi^ furmal 
way, as hy using a ni'gative word mid any (;um{Mrative term denoting equal- 
ity, contention or fulluwship before the itoseeaeive eaae of the adjective, the 
literal truDHlution lieing "matohleas", "unrivalled". 


This flower is niati-hl 

r Cai)ara. 
I Catiilad. 
I>t, ualaiig \ Gauaflgici. |-nang. 
I Cahambing. 
I Cahalimbaua 
LCapantay. J 
aiitv * Itftng bulac-lac na it6,i, iialaiig capa- 

I rifl uang ganda. 

King Richard was unrivalled in hrav S ^' "*"'!? Ri<=''r'l»-!' "'■^1""? '"^^"'"P 
^^ < eiii»antay nang tapang iiang unan? 

'■ ( l)anali6n. 

Verhs may also l«; svii^rlativized in Tagalog. 


Han your etjrvaiit a gixid broom? He has one. Have the htitibandmen 
of these or of thoce bags? They have neither of these nor of those. Who 
h|iB a good trunk? My brother has on<;. Has he a leather or a wooden 
trunk? He has a wooden one. HaK the carjienter many iron nails? He 
has many. Who has Kjme guns? The Americans have some. Have you 
the wooden hammer of the Frenchman or that of the Englishman? I have 
neither. What \% more precious than wealth? Virtue. Who is the great- 
est of all? God. Who are younger than my brothers? Your uncle's chil- 
dren are younger. Who have more wealth than virtue? The rich. Who 
have more virtue than wealth? The poor. Am 1 shorter than Peter? Yci;, 
he is taller than you. Which of these three flowers is the prettiest?. The 
prettiest is that one on the riwf. Who ar« stronger than women? Men. 
Are buffalos less switf than horses? They are less swift. Are Americans 
fewer than natives? They are more, la the neighbour's brother your relat- 
ion? He is not my consanguineous relation, but he is my relation by marria- 
ge. How many people is your kindred composed of? It consists of seven 
male and four female relations. (,Do virtuous people get into Heaven? 
Only virtuous peopl« get into Heaven. Is eoal different from charcoal? 
Yes, coal is diHerent from charcoal. Are there many stars in the sky 
by night-time? Yes, there are a great many. Is your male cousin good- 
tempered? No, he is cruel. Is your mother sick? No, she is well, hut the 
painter is sick. How much is the dozen iif those apples? Twenty cents. 
HaB your aunt many pictures in her house? She has three pictures at her 
bouse. Of what material is the roof of your neighbor's house? The roof 
of the neighbor's house is of thatching straw. What is the plant of thatching 
straw. Nipa. Are there any nipa fields in your province? Yes, there 
are some. Where is your master? He is at church. Is he cruel? No, 
he is not cruel, he is kind. What prayer is that? Our Father. fThe Ixird't^ 
praver,) How many j>ersons are Ihere? There are three; John, Alfred 
aijrf Richard. Which is the wisest? The wisest is John. Which the eld- 
est? The eldest is Alfred. Which is the whiteet.? The whitest is Rich- 

urd. Whk'h of v«iur ^i^tel> i^ tlit- most Ix-auiiful? Jaiif i^ l^eautiful. 

Marv is' more beautiful: hut L'lara i* the nl•i^t lieauliful of the three. f»b- 

• ^^^ ^ 

Clara is verv lieautiful. Are Anieriraiis verv ii](lu>iri«iu&? Thev are ex 

* • • 

tremelr indufrtriouy. Is honev verv !»weet? Yt>. )x>nev ii^ verv r-weet. Are 
huffalos ugly? Ye». indeed, tkifv are fXt'ee«iiiigly ugly. What animal ir 
very s^wift? The hi»n?e i^ v»-ry swift. Are hiH?* swifter that horses? Ye«». 
birds are swifter than h«»rses. An* natives ver%" swarf hv? Xo, thev nre 
not verv swarthv. Are vour evt-lash^ verv blai-k? Thev are verv Mark. 
Is the sea deep? The sea i^ v»-ry deep. Are a|i|)Ies wholesome? They 
are very wholewmie. The bin! i« matchle*^ in swiftness. Is your father 
virtuous? My father ii^ niaichU^s for virtue. 




It has been said in the preceding lesson that the repeating of an ad- 
jeeti\'e in full and the inserting of the proper ligament between, forms u 
kind of superlative. Well, then, the repeating of the root of a cf>mpound 
adjective without any ligament makes the diminutive. 

Idle, lazv. Matamad. 

A little idle, somewhat lazy. Matamadtamad. 

6*avory, tasteful. Masarap. 

A little savory. Masarapsarap. 

Sour. Maasim. 

Sourish. Maasimasim. 

Salt, salted. Maalat. 

Saltish, brackish. Maalatalat. 

Rapid, fleet. Matulin. 

Moderately speedy. Matulintulin. 

Rough, uneven. Magaspang. 

Rather rough. ' Magaspanggaspang. 

Is the Del Rosario family's servant ) ^Masipag baga ang alila ninii del Ro- 

industrious? ^ sario? 

No, he is rather lazy. Hindf, siya,i, matamartamar. 

What is sourish? ^An6 baga ang maasimasim.? 

These oranges are 80uri8h. j It6ng mafiga d^landan ay maasi- 

° ) masim. 

Do you wish to have a little water? ^.Ybig mo baga nang caunting tubig?. 
I do not wish to have any, because ) Ayao ac6 nang tiibig, sa pagca,t, ma- 
it is saltish. \ alatalat. 

The preceding is the inflective form to lessen the meaning of an ad- 
jective, but fnunH, mnnti, "small", "little"; before or after the word, may 
likewise be used. Cannii is more used as an adverb. 

A little cotton. Caunting bulac. 

A small book. \ ^"^"8 minting libro, ising librong 

>• \ munti. 

This milk is pretty good. It6ng gatas na it6,i, mabutibuti. 

Common nouns may be made diminutive by repeating the root ;ind 
using the affix an or hnn. The term thus resulting is not only a di- 
minutive noun, but it is moreover applicable to any graphic represen- 
tation of the thing, and, in many cases, the sense imparted is one of con- 
tempt or derision of the original meaning. 

Little bird or painted figure of a bird. Ibonibonan. 
Little perBon, abject fellow, or painted | Tauotauohan. 
representation thereof, manikin, s 

Pettv kiiiir. riiiKU'ader, one who in / .r i 

play |HTsonat(*K a kiii^, ^ 

Physiciiiii, |iers()ii who cun-s. Manpipimnt. (Tap.); m/f/i>»i, (^*p-)- 

Quack, medicaster. M«*<liin(Hlic<»liaii. (1). 

Who has MarvV little prav.r l...,k? \ ''"^''i "" J»'""" »•»»[« .""^ ^^ M"; 
I have it. Na sa aquin. 

ColKM|iiial pretty naiiM*s of |N*rsonH an* largely in um* among natives. 
and although, in M>nie rases, the original name han Kieen 80 distorted. 
as not to pres«erve a single letter of the simple, the conunoneKt way ii* 
however to pronounce the last two nyUahles and to change the lat«t vowel 
to oy for male and to nij for female ) persons. 

Ysco. QuiciSy 


MomH<yllahic and dys-syllahic |)er.sonaI names are not generally made 

There are other suppletorv ways of I(>ssening the meaning of Ruhttan- 
tives, one of which. es|>ecially for the a)>stract onc*i». is to precede may and 
post|xme tUn, 

He is prettv well off. Sivsi.i. niav cavamanan din. 

Mv mother is slightlv recovering her / . . . . i « i: 

strength \ "^ "^^ ^'**'*' "^"•^' calacaean dm. 

Verhs are very fre^juently diminutivized in Tagalog as will be seen in 
sul)se4uent lessons. 













But (adv.), only. I^imang. hiK'or. 

But (prep.). BcK*or. tafigi. lilwn. 

I have but one friend. MaynSon ac6ngisangraibigan lamang. 

All of them came here but me. Naparitb silting lahat tafkgi sa aquin. 

Too much, too many. Labis, lubhang maramL 

You have tiH) much wine. Cavo.i. mavnSon alac na labin. 

They have tcK> many lHK>k>. Sila.i. may lub-hang maraming lihro. 

Pemier ^ Lara, /ki rni n^n. (corr. from Sp. word 

** * / jnmirnta). 

Vinegar. Suca. 

Vein or nH)t. ^'gat. 

jj^j.^^^^ \ I^Iamunan (rinit-word, lamon, "to 

i swallow). 

Brains, marrow, pith. Ttac. 

Nerves. Manga litid. 

CiK*oa-nut oil. Langis. 
Tinajn, large earthen jar alxuit 20 gal- / rp 

Ions in capacity. \ lapayan. 

Well, anv hole dug in the ground to / |* , 

get at fresh water. \ mi-on. 

Shirt. Banv 

Beast, an animal whatever. Hayop. 

\\) 1m> it. niKv inr all. takdi int't atviunt that in reiteatintf • svllahle vt h 
wiini tlir iviM'titiMii «li^'j^ imt |i«k« U*yoij«!. n'r'fHi'tivHy. tlic second \Htrv or aeconii 
"^vllable tlieiwf. 


I>eceased [wnple. 

Priest, curate, parson. 

Priest, minister of God. 

Baby, infant. 



Pattiy, immatiiy. 
. NaAgamatiiy. 

\ Purn (8p.); pare {cort. from Sp. word 
'( word -pndre, "'fiither"). 

Cahalili nang \)\on. 


Mahal ay. 


To belong to, to agref to, to fit, t^' ^ n i 
suit, to bear towards. \ 

i Ang ating caloMuft ay an Dioe (din) 
Our «oul is to God, our liody to earth. \ naoocol; ang ating catnoua,i,tia lupa 

( iiaooco! ) . 


How many shneB haw your wife? She has only two. Who ig lazy? 
The female servant is a little lazy. What is the most savory fruit in Tlie 
Philippines? The pine-apple; but the banana is somewhat tasteful, Are 
oranges Hour? Orangee are only sourish. Is this water salt water? No, 
it is only saltish. Are chickens fleeter than hens? Chickens, while they 
are still omHll, are onlj' a little fleet. Is that apple tasteful? It is rather 
insipid. Will you have some bread? I wish to have some. Do you not 
wish to go to school.* I wish to jjo to church, but my friend Frank does 
not. Have you a gcxid deal of money? I have only a little. How is that 
milk? This milk is sourish. What is that picture? That picture is that 
of a bird. Are there many figures in that picture? This picture has (heard) 
twenty figures. Is his brother a physician? He is only a quack. What 
iM that painted in that picture? It is a house. Is your baker well? 
He is sick. To what degree is he sick? He is pretty nearly recovered. 
Did all of you go to church this morning? They all went there but mt-. 
How many Gods are there? There is only one. How much money has 
the priest? The priest has too much. What is that you have in that 
bag? It is paper. Does he wish to have some vinegar? He does not 
wish to have any, for he has a sore throat. Where are roots and veins? 
Roots of trees are in the earth, veins are throughout the body of 
animals. What are brains? Brains are the roots of nerves. Is there any 
cocoa-nut oil in that Hnajaf There is none, this tinnjn is empty. Where 
is there any water? There is water in the well. Is your father dead? 
Yes, my father is dead. Where are now the souls of dead persons? 
Those of virtuous people are in Heaven, those of the wicked are in Hell. 
What is a priest? A priest is a minister of God. What is impudent? 
There are many actions that are impudent. Is it proper for a man to 
make shirts? No, it is proper for women. Are beasts and men alike? 
No, beasts and persons are different, >)easts bear towards earth, men bear 
towards God 




\Vrl»s in TajrdU>jr an* fiihtr |iriiiiiuv«* or tlerivalive; ihe former are 
thoi^e whkh in their uri^inal signification are VfrK»ii; tlie latter are foroMHl 
fnmi primitive verl».*<. sul»*^tantive>. adjeetivt^ or any uther parts of speech 
hv the addition of prefixes. >uffixe> ur Uith; or hy the insertion of particlei>. 
Tlie derivative verbs may l>e sulnlividetl into primary or iiecondary according 
to wliether the n>^>t is ci»mhineil witli one or several }iarticles. 

Primitive verW are jsenerally ilyssyllahic in jitructure. 

Primitive verl^s mav U* oiiher transitive as rain, "to eaf; or in t ran- 
sitive as tiUtHi. "to sleep"; but a transitive st-nse may be given to an intran- 
sitive verb and vii*e- versa !»y the application of partirle:^. 

TlKiugh the examplfs of primitive vrrW given akive are translated 
for tlie sake of i^onvenienoe by the English infinitive, their signification 
is not necessarily rendennl by that miKKl. The fact is, that the meaning 
of tlie radical or primitive is indefinite and depends for it» precLKe signifi- 
cation on its |x>sition (with rt»spei*t to other words) in the sentence or on 
the itarticles which may W prefixeti, inserted or suffixed to it. Thus, the 
verb in its simple form is l>est considereil as being in the imiierative 
ukxhI, seci>nd iiersi>n. that l»eing the jiart of tlie verb which can, in the 
majority of cases, lie exprtvsed without the use of a particle. 

It is not pro^MX>t\i, in a work like tlie pre«ent« to go deeply into a 
scientific arrangement which. Iniwever well suitetl to the Eoiopean langua- 
ges, is adapteil with less pn>priety to uncultivated ones like Tagalqg. It is 
WlievtHl that i^radigms showing the m^vt common changes of which tlie 
verl^l TVKn is susceptible and an exhaustive ciuisideration of the particles 
will W sufficient for the stud«=Mit to grasp the matter; but we can hardly 
dis^tense with impressing on him the im^n^rtance of these particles, a right 
understanding of which will give him the mastery of the language. 

The jHirticle fo. expressive of tin* English infinitive: the prefixes and 
suffixes ♦!, fi^. »iM/, «/i\ IT, ff. t'9K «>r, etc., and the terminations iii^y erf which 
ai\\»m|^iny verl^ and verK^I nouns in English, however sense-imparting 
they may U\ fall far sWrt of the significaiKV of the Tagalog particles. 

That the student may have an idea of the modifying power of these 
(articles, we subjoin a (paradigm showing the manifold meanings they imp- 
art to the verlial r\Mt «irii/, ^iilca of know]tNlgt\ teaching) which has been 
<t»KvttHl for the pur^nvse. 


Action on Other*, V^^Mtvt- ,- i- i -r • ^-.-u 

. . ,^ .. V * I ni. I nianu. To teach. 

I ve action). 

lXvonone*ss%*lf»isubuvt- %• \i i -r. i.^.«r a^ •*.m^.» 

inaction). ^''*^- Magjiral. To learn, to study 







Habitual or mert-enary 

action, customary per- 



To preach. 


Potential, (olijecl. action) 



To be able to teach. 

Do. (subject. „ ) 



„ „ „ „ study. 

Do. (habitual „ ; 



i> <i i> » preach. 

Causative, (object. „ ; 



„ order „ teach, 

Do. (subject. „ ' 


„ „ „ „learn,8tudy 

Do. (habit. ,. ; 



X IT « >• preach. 

Interference, meddling 
with, (object, action). 



., meiUUe with teaching 

Do. do. (subject, act.; 



., „ „ studying. 

Do. do. (h«b. ,. ; 


„ „ „ preaching. 

Craving, (object. „ 



„ ask for teaching. 

Do. (subject. „ 


,, crave for study. 

Do. (hab. „ : 


„ ask for preaching. 
„ teach by many. 

Multitude, (object. „ 



(subject. ,. ' 


„ learn „ „ 

„ V (hah. „ ) 


„ preach „ „ 

LarnestnesB. (obj. „ 



„ teach earnestly. 

(subj. ., ) 


„ learn „ 

„ (hab. „ ) 


,. try to preach well. 

Verbal nouns expressive of every shade nf meaning, mooil or tense ol 
which the verb is eusceptible, are alwj formed by applying the particles and 
should be added to the preceding verlw in the same way as a))ove, with 
the article. 




,, ) and the re- i 
petition of the first mvII- } 
able of the root. 

I Ang 

An. (suffixed). 

Y. (pref). 

Ungni. (pref.). 

Pag. (prefixed and repc-ti 

tion of the first wyll.) 
Mug. (pref.). 

i Ang 


A Of! 

Pag. (prefixed a 




Man. (and the first sylla- ) 
hie repeated). S 

YpinaRg. (prefixed and re- 1 
petition of the first syl- > Ang 
lable), 1 

Pinaflg, repetition and nn f 
suffixed. i 

Man. (prefixed to the parti- / 

cie of the habitual sense), i 

We might continue thus to 

jective, subjective, etc., actions 

given will be enough to convey 








\ The lesson, (looked upon 

) as to the teacher). 

) Do do. (looked upon as 

J to the pupil), 

\ The person to whom ina- 

( truction is given. 

What ia taught. 

The teacher. 

J The learning, the Btuding. 

What learned. 
I The person or book from 
^ whom or which learning 
( is derived. 
j The masrtsr, the professor. 

S What is preached, the 
) subject of a sermon. 

i The pulpit or the person 
Ang pinafigafiKarslan. < to whom something is 

f preached , the audience. 
Ang maftgafigiiraJ. ' The preacher. 

exhaust the derivatives of which the ob- 

are capable, but what has already been 

to the student a fair idea of the import- 


Alice nf these, particles sm) to malce clear bir him that hii> \mnft acquaintoit 
with hut tew roots will (•nuble him to expr«'»» many Uiuu^htif il he kn(iw> 
these particlen and employs' thi'm umlerstainlinftlY. 

Among many other vcrhitlizing pttrlieles, tlw (ullowing three, detrm<Hl 
t» lie eHxential, Btioiild he firttt conr^ider<.-(]. 

TTm, ^^^ Verbalizing transitively ur intransitively, wlieti the artioii in htuked 
u)ion at> being in [irogrec^ itr tht.* act ot the ^ulijert without lipecial 
reference at) to the object. 

BIag»» 'o"" verbalizing, generally Irnnsilively, when the action looke for- 
ward to a definite object, or when reflectiveness or reciprocal ness, and, 
in the case of intranBltlve \-erb*, inteiiitiveneae is meant. 

TMTf^, for verbaliziniE in an intransitive nr involuntary senw. 



to be^ 
1 be 
n ol 

The fact should not be lost aipht nf, that in jirimilivc verbs 
primary aenHC. or when a )^]iceinl tnodifieation of the action ts not to t 
denoted, the riulicul alon« may stand for every tense, if the latter can be 
gathered from the context or ip otherwife implied by some expreasian i 
time, In the cace nf a derivative verb or when, fur a primitive one,| 
definitely stftted tense is to be espresBed, the following general rules : 
luid down ati to the conjugation. 

First. In every case in wliich the verbuHiing particle bc-gina with i 

m is changed into n for the present aiitl past tenses. 

Seconh. In almost every case, either the first syllable of the root or 
the second of the particle, if the latter consists of more than 
one, is repeated fnr the present and fnliirc lenses. 

There not being true auxiliary verbs in Tagalog, the teuses are all 
simple in structure. Home grammariiins, however, in a det^ire to assiniilatc - 
the Tagalog conjugation to (hat of the western languages, have adopted iht- 
particle macn, itself a true verbalizing one. with the optionally used com- 
pletive postpositive particle na, to express the past complete and future 
complete tenses, mora changing into nara for the past perfect, according 
to the general rule, as abuVf-stated. This particle is here retained for pur- 
jjoses of exjiediency, but the student is already instructed with regard to its 


When a root is to be conjugated by mvi. this particle should Ite 
tixed to the root if the liitter begins with a vowel, and inserted between 
the first consonant {or consonants) and the vowe] if the root begins with 
:i consonant. Thus, the definite infinitive and imi»erative of the verb are 
formed. To form the present tense, urn, but l«tter vngm, is prefixed or ib' 
serted in the manner above stated and the first syllable of the root is 

The past tense (present jierfect and past indefinite) in this conju] 
tion, is formed by simply prefixing urn (better vngm) without repeating" 
the first syllable of the rout. 

The pluperfect is formed in the suppletory way already explained 
prefixing nara to the root (in other conjugations to the root prefixed wi 
the passive particle), na being optionally used at the end. 

The simple future (future indefinite teuse) in tliis conjugation, iB foi, 
ed by merely repenting the first syllable of thfe root without the imrticle, 

The compound future (future perfejit tense) is formed by prefixii 
ntnca to the t;)jot, what has been >-aid as to the pluperfect being also applical 
to this tense. 



It is hardly necessary to say again here, that if the first syllable of a 
root consists of more than 4;W0 ifetters, only the first two should be taken 
for repetition. If it consists of a vowel and a consonant only the vowel 
is repeated in the present and future tenses. For instance: acyat "to go 
up"; ungmnac-yat dyd, and not,, vngmacac-yat siyd, "he goes up." 

U if inserted between g and e or i to soften the sound of g is not 
reckoned as a letter for the effects of repetition, as in: gmnhauay "grow- 
ing well"; acOyij gungmiguinhavd, instead of, gungmuiguinhaud, "I am getting 
well". This applies also to the liquid consonants in the few cases in whi<jh 
they are met with combined with another consonant and a vowel in the 
first sllable of verbs: trabajo, for instance, makes nagtatrabajoj and not 
nagtratrabajo, although both ways are in use. 

There is in Tagalog, as in English, no specific form to express the 
French or Spanish imperfect tense of the indicative, that which represents 
a past action as going on or simultaneous with some other past action. 
This tense, which is rendered in English by the past tense of the verb 
"to be" and the present participle of the principal verb, as: "I was writ- 
ing when he came," is made in Tagalog by using the verb in the present 
coupled with some adverb of time as illustrated to indicate the same tense 
with mayroan. 

Two roots, dral and siMaf, are hereafter conjugated by um to fully 
illustrate the explanations given above. 


.\RAL. (idea of instruction.) 


To teach. 


^Present indefinite tense* 

I teach. 


i, ungmii 

taral, (1). 

ungmadral ac6. 

Thou teachest. 


>• »» 

,, ca. 

He, she, it teaches. 


V »? 

„ siya. 

We teach. 

\ Tayo, 
i Cami. 


) tayo. 

" \ cami. 

You, ye ,, 


• ■ • • 

cay 6. 



1 * ^ ? 

,, sila. 




and past i 




I taught, have 

Aco, i. 

, ungmiiral aco. 

Thou taughtest, hast 

Ycao, „ ' 

„. ca. 

He, she, it tadght; hat^ 

Siy^, V 

n siya 

We „ have 

\ Tayo, ) 
( Cami, i " 

) tayo. 
" \ cami. 

You, ye „ „ 

Cay6, „ 

„ cay6. 


Sila, „ 

j, sila. 

(1). The student is reooiumeiKitMl to write ungmadral in the present and nngm&ral 
etc. in the past tenses, instead of umadraly umdral as ma-iy tio. By so doin^; dip- 
tinction is made between those tensts and the imperative ainl infinitive of the verb. 


I hud taught. 

Thon hadst 
He, she, it had 


• • a^ 

You. \'e 


Pluperfect tense* 

\ Ac6. i. nacaaral. 

nacaaral aco. 

i« «• 

^ Yci<». ,. 

• t« •• 
^ Siva. 
' •• •• 
I'Tsivo, # 
! Cami, s " 
] Tavo. i 
(^Cami. * * 
^ Cayo. 
f •• •• 


ungmaral na. on^nnaral 







na .. 

ca na. 


na M 

^ tayo. 

f cami. 

\ tayo. 

'* '( cami. 




I shall 

Thou wilt 
He. she, it will 



You, ve will 

Future indefinite tense. 


A !.■*>. 



* Ta\-o, 

* Cami. 


aaral. aaral 



S tayo. 
t cami. 



Thou wilt 

He, she, it will .« 

We shall 

You will 

Thev ,, 


Future perfect tense. 

I shall have taught. ^ 

^ Ai>\ 



^ Sivji. 


I Tavo. # 
* Cami. \ •• 
^1 Tavo. / 
I, Cami. ^ • 
\ Cayo, 

i *' 

\ J^ila. 

i. macaaral. macaaral aco. 

na. aaral na ,. 





,, ,, 

»• *« 

•• •« 

*• ,, 

„ na. 

> tayo. 
\ cami. 
\ tayo. 
f cami. 



Teach, (thou). 




lift him. her« it. 




I/»t w^ 



\ tayo- 
9 cami. 

TeaclK (ye). 



I^'t them teaclu 





To write. 

sULAT, writing. 



Present indefinite tense. 

I write. 
Thou writest. 
He, she, it writes. 

We write. 

You, ye 


Aco, i, 

sungmusulat, sungmusulat ac<$. 

Ycao, ,, 



Siya, ,. 



Tayo, ) 

) tayo. 

Cami, i " 


) cami. 

Cay6, „ 



SiW, „ 



\d pdst indefinite tenses. 

I wrote, 
Thou wrotest, 
He, she, it wrote. 

have ^ 







You, ye „ 
They „ 


Ac6, i, sungmiilat, sungmiilat aco. 

I CHo, «• ,, t« ca. 

Siya, ,, ,, .. siya. 

) Tayo, f ) tayo. 

( Cami, \ " »' " S cami. 

Cay<5, „ „ ,, cayo, 

Sila, ,. „ ,, sila. 

Pluperfect tense. 

T u A •♦4^« i Ac6, i, nacasulat, nacasiilat ac6. 

1 nad written. | ^^ sungmiilat na, sungmiilat 


Thou hadst „ 

He, she, it had „ j ^*^*' '' 






You, ye 

fTayo, ; 
J Camf, ) '' 
'» " 1 Tayo, ^ 
[Cami, i •' 
) Cayo „ 
f »? •• 

( „ 











»? )» 















1 • 






Future indefinite tense. 

I shall 

Thou wilt 

He, she. it will. 


Ac6, i, susiilat, susiilat aco. 
Ycao, „ ,, „ ca. 

Siya, „ ,. ,, siya. 

Future tndefinite tense, (.■••ntiniieii ) 

Yon. ve 

^^ ft 


shall write, 


/ I'ami, \ '' '^"™'*'' »«»«»*» ^ camf. 
Cavo. ., .. .. cav6. 

• ■ • 

Slid. ., ,. ,, sila. 

Future perfect tense^ 


Thou wilt 

He, she. it will 

shall have writen. ; » 



You, ve will 




ij Ycao, 


\ S^ivji. 

f'Tavo, ) 
J Cami. ^ " 
I Tavo, i 

\ Cavo, 

macasiilat aco. 
Hintiilat na, suBiilat na ac6. 













,, na. 



^ tayo. 

f cami. 

\ tayo. 

'* i^ cami. 




Write (thou). 

Let him, her. it, write. 

Let US 

Write (ye). 
Let them write. 


Sumiilat oa. 
\ \ tavo. 

/ " f cami. 





The imjKrative lacks the firf?t iHTifon sin^rular and it requires the 
pronouns to \ye put after it. 

Verbal noun:^ are formed (in rix>ts verbalized with wwi) by prefixing 
/Kif/ to the rix)t. Thus, 

The teaching. 
The writing. 

Ang i»agaral. 
Ang pagsiilat. 

The subjunctive nioiKl i^: in Tagalog, as in English, merely a Byntactical 
one, the conjunction or any other 8i)eeial j^article, and not an inflection, 
exjiressing the mood. The following two poBti>06itive particle8 are, among 
others, the fittest to express the conditional (future consequent tense) and 
the past tenses. 

Should, would, ^signs of the conditio- i V2«..« i,-«' 
, .' . • ^ ' ^ana, disni. 

nal tense). \ 

I should like to teach, but I have no Ybig co sana.i, umaral, flguni,t, uala 

op]X)rtunitv. acong capanahonan. 

If he would write, I slu uld po there. ; ^'""aii-I'lu^f"'"*"* **^'" *^ ^'""^^ 

The following are likewise conditional particles and expresBions used 
in connection with the subjunctive mood. 


If, whether. Cun. 

Were it not for. . Daiigan, cundafigan. 
As if it were. Cun sana sa. 

Provided* L^imang. 

Provided not, unless. Houag lamang. * 

The following have an optative sense. 

W Id f r 1 \ Naua, siya nau^, cahimanauari, ma- 

( anong. 
It would be better. Di figa sal^mat, mahafigay-mahafiga. 

The following particles have a dubitative sense. 

It may be, may be, may hap. Sacali, baga sacali, cun bagii sacali. 

Perhaps. Marahil, 

Lest. Maca, baca. 

The following have an adversative inconditional sense. 

Tn.^„^u oUu^«^u S Man, bagaman, cahit, eahima,t, bista. 

Though, although. ^ ^jg^^^;^ 

In spite of, despite. Man, matay man. 

Happen what may. Sucddn. 

In spite of, for all that. Matay, matay man. 

Although not. Di man. 

The student should conjugate by urn the following roots. 

To drink. Ynom, inum, uminum. 

To ask for. Hifigi, humifigi. 

To read. Bahi, bumasi. 

To go in, to enter. ^ Pasoc^ j^masoc. 

Running, to run. - - - Tacbd, imnacb'). 

Outside, to go out, to come out. Laba^, himabas. 

Purchase, to buy. Bili, bumili. 

Eating, to eat. Cain, cumain. 

Step, pace, to walk. Lacad, lumacad. 

Arrival, to arrive. Dating, dumating. 

Departure, to leave, to go away. Alis, umalis. 


Do you teach Tagalog? Yes, Sir, I teach Tagalog. What was it he 
was teaching yesterday? What he was teaching yesterday was English. 
Did we write any letters last Sunday? We wrote many. When have they 
written any prayers? They have written some these past days. When will 
their father write? He will write the day after to-morrow. Had you read 
any letter when my sister arrived? When your sister arrived I had alrea- 
dy read a letter. What did they say to their children? They said to 
them, iwd* Would he drink some water had he any? He would not 
drink any, had he some wine. Has the tailor asked his mother for any- 
thing? He asked her for some bread. Hal I some books, would you wish 
to read? Had you some books, it may be I should read some. If he should 
go into town, would he enter his aunt's house? If he should go into town, 
he would perhaps enter his aunt's house. Shall I run? Do not run in 
such a manner, lest your father come here. Would you go out if the weather 
were fine? Were not the weather bad, I should perhaps go out. Would 
you buy any pens even if your master come? Yes, I should buy 8om9 
pens though my master come. Will you eat much boiled rice next Sunday? 


Thoug!) I may hnve a great «l(*al I shall not eat much. Which 18 better, 
to run or to walk? To walk in better than to run. When will the bishop 
arrive? The bishop's arrival is only once a year. Shall you go away? 
In spite of bad weather, I shall go away. Sliall I already have read when 
my son arrives? Though he doew not come. I shall read* whatever may 





The sfcnnd important verbalizing particle is mi.7 lor the active, pi;/ 
for the passive voice of the verb. 

Tho frame of the conjugation is [or thin particle nearly the same as 
for the preceding, vm. The m is changed into n for present and past t«naaH, 
the first syllable of the root being repeated in the present and the future 
according to the general rule. A verbalizing particle has a corresponding 
one, generally beginning with p, for ,the passive voice, with which it will he 
always coupled in this grammar; um &nd jia conjugations are excepted. 

We have admitted, for method's sake, of nam and niara expressing the 
pluperfect and future perfect tenses. Afaca, being also an indei>endent 
verbalizing particle, and it being the rule that if two different particles 
join in composition with the same root, that which im^tarts the primary 
sense should be expressed in the pussivu form, naca, macu, then, are not to 
be prefixed to mag, but to pa(; in this and the following conjugations, thus 
making tuicapag, mneapag tor those tenses. In this, and in the simple 
future tense retaining the particle before the repetition of the first syllable 
nt the root, this and all the other conjugations differ from that of unt. 

A paradigm and two roots conjugated by vuig are subjoined for 

Idea of bartering, 1 

^changing com- 

To buy. 

Thing bought. 

The money or thing with which so- 
mething is bought. 

The pereon from whom something is 
or has bet^'n bought. 

Buying, purchaue. 

lie who could buy. 

He who purchases many things or ih 
customarily engaged in buying. 

The price, reason, or time in or by 
which .wmething is or has been 

Persons from whom, if many. 

The buying of many things. 

Bilhin, nahili. 

j Ang ybili. 

I Ang bilhan, nabilhan. (contractions.) 
Paghil i. 

Ang nacabili. 

Ang ypinabili. 

Ang maftga 
Ang pamim 


Anp y{iagl»ili. 

To sell. 

The thing. 

The wrson to whoiii ur the placr wh^-n*. t . i -i -i-i. 

ami also the i»rR*f. * ^^ i ** 

What has Ihh^ii involuntarily sohl. Ang naypaphili. 

The money drawn fmm what has Keen t . , .,, 

gold. ■ * -^"P nai>aghilhan. 

Person with whom a imrchasr has / . , ., 

iH^n apriHHl i.,N.n. » -^"- cah.l.. 

The two bargaining parties. Aug magcahilihan. 

Tlie cost. (K>oked nptui on tlw seller's / ._ i-i-i 

part). ^ Anjr ra|jc.biUlwn. 


Idea of in.<truction. 




To learn, to ^tudy; to sell. Magdral. niaghili. 

Present indefinite tense. 





nagbibili ae6. 





He, she, it 







\ tayo. 
** \ cami. 

You, ve 







• • 

«hi. ( 1 ) 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

I learned, sold; have leartu. sold. X,igaral. nagbili aco 

Thou learnedst, soldest; hast „ ,. ., ,, ca. 

He, jfhe. it learned, sold; has ., ,. „ «iya. 

^y^' •• " »-- " \ Si. 

aOII,,\ ,, ,, ,« «« ,, %• csi \ o« 

A lit « ,, .« ,, ,, ,. ,, %m tsWVLm 


Pluperfect tense. 

1 had learnt, sold. Naeapagaral, nacapagbili; nagaral na, nagbili na aco. 

Thou hadst „ „ „ ,. „ „ ca „ 

lie, she, it hail „ „ „ „ ,. „ „ na eiyd. 

You, ye 


,« ,. 

,• ,, 

,, ,1 



'' " jcami. 
„.„ cavtf. 

91 99 

vh Tho Ktudoiit i(« aln*iidy instruottnl that the subject, be it a noan or a pctMionn, 
iiuiy vouw* U'fort' tho vorh, tlio vorKil liy;aiuoiit Uun>; insti'rtvd .bet ween: o^^A HOfgadral 
«ii'im', nayhihUi, Not to fill ui» tiMt muoh s|>:uv wo onlv iia^ the' form in the nhuftration. 
wliioh isi on tlio othor Imnd, both the tMiunioiu'st am\ the in«i0t idlonatk. 


Future indefinite tense 


He, she, it 





sell. M 





You, ye 




Magaaral, magbibili 










^ tayo. 
I cami. 



Future perfect tense. 

I shall have learnt, sold. { ^^^*XJ? '' .1 , « ^ macapagbili. ) ^^^ 

' y Magaaral na, magbibili na S 

Thou wilt „ „ ^ '' " ^^^ 

He, she, it will „ 

■• ! 



We shall 

You, ye will 
























^ „ na 


na i "y"- 



" r 


( camf. 


( cay6. 


( siUi. 


Ijearn, sell. .(thou). 

I/et him, her, it learn, sell. 

Let us „ 

Learn, sell. (ye). 
Let them learn, sell. 





j tayo. 
i cami 

« « 


Verbal nouns. 

The verbal noun for this second particle is formed by prefixing paq to 
the root, and repeating the first syllable of the latter. 

The learning, selling. 

Ang pagaaral, pagbibili. 

Students should be careful to distinguish nm verbal nouns from those of 
magy as the same difference extends itself to many other particles which 
may be combined with these two. Thus, ang pagdral, "the teaching"; ang 
pagadral, "the learning"; ang pagpadral, '*the ordering to teach"; ang pag- 
papagadral, "the ordering to study"; and so forth for other particles. 

The following roots should be conjugated with mag by the student. 

Account, consideration; to tl^nk. 

Gift, to give. 

Wish, to desire. 

Outside, to take out. 

Departure, leave; to take away. 

Ix>ad, to carry, to bear. 

To bring. 

Ysip, mag-isip. 
Bigiy, magbigiy. 
Nasa, magnasa. 
Labas, maglabds. 
Alfs, magalfs. 
Dali, magdala. 
Magdala ditd. 

To take to, to i 


Remittance, to Bend. 
Conveying, to convey to. 
Order, to order. 
Situation, to place. 

yoon, forthwith. 

Who told you your friend was sick. 

j Magda 


j Hatid, 


OtoE, magotoE. 
Lagay, maglagay. 

As much so 

As the master so is the eervant. 

As much you give, bo you will he 

Still, even, yet. (adv.l. 
No longer. 

Have you still a grandfather? 
No, Sir, I have no longer a grand- 
And have you still a father? 
No, Sir, neither have I a father. 
Neither, not either, (adv.). 
Herb, grass. 

Husk-rice, paddy. 
Plate, (shallow vessel). 
Several, few. 

Dish, (plate). 

Madali, pagdaca. 

Saca, mame'a. 
\ iSino bagiing naggahi pa iyo na ang 
' iydng caibiga,!, maysaquit? 

f Cun gaand ay siya. 

I Cun gaano ang pafigindon, ay sjyi 
I nn ang alila. 

'^vn gaan6 ang pagbibigay ipo ay siyi 
rin bibig-yiin sa iy6, or, ang pag- 
bibigiiy sa iyo. 



Uala na. 

iMayroon pa ])0 cayiing nono?. 

Hindf, po, uala na ac<Sng nono. 
^At ama, mayr<$on pa po baga cuy6? 
Uala po, uala rin ac6ng amil. 
Hindi rin, uala rin. 
(.Baquit?, ibaquin?, ^ano at? 
Sa pagGa,t, at, dahil sa, ang. 

Gunting, pangopit. 
Pal ay. 

Yiliin, cacaunti. 
, Ba ndejado. (corr. from Sp. word bandeja . 

Lanseta (corr. from Sp. hiicctn) 


Dott your baker buy or sell bread? He sells bread, hut he buy= 
wood. Does your master do anything in Manila? He is learning Englitsh 
and teaching Tagalog. Do you think (intend) to give something to the 
jKmr? I give them no money, because I have very little; but I desire to 
have a great deal and then I will give them bread and clothes. Why do 
our daughter-in-law's brothers desire to go out? Tliey wish to go out, 
because they are going to their father to take out some plates. When do 
the Docot family think (intend) to leave? They all will leave to-morrow 
in the afternoon, for they wish to take away some husk-rice from their 
mother's farm. Where "do you carry any money? I bring some here, 
because I intend to buy some masonry houses. How much of it does 
Peter take there? He doeu not bring any now, he has brought a thousand 
dollars some days ago. Does your neighbour take something to his children? 
He takes to them some rice. Why do you order John to go to mass every 
Sunday? Because I rememlier that to go to mass is* a commandment of 
liod. Where did they put my dish? They put it in the garden. What 
do you say? l)o that immediately and then (afterwards) go into the 
garden and bring (fetch) some grass. What is Moll saying about John's 


household? She is saying, as the parents, so the children are. Do you 
still desire to go to sea to bring some sailors? I desire to go there to 
take some money to my friends. Have you still many friends? No, Sir, 
I have very few, because the majority of them are dead. What is that 
you have in your hand? It is a pair of Ecissors. Have you another pair? 
No, I have only a penknife. 

.\ • 




The particle ma, (ca and ma in the passive) is the mark of a verb which 
expresses a state or condition of being and is therefore mainly used to 
form intransitive verbs. In many cases, however, ma expresses, not merely 
a state or condition, but has even a possessive force as in mabuhay, 
"living", **having life"; and hence many derivatives with ma are true adjectives 
as, marunung, ^'having, possessing wisdom"; but it should be carefully taken 
into account that such state or condition of being as expressed by ma 
must be intrinsic, and not one to be arrived at by any conscious delibe- 
rate endeavour of an agent. On the other hand, transitive actions which 
are conjugated with other particles when deliberate or conscious acts of the 
agent are to be expressed, may be conjugated by ma if they result from 
chance, fortuity, or by unconsciousness on the part of the agent. # 

The conjugation is similar to that of mag, but naca and maca in the 
past perfect aifd future perfect tenses are replaced by the completive 
adverb na after the respective simple tenses, a way to denote completeness 
and, at the same time, to avoid any rnificonq^ption arising from the use 
of those particles, on account of tna being one.^ the passive particles for 
maca, ' ^ 



Dying, dead. Matay, patay. 

To die. Mamatay. . 

The dying, death. Ang pagcamatay, ang camatayan. 

Cause or time of. Ang ycamatay. 

Place where. \ ^^^ camatayan, (1) ang quinamata- 

Person to whom other's death affects. Ang mamatayan. 

'^*WS.*° ^'***"*^ ^ ^'^ ''' *"* i Magmamataymatayan. 


Sleeping. Tolog. 

To sleep, (status) Mat61og. 

) U 

To go to sleep, to sleep purposely, ) Tu^j^i^g 
to go to rest. ) ^' 

(1) Note carefully the accentuation; cainalayan, "death"; camataydn, "dying- 


To sleep a great deal. 


The cause or time. 

Dull, sleepy person, one who sleeps 

To allow to sleep. 


Pagpatdk»g, pagcatot61og. 

Ahg ycat<51og, ypagtiSlog. 

Mapagtolog^ matologuin. 



To die. To sleep. Mamatay. Mat61og. 

Present indefinite tense. 


die, sleep. 





diest, sleepest. 



He, she, 


dies, sleeps. 




die, sleep. 


> tayo. 
) camf. 

You, ye 

» >» 




V >> 




Present perfect and past indefiniti 

t tenses. 


died, slept; have died, slept. Namatay, na 

tolog ac6. 


diedst, sleepedst; hast 

» >j 


„ ca. 

He, she, 

it died, slept; has 

» >> 


„ siyA. 


„ „ have 

» n 


1 tayo. 
" ( camf. 

You, ye 

;?. » » 

>> » 


„ cay6. 


>?. V >| 

>J >7 


„ sila. 


^uperfed tense^ 


had died, slept. 

Namatay na, nat61og na 

_ ac6. 


hadst J J „ 

)> >> 

» ^ 

[5a na. (1). 

He, she, 


had „ „ 

>» » 





» » %/ 

j> j> ■ >j 

>> »? 

>» * •«• 

( camf . 

You,- ye 

»j >> 'J 

M )l 

j> >j 



7» >? >> 

» >? 

jy >> 


Future indefinite tense. 


shall die, sleep. 


matotolog ac6. 


wilt „ „ 




He, she. 


will „ „ 


. siya. 





\ tayo. 
I cami. 

You, ye 







9^ • >J » 




(1) Na, should be placed after monoByllabic pronouns and before, the pollyisyllabic 
ones in affirmative sentences. 


Future perfect tense. 

I shall have died, slept. Mamamatay 

Thou wilt „ „ „ 

He, she, it will „ „ „ „ 


f matot6log na 

„ ea 





We shall „ „ ., „ 




( tayo. 
( cami. 

You, ye will ,, „ „ „ 

1 ney ,, ,, ,« ,, „ 





Die, sleep, (thou). Mamatay 
Let him, her, it die, „ „ 




Let us „ „ „ 


( tayo. 
I cami. 


Die, „ (you, ye). 

Let them die, „ „ 


Verbal noons. 

The verbal nouns for this particle are generally formed by prefixing 
pagca to the root, pag, however, may be applied to some roots; pagcaea is 
also sometimes used. 

Ang pagcamatay. 

Ang pagcat61og, ang pagt6log. 

The dying, death. 
Sleeping, the sleep. 

The student should conjugate the following roots, by using the verbal 
particle ma. 


to be hungry. 




to be thirsty. 




to be afraid. 




to be ashamed. 




to be cold. 




to be warm. 


mafnit (an). 


to be glad. 




to be sad, sorry. 



Burning, burn; 

to burn away. 



It seems, it appears. 

It seems like a person. 

It seems as if he is coming on. 

Tear, to tear. 

Cut, to cut. 

(into pieces as glass 
rnr-splints as 
To break, to part, (active) (speaking 

of lines). 
To mend. 

To pick up, to find. 
To try to, to intend. 
To look for, to seek. 

Tila, anaqui, d(ua. 

Tila tau6, anaaui tau6, dfua ay taud. 

Tila napaparito siyt£. 

Guisi, gumisi. 

P6toI, magpdtol. 


Magpatir, maglagot.. 



Magbantii, magacala^ magtica. 



Track, traiT, vestige. 

It JA warm. 
It Ui cuol. 

How nt(i are von? 

Hnw much in this ^tiiff? 

At line dollar the yar<J. 

Good morning, good day. 

Good afternoon, good pveniii^. 

(iood e\'ening, good nighl. 

At noon. 

At mid-night. 



Banana plantation. 

The fruit of the plane tree iw 




Every one, each. 

For the very reasmn that thi'y 

wealthy, they behave haughtily. 

All, every. 

All mankind. 

Every kind of fruit. 
All of them while. 

Ltikal, taiiAn, refer to iudividualf, 
rally usett in relation to an adjective. 

Ali<o, likewise, a." wi-ll. 

1h it likewise you who upoke?. 
When, (referring to a paat tensf 




Malaiiiig, maguEnao. 
/ iVIan ca nang ta6n? 
\ iYcao.i, mayrrton iUn cayang tartnf. 

(.Yt6nH cayo,i, magcat.6^ 
( Mamisos ang ham. <eorr from Sp. 
\ word rant) 

Maganding Hrao. 

Magand^ng ha|inn. 

Magandang gubi. 

tia tanghali. 

Ha hating gahj. 



I Ang bongnng siiguing ay maparap, 



Baua,t, isi, balang iei,. 
e 6a pagca,t, fiiU,i, mayayaman (Hilalo 

ang caniling aaal, 

Tanau, dilan, paua, dilti-dila na. 
) Ang ^angcatauohan. or, ang tanang 
I tau"i. 

Ang dilang bonga. 
Piiuang mapuputf silii. 

7 (/('a I, to the kind, Putin i.s gene- 

j Namiin. (alwav? after the word it 
I affects.) 

j ^Ycao bagii nannin ang nag^alitii. or. 
( na&gi5Rap? 


How is your friend? It tieema as if he were tiloeping, but I think ho 
is dying. Had you slept this morning when my sister arriveil? No, I 
had not yet slept. What does a person profoundly asleep look like? A 
per*ion who is profoundly a.sleep looks like a cadaver. Who among yon 
are hungry? Not even one among ue ib hungry, but everylwdy in thirsty. 
Why are your female neigblwurs afraid? They are afraid, because their 
father is very sick and they fear that he may die. What did you do then, 
that you are so ashamed? Hir, I am ashamed, because it is one month 
sinee I went to mass. Is Jane, the tailor's stater, cold? She ix not oold, she 
seems to be cold, but, on the contrary, she ta warm. Wliy are their chil- 
dren glad? They are glad, because their father tries to conduct them all to 
Manila. Is your curate sad? He is sad, because very few people go tn 
ma.18 on Sundays. are the houses tfiat burn away? The bouses 
that are burning belong to your friend, Jane's uncle. Who tore away your 
shirt? Nobody tore away my ybirt, it seems as if it were torn; but it is 
only cut. Will his aunt break into pieces all the plates, glasses, 
bottles and tinnjns"! No, Sir, she only wishes to break the Unnjas, hut 



she did not think to broak all tho other things. Why does not the 
servant bring liere the eane 1 gave him yesterday (last) night? He 
is afraid and ashamed to eome here, ])eeause he broke the eane into splints. 
Who parted this string? John's servant's aunt parted that and many 
other strings. Are you mending sometliing there? I am mending shirts 
and shoes. Why does not your 'son take up the needles? He does not 
wish either to piek up the needles or the mangoes. Does a virtuous man 
try to seek sQjnething? A virtuous man tries to seek the path (the way) 
to Heaven. Ls the water in the sea warm oreool? The water in the sea 
is somewhat warm. How old is already your first-born sister? She passes 
already thirty six years.. What price is rice sold at at present? It is sohi 
at five dollars the bushel. What do you say tome? I say to you good 
morning, because it is morning now; when noon .is past I shall bid you 
good afternoon, and then when night enters I shall say good evening 
until mid-night. Which do you consider a> the ])est of all fruits? I 
consider the banana the best fruit; but some people say the mango is 
the best of all. What is tlu^ rice plant? Rice is a plant tliat has an ear. 
What has everv man? Everv man has his own clothes; for tlie verv 
reason they have clothes, they fear to tear those of other people. Will 
man die? All mankind will die, all plants will be burnt (faded, dried) 
and all the stars will Ik- extinguished. 




■ . . '. THE PASSIVK VOK'K. 

The forms of conjugation given in foregoing lessons are not the ^l08t 
Uisual in Tagalog. They are the vague ex])ression of an action abstract in 
notion and somewhat indeterminate as to object, manner, place or purpose. 
When the action bears upon a determinate object or special purpose, Ta- 
galog verbs generally assume other forms of conjugation called passives. 
Among them, that which is formed with the particle in-hin is prominent 
and shpuld be considered as tlie true passive voice. In may be prefixed, 
inserted or suffixed; kin is always suffixed. 

To form the i)a»sive voice in roots conjugated actively with the parti- 
cle tiTW, in is prefixed to the first vowel of the root or inserted between the 
consonant and the first vowel, for the simple present and past tenses. In 
or kin, as the case may be, is suffixed to the root in the simple future and 
imperative, hin l)eing on)y for. roots ending in a sharply accented vowel. 
The first syllable of the root should be repeated for simi)le present and 
future tenses as already stated. The pluperfect and future perfect may be 
formed in two different ways: either by adding the completive particle na 
after the respective simj>le tenses or by prefixing na to the root in the 
}>luperfect, and wa in the future perfect if this c(»nstructi(^>n is preferred, 
ma, na being the passive i)articles for mara-nftni. 

It has already been stated that a passive sentence in Tagalog requires 
the agent to Ik? put in the possessive case. Now, if the subject is a pro- 
noun either form of the possessive case may be used; the prepositive, of 
course, before (without the verl>al ligament), or the posti)08itive, after, (also 
without the verbal ligament) as seen in the examples following. The lat- 
ter construction is, however, more idiomatic and far more in use. If the 
subject is a noun or a sentence, it should be put after the verb, for, ray Pe- 
drong iniihig tti- Juana, although not ungrammatical is little in fashion; as 
iniibtg ni Pedro Si Juana, "Jane is loved by Peter"; is far more in use. 

As an illustration, two examples serving of a standard as to how 
verl)8 with um in the active should be conjugated in the in-hin passive, 
are given hereafter. 

To wish, to want, to love. Umibig. 

Wighing,. Pag-ibig. 

To be loved, to^love some thing. Ybig-in or ibiguin. 

To .reward. (iumanti. 

Rewarding. Pag-ganti. 

To be rewarded, to reward someluKly. (fantihin. 

HOOT. vbk;. 



To be loved. Ybi^-in. ibiguin. 


Present indefinite tense. 

. . . . is or arc 

J loved by nie. 

Aquiiig iniibig. 



• • • • i> »> 

„ „ thee, you. 




• • • • n V 

,, „ him, her it. 

Caniyang „ 




V V ^^• 

\ Ating 

j natin. 

. . . . „ ). 

( Aming " 


^ namin 

. . . . J, '■ fj 

„ „ ye, you. 




••••)» » 

„ „ them. 

Caniling „ 



^Present perfect and 

past indefinite 


was, were; has, hast, have been loved by me. Aquing infbig, inibig co. 

»» »> W M 

»? >) ♦> » 

>> »> 

J thee, 



11 11 11 



91 n 

11 « 11 










" " ( you. 

" '' I hermit. C*^0'4"g '^ " "b'a- 

11 11 


i Ating 


11 11 

( Aming 

- "^you. Y'^y^'^K " 
„ them. Canilang „ 

" ^ namin. 

„ niny6. 



Pluperfect tense. 

had been loved by me. Aquing nafbig, infbig na; nafbig, infbig co na. 

• • • • » »i 11 11 \ VOU. *y ^8 11 11 n 11 11 ^^ 11 

her, Caniydng „ „ „ „ „ na niya. 


( Ating. ( natin. 

• 11 


• 11 

19 91 

11 W8. 

I Aming 


11 11 


91 ^1 


" " " J you. Yny6ng „ 

. . . . „ ,, „ „ tdem. CanilAng „ 

n 11 


„ „ ninyo, 
„ „ nili. 

Future indefinite tense. 

shall or will be loved by 


11 11 11 11 




11 »• 


11 11 91 

11 11 11 

91 11 91 11 

her, it. 




Aquing iibiguiu, (1). iibiguin (1) co, 
Yydng „ „ mo. 

Caniying „ 



Canildng „ 








\ natin. 
( namin. 


(1) 1/ is here inserted for prosodieal reasons to indicate that g has not the 
guttural sound. It may also be written thus, iibtg-in. 

Future perfect tense. 

. . shall or will ) 
have been lov- > Aquing mafbig) iibiguin ua; maibig co, iibiguin co na. 
ed by me. ) 

.dododo„j*^^^^; Yy6ng „ 

( him, 
. . „ „ „ „ < her, Caniying ,, 

\ us \ ^^"^« 

■ • " " " " I you. I Yny6ng „ 
. . V? „ „ „ them. CanilAng ,, 



,, niyi. 

»« J 

.. «< 

( natin, 
\ namin, '' 

„ ninyd, „ 


na niyt. 





. . .be loved 

■ • • «» »» 



thee, you. 
him, her, it 

V • 

• • • » n 



»1 • 

• • • »i jj 

■ • • » » 


ye, you. 

Yyong ibiguin, ibiguin mo 

Caniyang „ ,, niyd. 

S Aming \ namin. 

\ AtinK '' " i natin. 

YnySng „ ,. niny6. 

CaniUng ,. „ nila. 


The state of being loved, the action ) ^ -i • ..• 
of loving something. \ ^"K •'^'«?^""'- 



To be rewarded, to reward some one. (rantihin. 

Present indefinite tense* 

. is, are rewarded by me 

. „ „ „ „ thee, you. 

. „ „ „ „ him, her, it. 


„ ye, you. 
,, them. 

Aquing guinaganti, guinaganti co. 

Yy6ng „ ,. mo. 

Caniyang „ „ niyd. 

Ating K natin. 

Aming -^ '' \ namin 

Ynyong „ ,, niny6. 

CanilAng ,. ., nila. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses* 

.was, wast, wert, were; has, hast, 
have been rewarded by me. 
. do do do do do do „ thee, vou. 

„ him, her, it 

» fj. >f » » »> 

99 99 9) 91 9) r 



99 99 99 9« J^ »> »» Y^} yOU. 

99 99 99 99 >» ?> >> ttiem. 

A((uing guinanti, guinanti 























^tt perfect tense. 

..had. hadst beeti ^ » • *• • i* «• • *• ^ do do dodo ' ; Yvoiiir ,. .. „ ,. mo. .. mo iia. 

you. 5 ' 

him, ) 

...,,. , her, > Canivdnjr ,. .. ,, ., iiiva. ,. na niya. 

\t. ) ' 

\ Ating j natin, S uatin. 

••'•'' ' "^' ) Amiiig f namin, " " f iiamin 

VOU. ) ^r s . i ' X 

...,,, ., .. ,, \ r 1 nyoiig .. ., ,, ., uinyo, ,, ., ninyo. 

..,,,, „ „ .. them. Canildng ,. .. ,. iiila. ., ,. nila. 

Future indefinite tense. 

• • 

shall.Bhalt, will, wilt he rewarded /> », • .-i • _ 4:u;« 

' ' 1 / Aquing gagaiitihin. gagaiitinin eo. 

. , ,, ., ,, thee, you. Yy6iig „ ., mo. 

. ,, „ ,. „ ., ,, him, her. it. ('aiiiying ,, ,. iiiyd. 

\ Ating \ natin. 

" *• ^^- I Aming '» '' \ namin 

,. ,, ., ye, you. Ynyong ., ,. niny6. 

., „ .. them CaniWng .. ., niN. 

J» ^« ij jj 

'? M " 

Future perfect tense. 

. .shall, Hhalt, ^ 

will, wilt, have I * • i* ^-i • *» * ^-i • 

l>een rewarded ( ^^"^'^S maganti. gagaiitihin na ; maganti co, gagantihin co na 

by me. J 

thee ) 
..dodo,, ' [ Yy6ng „ „ .. ,. mo. ,. mo na. 

you. ^ -^ c^ 

him, ^ 
. . „ ,, „ her, > Gaiiivi^ng ., ,. niva. ,. na niv4. 

\ Ating \ natin. \ natin 

"V »M "«• I Aming " '^ " - Miamiii,'' ' Miam: 

• ' '' '^ ■• VOU. \ ^"y^"^' '• •• •• •• iiinyo iiinyo 

. . „ „ ,, them. Canildng „ ' „ nila nila. 


Let 1>e rewarded hy thee, you. Vyong gantihin, gantihiu mo. 

„ „ „ ,, him, her, it. Caniylng, .. ,. niya 

\ Ating ) iiathi. 

" " '' " ^^' i Aming * - ( namin. 

jy ,, ,. M ye, you. Ynyong ., ,. uinyo. 

I, „ „ „ them. ; Canildug „ ,. nilp. 



The state 

ite of being rewarded, the li . ^.. . 

of rewarding somebody. f ^"*? gantihni. 

The student should conjugate in the passive voice corresponding to 
vm, the following roots: 

To ascend, to mount. Acvat, aquiat. 

To look at. Tingin. 

To liRten to. Hingig. 

To taste, to relis^h. Lasap. 

To Bmell. Amoy. 

To behold, to sight. Tantio. 

To feel, to touch, to groi)e. Hipo. 

To call for, to call to. Tauag. 

To answer, to reply. Sagot. 

To ask, to inquire. Tanong. 

To receive, to accept of. Tangap. 

What is your servant writing? ^. Ano ang sinusiilat nang iyong aiila? 

He is writing tlic letters vou gave (j Sinusulat niv^ ang mafiga sulat na vhi- 
nim this morninif. / nigay mosacaniydcanghiangomaga. 

What is Frederic doing there? ) ^^'^^ ^'"^ guinagaua diyan ni Pede- 

'^ ( rico? 

Freileric is doing what his master \ (Uiinagauii ni I'ederico ang yniutos 

ordered him to do. f nang caniyang i)anginoon sa caniyd. 

To keep company to. Sumanu. 

To he accompaniiMl. t(» accompanv i ^r 

each other. * • Magsama. 

To join, to he \mx together. Pasamahin. 

Person standing for father, godfather. Vnaama. 

\ mother, god mo* I x- • a 
.. • .1 '^ J 1 niina. 

/ ther. \ 

.. son, godchild. Ynaanac. 

,. ,. brother. . . Quihac2^>atid. 

.. father or mother / n- 'i • c 
-in-law. ; Bniihrnuiin. 

Whom are you calling for? /.Sino ang tinatauag mo? 

I am calling for my s<»rvant. who is ^ Tinattiuag co ang aquing alila, na pa- 

never at home. ( rating uahi sa baliay. 

Nephew, niece Pamangquing lalaqui, hahaye. 

X 1 N K'r K K NT 1 1 K X K RC I S K . 

Is your nephew ascending the mountain? He is ascending the mountain, 
lK*cau8e he wishes to sight the sea. What is your father's godchild's name? 
My father's godchild's name is Frank. Whom do you love the most? It 
is my father whom I love the most. Had you not a father, whom would 
vou love the most? Had I not a father, I should love mv husband, wifi* 
(s|>ou8e) the most. Why did his niece wish to accompany this man to 
church? Because she is his godchild. Who is her godmother? Her 
godmother is that woman who was looking at the trees yesterday afternoon. 
Why did Jesus Christ ascend to Heaven? He ascended to Heaven to re- 
ceive there all the souls of virtuous jK»ople here on Earth. Will my sister- 
in-law's male godchild listen to the goiNl (hn^trine which Father Santos will 


preach to him? He would perhaps listen to it if somebody would lead 
him to church. Do you like to give a relish to that mango there at your 
sister's table? I scented it just a while and although it appears a tasteful 
it is not, so then, I will not taste it. Where is the cat which I bought 
the day before yesterday? She went out because scented that mouse that 
got into that hole when we were in the garden and the eat concealed her- 
self in the tinaja. How many times did the maid-servant go up into the 
mirador to look for my sister's spectacles? She went up there three times. 
Why do you not touch me? Because it is a bad custom to touch persons. 
What is the servant you called for before, doing? He is always running 
about the streets and when I call for him he never comes or listens, and 
although he be asked he never replies at all. Why, then, did you receive 
him? He seemed to be judicious and honest; but he is, on the contrary, 
naughty and a thief. What books are those your sister is reading? My 
sister read your books and she is now reading mine. What other books 
will she read to-morrow? To-morrow she will go out to buy the birds you 
told her and she will not arrive here in time. What bread has John's 
brother eaten? He ate the bread his sister gave him. 


PASSIVE VOICE (continued). 

Pag, IB the proper passive particle for mag. Pag, i6 however drop- 
ped in most verbs conjugated actively by mag, the wm passive form of 
conjugation generally being common to both wm and mag active particles. 

When pfjgi ie retained, in cases and for purposeB to be explained 
in subsequent lessons, in is inserted between p and n, thus forming pinag 
tor pr^ent and past tenses, and atiixeii to the root for the imperative and 
simple future. The first syllable of the root should l>e repeated in the 
regular way for present and future tenses. 

Two verbs of mng conjugation are subjoined as an illustration of both 
forms of the passive. 


Part, share. 

To distribute. 



To be distributed, (some thing). Bahaguinin. (1). 

Present indefinite tense. 
I or are distributed by me. Binabahagui > 

thee, you. 

him, her, it. 

- (2). 


Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

I, were; has, have been distributed by me. 

II II PI 11 <i thee, you. 

„ „ „ „ „ him, her, 


( natin. 

(I). For the (lake ol euphony, this ruot inserts n before in, 
where is lii be ufttieil. 

(2). The prepoxilive Form has bi-en iivre suppreKsetl ; Htudentn 
trtMteil that tin- one ins<K' uw al in Ihe i-xuiiiple ia tar m 


*Ftuperfed iense. 


I been distributed bv 


{ thee, 

c yo^- 

( him. 

Nabahagui eo, binahagui co 

^, mo, „ mo 



» » 





niyi, „^ 



i natin, 
I namin, " 

{ natin. 
/ namin 


>> >> 






/e, you. „ 
them. „ 

mnyo, „ 
nil*, „ 


Future indefinite 


shall, will be distributed by me. Babahaguinin 

„ thee, you. 
,, him, her, it. 




„ ye, you, 
„ them. 








Future perfect tense^ 

shall, will have been distribut- > T^r u v. 
ed by me. j Mabahag 

ui CO, babahaguinin co na- 

do do do do do „ thee, you. „ 
„ „ „ „ „ ,, nim, hermit. „ 

11 11 yy )> >j >> j ^S» j> 

>j >> >> >> 7> » y®) you. ,, 

,, ,. ,, ,, „ „ tnem. „ 

me, „ 

niya, „ 
( natin, 

( namin, " 

ninyd, „ 

niU, „ 

mo „ 
na niyd. 
( natin. 
" ( namin. 
„ niny6. 
„ ni'i 


Let be distributed by thee. 

i him, 
" ( her, it. 




Bahaguinin mo. 



„ US. 

„ ye, you, 
„ them. 




The state of being distributed. 



Steftling, to.HaaL 

N^ao, magn^Ccao. 


To be stolen (something). 

Pagnacao, pagnacaoin. 

^Present indefinite tense. 

is, are stolen by me. 

„ „ „ „ thee, you. 

„ „ „ „ him, her, it. 

»» n >j >> y^> you. 
„ „ „ „ them. 

Pinagnanacao co. 






^ natin. 
( namin. 



Present perfect and past indefinite tenses* 

. . . . was, were; has, have been stolen 

by me. 
do do do do do „ thee, you. 

1 Pinagniicao co. 
„ mo. 

„ „ „ „ „ „ him, her, it. 

„ niyi. 
( natin. 

• • • • » >» » » >» >) "^• 

" \ namin. 

• • • • » » » )) »> » y^> you. 

- . . . ,, yy )y y, „ ,, thCm. 

„ niny6. 
„ nila. 

^aperfed tense* 

. . . had been stolen by me. Naj 

)agnacao co, pinagniicao 

CO na. 

. . . „ „ „ „ thee, you. 
...,',,, „ „ him, her, it. 

. . . „ „ ,, „ us. 

„ mo, „ 

j natin, 
"^ ( namin, " 

mo „ 
na niyd. 
\ natin. 
" ( namin 

. . . „ „ „ „ ye, you. 
. . • p i, • „ ,y them. 

„ niny6, 

„ nild, „ 

„ niny6. 
,, nili. 

Future indefinite tense* 

• .'* 

. . . shall, wilU be stolen by me. Pagnanacaoin co. 

J thee, 
^ " ( you. 
i him, 
" ( her, it. 

j natin. 
( namin. 
„ ye, you. „ ninyo. 

„ them. „ nili. 




>j n 

» n 

I) n 









Future perfect tense* 

. .shall, will have been 
stolen by me. 

do do do do do „ thee, you. 
„ „ „ „ „ „ him, her, it. 

19 «> >J » » ?> ^^» 

» » •> » » » y®) you. 

j» n V n » 1) them. 

Napagnacao co, pagnanacaoin co na. 


^ natin, 
/ namin, 





na niyik. 

^ natin. 
" ^ namin. 
„ niny6. 
«, niU. 



• • • *^^ 


. ... be stolen by thee, you. 
„ „ „ him, her, it. 

....,, „ ,, UB. 

Pagnacaoin mo. 
„ niyi. 
( natin. 
" \ namin. 

• • • • » 

. . . . y. 


„ ye, you. 
„ them.. 



The state of being stolen. 

The student should conjugate 
corresponding to the particle mag. 
be conjugated like maghahagui. 

To dress, to clothe. 

To tell, to report, to narrate. 

To tell, to say. 

To carry, to convey. 

To explain. 

To take away. 

To wrap up. 

To lend, to loan. 

To accompany. 

Ang pagnaeaoin. 

the following verbs in the passive voice 
Those not marked with (pag.) should 





Magsaysay, magsalaysay. 



Mag6tang, (or magpa6Ung). (pag). 

Magsamli. (pag.). 

Vessel or ship of any desci^iption. 


Bank, border. 

Beach, shore. 



Large, broad. 

Wide, extensive. 

Straight, narrow. 



Right, (place). 


What shall I say to John? 

Tell him I am calling for him. 

Enough.! (interject.). 

It is already enough. 

Enough! Don't speak any longer. 








Maquftid, maqufpot. 





lAn6 baga ang sasabihin co cay Juan? 

Sabihin mo sa caniya na tinatduag co 



Siyi na. 

Siyi na ang saliti. 


Why does not the sailor bring here the vessels I bought at the shore? 
He is still taking them along the banks of Uie Pasig, and hb will not 
anive till the day after io^aionow. How broad is the paper you sent 
to the earpentmr's son? It is as broad as this. Is not that staff short 

pile slurt? It k notfior altlKnu^ it seems short, it is long and broad. 

4 f a? The widest thing is the sea. Are the 

imy tight inde^. Where did yonr 


daughter put the two books I ordered her to take to San Pedro? She 
put them on the bank. On which border, the right or the left? I believe 
on the left. Has your tailor already clothed your Bister's sons? He ban 
not yet clothed them. What did you pray last Sunday at church? f 
offered the prayers my mother taught me when I was a child. What 
is that which is obtained by prajring? What is obtained by prayer is 
Heaven. What did the physician's servant tell your mother? He toll 
her hiB master will not arrive until the day after to-morrow. What havo 
we taken out from Peter's house? We have taken out the timber wo 
bought fi:om him. What is your wish? Afy wish is to go presently ty 
Peter's to take to him the money of my purchase 'of timber. What afo 
you thinking? Nothing. What does the curate send to your son at Ma- 
nila? B« Hindn bim these boo^s. 




The pasive voice may assume in the mayority of cases a verbal 
instrumental form by prefixing to the root in the t(vi conjugation, and 
to the verbal particle in the others, tlie particle i or y in all tenses, the 
first syllable of the root being repeated in the common way for the present 
and future tenses. The pluperfect and future perfect .tenses may be formed 
by adding to the respective simple ones the completive adverb na or some 
other importing time; but the suppletory way of respectively prefixing 
na or via is to be preferred. In this latter cas« i or y should be in- 
serted between the said particles and the -simple or compound root. 

With a certain group of verbs, compri.sing those which require two 
complements, (such as: to give, to tell, to l«nd, etc.), and those expressing 
any ^expulsive or scattering action (such as, to throw away, to sow, etc.) 
y pasive is used to form a passive nearly analogous to that of English. 
When used with verbs not included in this group, the y pasive forms 
a voice peculiar to Tagalog, grftn^atically, but not logically, a passive. In 
these cases y points out the instrument with which, the determinate time 
in which or the reason or cause by which the action is performed, such ins- 
trument, time or reason becoming the grammatical subject of the sentence 
and is put in the nominative, especially when the sentence includes, besides 
a direct complement, another indirect expressive of any such instrument etc. 


Scissors, to make use of scissors. Gonting or gun ting, gumonting. 


To make use of (such) scissors. Ygonting. 

Present inae finite tense 

BcietBors are made use of by me. Yguinogonting co. 

.... fj yf yf „ J, „ tnee, you. „ mo. 
„ „ „ „ „ „ him, her, it. „ niya . 

" ■ " » » " " ^^- " I namin. 

„ „ „ „ „ „ ye, you. „ ninyo. 

„ „ „ „ „ „ them. „ niU. 


^Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

. . . .scissors were; have been made 


of by me. 

Yguinonting co. 

■ « • • •• •• •« 

« • • • ■• •• •% 

* * * * 99 ^9 99 

„ „ thee, you. 
„ „ him, her, 

,, ,, us. 

„ mo. 
it. „ niya. 

( iiatin. 
" ( namin 


„ » ye, you. 

„ „ them. 

„ niny6. 
„ nil^. 

Pluperfect tense* 

» f> » i> »> > 

, us. 


. .scissors had been made use of ) x- ♦• • *• 

by me. Naygontmg co, ygumonting co na. 

. . do do do do do „ thee, you. „ mo, „ mo „ 

. . „ „ „ „ „ „ him, her, j ^^ ^^.^.^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^,^ 

\ natin, \ natin. 

\ namin, '' " \ namin 

. . „ „ „ „ „ „ ye, you. „ niny6, „ „ ninvd. 

.. „ „ „ „ „ „ them. „ nild, „ „ nila. 



Future indefinite tense* 



will be made 


of bv 





» m • 9 %% 

• ■ • ■ •• 

• • • « 9« 

thee, vou. 
him, her, it. 



^ natin. 
( namin 

• • ■ • •• 
« • • • •% 


ye, you. 



Future perfect tense* 

Bcwwre shall, will h^^^^^ made | Maygogonting co, ygogonting co na. 

do do do do „ thee, you. 
91 ji fj J, » him, her, it. 











mo, „ 

niyd, „ na niyd. 
^ natin, j natin. 

" "'"• " ( namin, " " ( namin- 

99 99 ye, you. - „ niny6, „ „ ninyd. 

them. „ nili, „ „ niW. 


99 99 


91 ■ 
99 • 
99 • 


. .scissors be made use of by thee, you. 
. . „ „ „ „ „ him, her, it. 

„ us. 

• 19 99 '9 99 

• 99 99 99 99 

• 99 99 99 99 

„ ye, you. 
„ them. 

Ygonting mo. 
" ^ namin. 





Casting, to caRt, to throw, to fling. Tapon, tumapon, magtapon. 



To be cast, to be thrown away; to cast, ) Ytanon 
to throw away, (some things ) *^ * 

Present indefinite tense* 

.... is, are thrown by me, I throw it. Ytinatapon co. 

„ thee, you; thou throwest „ „ mo. 

„ him, her, it; he, she, it throws „ „ niyi. 

„ us, we throw „ „ j "*^^' 

" ' » >» ^ namin. 


• • • • >> j> 

• • • • n »> 

w j> 



„ you, ye; 
„ them. 





Present perfect and past indefinite tenses* 

.... was, were; 
I threw, have thrown 

has, have been thrown bv me. ) 

it. " i 

Ytinapon co. 

.... do, 


do, do 



„ thee, you. ) 


Thou threwest, hast 




„ mo. 


.... do 


do, do 



„ j him, i 

„ niyA. 

He, she, threw, has 



( her, it. ) 

.... do 


do, do 



„ us. I 

„ natin. 

We do have 




„ namin. 

.... do 


do, do 



„ you, ye, ) 

„ ninyd. 

You, ye do do 




.... do 


do, do 



„ them ) 

„ niW. 

They do 






..had been thrown by me, I had thrown it. Naytapon oo, ytinapon co na. 











I him, he, ) . „ . 
" I her, it; she, it S " " 






19 » 



» » >> 



niyi, 99 

na niyi. 

( natin. 

( natin. 


( namin, " 

" ( namin 


ninyd, „ 
nil*, „ 

„ ninv6. 
n nilt. 

„ you, ye; you, ye „ „„ 
„ them, they „ „„ 

Future indefinite tense 

shall, will be thrown by me, I shall throw it. Ytatapon co. 

„ „ 1, w ,, thee, you; thou, wilt „ „ „ mo. 

. » • * 



99 M 99 

» 99 

\ ^^^9 ghi \ will 

"(her, it; 8ne,^wiii„ 




„ „ us, we shall „ „ 

;... ^ ,1. ,» fi » you, ye; JJ^' j will „ „ 
.... j, H w >j » them, they 

»> 99 


( natin. 
\ namin. 





Future perfect tense, 

. .shall, will have been thrown by me. ) ^r 4, * * 

I Bhall have thrown it. j Maytapon co, ytatapon co na. 

. . do, do do do do „ ( thee, ) 

Thou wilt do do do. vou. " °^^' " ^^ " 

. . do, do do do do „ ) i ' f - x 

He, she, it will do do do. j |;«'' ( " "'y^' " "» "»y*- 

. . do, do do do do „ us. ~ 1^ ( natin, j natin. 

We shall do do do. <j " I namin, " " ( namin. 

. . do, do do do do „ \ you, ) . * . . 

You, ye will do do do. < ye. i " "'"y*' " " "'"y^" 

. . do, do do do do „ them. ) .^ « ., « 

They do do do do. \ " ^^^^' " " "^**- 


. .be thrown by thee, throw it (thou). Ytapon mo. 

. . „ „ „ him, her, it; let him, her, it throw it. „ niyi. 

^ natin. 
( namin. 
„ „ „ you, ye; throw it (ye). „ ninyd. 

„ V „ them, let them „ „ „ nili. 


f» M ?» ^^> » ^^ fl >> » 


News, tidings: to report, to communi- J t, 1.. u v* 

eate intelligence. ^ s B^l^ta, magbalita. 


To be reported, to be given notice of. Ypagbalita. 

Present indefinite tense* 

. .is, 

are reported by 


I report 


pinagbabalita co. 

• • w 

thee, you; 

thou reportest 




• •» 

him, her, it 

; he, she, it reports 




• • w 


we report 



^ natin. 
\ namin 

• • 1> 

you, ye; 

you, ye „ 




• -n 






Present perfect and past indefinite tenses* 

. .was, were: has, have been reported by me. J v • u Vi. 

I reported; have reported it. ^ ^ ^ pinagbahta co. 

. . do, do; do, do do do „ you, thee. ) „ mo. 

Thou reportedst, hast do do. \ 

. . do, do; do, do do do „ him, her, it. ) „ niyilt. 

He, she, it reported, has do do. <j 

. . do, do; do, do do do „ us. ) ^ natin. 

We do, have do do. \ " ( namin. 

. . do, do; do, do do do „ you, ye. \ . , 

You, ye do, do do do. \ '^ '^^">^' 

. . do, do; do, do do do „ them. ) nila. 

■They do, do do do. \ " 


Pluperfect tense. 

. . had been reported by me. ) v«,,*.o«k«iu« r.r^ «.«^:«^A»k«iu« /»/> *^« 
[ had reported it. ; xNaypagbahtaco. ypmagbalita co na. 


. . do do 

sported it. ) 

do ^ *^**' 

Thou hadst do do. 

. . do do do 

He, she, it had . do do. 

. . do do do 
We do 

. . do do do 

'' ( you. 


do do. 

You, ye do do do. 





mo na. 



do do 




do do. 


them. ) 




namin, " 

ninyd, „ 



na niyi. 

" ^ namin. 

., ninyd. 
„ nild. 

Future indefinite tense. 

shall, will be reported by me; I shall report it. Ypagbabalita co. 

,, ,. „ thee, you; thou wilt „ „ „ mo. 

,, ,. „ him, her it; he, she will „ „ „ niyi. 

1 11 ( natin. 

„ us, we shall ,, „ „ | namin 

„ ,. ., ye, you; you, ye will ,, ,. „ ninyo. 

,, them, they ,. nila. 

>> V 

Future perfect tense. 

shall, will have been reported by me. \ Maypagbalita co, 



shall have re^)orted it. 

do do do 
wilt do 

. .* do, do do do 

He, she, it will do 

. . do, do do do 

We shall do 

. . do, do do do 

You, ye will do 

. . do, do do do 

They do do 

do „ i thee, 
do do. \ you 

do i *^™' 

ypagbabalita co na. 


do do. 








do „ us. 
do do. 




na nivsl. 


do „ 

do do. 

do „ 

do do. 






, namin. 
„ „ ninyd. 







be )!>eported by thee, report it. (thou). Ypagbalita mo. 

„ „ „ him, her, it; let him, her, it report it. „ niyd 

us „ us. 






„ ye, you; report it. (ye). 
„ them, let them report it. 



^ nutin. 
( hamin. 



The student should conjugate the following roots in (he verbal inE- 
trumental form of pasiiive. 

Vomitioii; to cast up, to vomite. Sitca, sumuca 

To cast up, (some thing), to be cayl ^ 

up or the matter thrown out from 

the body, 

To sow, to soattcr seed. 

(Some things to be sowii. 

To spread about, to propagate. 

(Some thing) to be spread. 

To cause tp be spread, to cause 


(Some thing) to be made spread or 


Incandescent wood. 

To throw fuel into the lire, (some 

thing] to be made btinit. 

To stir up the fire. 

(■Some thing) ordered or made to 

hriek fire. 


(Some thing) to he got by the hook. 

> Ysuea. 

Sumabog, magsabog. 
I Mugualat. 

J YpagcHlat. 

( Gumatong. ygatong. 

I Yjiag-giitong. 



What bus been hitherto explained siiows that all forms of Tagalog 
conjugation are inflective, as no separate sign or auxiliary verb Is re- 
quired. Now, with regard to the tf and an Tagalog passive voices, it would be 
well if the student should consider them as simple purpose-determining 
verbal forms and that they would always he translated into English by 
the active voice. By so doing the important matter of Tagalog construc- 
tion, which ia alwut to follow, will he better understood. 

Every passive sentence in Tagalog requires an element (not always ex- 

!)ressed) in the nominative, and another in the possessive case, the latter 
leing always the agent of the verb. The element in the nominative may 
be the direct object or any of the various. divisions of the indirect one. 
In sentences containing a verb in the y passive voice the direct comple- 
ment should he put in the nominative if the action expressed by such 
verb is of a kind to require this form of passive. (Verbs requiring two 
complements, verba of expulsion, etc) 

I will 80W this paddy, this paddy / Ysaaabog co itdng piilay; it6ng paluy 
will be sown by me. ( na it6,i, ysasabog co. 

I ffivethis monev to the too r this) YbinibigiV co itfing salapi sa mafiga 
1 give tnis money to tiie poor, ttiis f ^ ,^^ ^^ j - -(^j j, j . 

money ,s given by me to the poor. ^ ^^^^^' ^^Jy^^ ^' ^ ^ ■ 

I threw away your hook, your hook ) Y'tinapon co ang iyong Uhro, ang U- 

was thrown away by me. \ bro mo, ay ytinai>oii co. 

The second forms of the above t^entences are tomewhat emphatic. It 
may be laid down as a rule that any word which is intented to render 
emphatic in Tagalog should be put at the beginning of the sentence and 
in the nominative case, somewhat as to aay in English, "money!, I have 
none", by which arrangement, the word "money"' is made more prominent 
than by saying, "I h,ive no money." 



What did you cut out that shirt with? I have cut it out with scissors. 
How does the carpenter make tables? He makes them with |i hammer. 
Have you cut that stuff with scissors? Yes, Sir, it is with scissors that 
I have cut it. What has your sister thrown away before in tl^e morning? 
She has thrown away hei^ p^n. Why has she thrown it awayt Because it 
was already worn out. Would they throw away their money, l^aci they any? 
No, if they had any money they would not throw it away. What shall I 
do with this fish? Cast it away. What is the news here in pwn? They 
say the Judge will arrive to-day. Who reported that to you? Everybody 
says so. When will your father-in-law report to his children the dciath of 
his servant? He will report it next Sunday. Why do you not wish me to 
drink wine? I do not wish you to drink wine, because you will perhaps 
vomit. What did you vomit yesterday? I vomited what I had 9^ten. What 
would your father, sow in his farm, were the weather fine? If the weather 
were fine, he would sow rice. What is piopagated in a large measure by 
wicked people? Wicked people spread about vice. What did you do with 
the wood which your farmer sent you? I cast it into the fire. What are 
you doing there? I am stirring up the fire. 





The passive voice may likewise assume a verbal local case which some- 
times corresponds to the dative and sometimes to the local ablative of 
nouns. This kind of passive, it will be seen, also stands sometimes for the 
direct object of nouns. 

The conjugation is made by suffixing an or han, as the case may 
be, to the root or compound in all the tenses. In, the true passive particle, is 
preserved throughout, except where it is a suffix, that is to say, in the 
infinitive, imperative, and simple future, where in or hin is dropped and 
replaced respectively, by an or han» 

Sentences with a verb in the local case are generally constructed by 
putting the person or place, the English indirect object, in the nomina- 
tive. In cases where an passive stands for the direct complement, the latter 
should be put in the nominative too. 


Debt, to borrow. Otang or litang, umotang. 


To borrow from, to be borrowed from. Otangan. 

^Present indefinite tense* 

. . . .is, are borrowed from by me, I borrow from. Ynootafigan co. 

....„„ „ „ „ I \^^^^:^ thou borrowest „ „ mo. 

» >» j» >> 

• ( him, ( he, 
„ < her, < she, borrows „ „ niya. 

( it; ( it 

. . . „ 





US, we Don 

... J^" 





! 7': \ >■»»■ >" ■■ 





them, they 

»« «• 

V V 


^ natin. 
( namin. 




Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

. was, were; has, have been borrowed from by me. 
I borrowed, have borrowed from. 

. . do, do; do, do do do 
Thou borrowedst, hast do do. 

do, do; do, do do do 

He, she, borrowed, has do do. 

. . do, do; do, do do do 

We do, have do do. 

. . do, do; do, do do 

You, ve do, do 

. . do, do; do, do do do 

They do, do do do. 

„ thee, you. / 

„ him, her, it. ) 

/ Ynotafigan co. 





do do. 

,, ., you, ye. 
,, them. 




) natip. 
( oamin. 


'Tluperfect tense. 

had been borrowed from bv me ) xr 

I had borrowed from 
. . do do do do 

Thouhadst do do 

. . do do do do 

He, she, it had do 

. . do do do do 

We do do do 
. . do do do do 

You, ye do do 

. . do do do do 

They do do do 






„ \ thee, { 

} you. S 

I him, ) 

ill!" ( 

„ J you, ^ 

(ye. < 

., S them. ^ 

i Naotaj^gan co, inptafigan co na. 








\ natin, 
/ namin, '' 

iiinyo, „ 


mo na. 

na nivi. 

S natin. 
'* / namin. 

„ ninyo. 
„ nili. 

Future indefinite tense. 

1' •? 




?» j> 

shall, will be borrowed from by me; I shall borrow from. Ootafigan co. 

you ; *»>«" ^"* " . 

( him, 
,, „ I her, he she, it will „ 




>» j» 

,, ,» 





we shall 

„ „ them, they 

Future perfect tense. 




• » 


( namin 







. . shall, will have been borrowed from b v me, / 
I shall have borrowed from. S 

< thee, 

Maotafigan co, ootafigan co na. 

. . do, do do do 

Thau wilt do 

. .. do, do do do 

Hje,£he, it will do 

. do, do do do 


shall do 





" " I you. 
• do. 

\ him, i 
^ '' ( her, it. J 
do. . 



mo ., 


niy^. „ na niysL. 

„ us. 

S natin. 
I namin" 



Future perfect tense, (continued.) 

. . will have been borrowed from by ye, you. ^ xr . . • :l ^ « 

You, ye will have borrowed „ i Maotafigan niny6, ootafigan na nin. 

.. do do do 
They do 


do „ them. ) 
do do. \ 


„ niU. 


Let. . be borrowed from by thee; borrow from. (thou). Otafigan mo. 










( him, ) let \ 

him, > borrow from. 

„ < her, 
( it; ) her i 

„ „ us; let us „ „ 

V y^ I borrow from. (ye). 
„ „ them; let them l)orrow from. 









Suffering to Buffer, to bear with pa- \ ^ ^ j^ . 

tience, to abide. { "o^^a, up^«i« 


To be suffered at, to suffer at, to ^ 

suffer from. 



Present indefinite tense. 

is, are suffered at by me; I suffer it Pinagbabatah^n eo. 

„ thee, you; thou sufferest „ 
„ him, her, it; he, she, it suffers „ 


„ us; 

we suffer 

„ you, ye; you, ye „ 
„ them; they „ 




\ natin. 

( namin 


nil A. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

. wa3, were; has, have been suffered at by me. ) pin^gbatahdn co. 
I. sufferred, have suffered at. ) '^ 

do, do; do, do do do do 

Thou Bufferedst, hast do do. 

do, do; do, do 

He, she, it suffered, has 

do, do; do, do do 

We do, have do do. 

do, do; do, do do do 

Yie, you do, do do do. 

do, do; do, do do do 

They do, do do do. 

„ ^ thee, 
do do „ us. 



do do do „ 

do „ ^ ye, } 

( you. i 

do „ them ) 






^ natin. 
( namin 



Fluperf^ tens^t 

do dcjf-' \ 








. .had been suffered at by me. ) x^ i . , ^ ^ . u x u- 

I had Buffered at. j NapagbatahAnco, pmagbatahan co 

. . do do do do „ { thee, ) 
Thou hadst do do. ( you. \ 

. . do do 
He, she, it had 

. . do do do do „ ) us. ^ 
We do do do. ) ^ 

. . do do do do „ ( you. 
You, y do do do. ( ye. 
. . do do do do „ I them. 
They do do do. 



na niy4. 

\ natm, 


( nomm, 







( natin. 

*» . 

^ namin 




nil . 

Future indefinite tense* 

. . shall, will be suffered at by me; I shall suffer at Pagbabatahan 

^^^' I thou wilt „ „ 
you; ) " " 

him, i 

her, > he, she will „ „ 

it. ) 

we shall 



?> >> 

r >» 

?> » 

>» " >) 







>? >? 

them, they 

?> » 






Future perfect tense* 

. . shall, will have been 

suffered at by me. 
I shall have suffered at. 

.... do, do do do do „ 
Thou will do do do 

. , . . do do do do „ 

He, she, it will have do 
.... do do do do 
We shall do da „ 

.... do do do do 

You, ye will do do „ 
.... do : do do „ 

They do do do 








Mapagbatahan co, pagbabatahan co na 











{ natin, 
f namin, 






na niy^. 

( natin. 
" ( namin. 

„ ninyo. 
„ nili. 






. be suffered at by thee, sufler at, (thou). Pagbatahin 

. „ „ „ „ him, her, it; let him, her, suffer at. „ 

» 79 ^^7 


>7 J> » » ^'^7 J> "" . » 17 

» II II II you, yej suffer at (ye). 

„ „ „ „ them; let them sufler at. 









1 ( If) 

The stiulent should coiiju^alt* X\u> foUowinj^ roots in the local jmssivo. 

Theft, to Bteal. Nacao, inagnacao. 

To be be stolen from, person from t „ 

whom something h stolen. \ Pagnacaoan. 

8entr\-: watchman: to watch, to look ) i> * - i * ' 

X "^ ' ' ; Bantay, niagoantay. 

The thing or person watched. Bantayan. 

Tlie place where watch is kept, pcntrv- ) n u \ i * 

1 beat * I Pabiintayan or bantayan. 

To experience, to note, to observe. Magmasid. 

What to be experienced. Pagmasdjin. (1). 

Wound, to wound (purposely). Sugat, suniiigat. 

To be woundetl at. what to be wound- ) ^ . 
«1. _ V Sugatu.i. 

Song, to sing. Auit, maganit. magcanta. (2). 

To be sung with a spwific purjH>se, i 

|)erson in honor of whom sometliing / Paganitan, pageant >han. 

to be sung, or the place. S 

Saying, say; to say. Sal)i, magsabi. 

To l>e snid at a determined place or to ) r, , .. . 

_ 1 .^^ . , * ; Pagsabinan. 

some determined person. S ^ 

Where is my hat? ;.Saan nanV)n ang saml)alib) co? 

i Vtinapon co sa halamanan, pinagta- 
I threw it into the garden. < punan co ang halamanan, ang ha- 

( lamanan ang pinagtapunan co. 

To which child did you giv«» that ^Aling bata ang biniguian (i^), mo 

money? uiyjing salaping iyiin? 

I gave it to Peter, the s«ni of «)ur Si Pedro, ang anac nang aming caa- 

neighbour. pirlmhay, ang biniguisin co. 

Where has your daughter been wound- ^.Saan sinogatan baga ang anac mong 

ed? babaveV 

She has not been wounded, but, on Siyii.i, hindi nasugatan, cundi bag 

the contrary, she wounded her brother ciis, sinugatan niyji sa ol6 ang 

on the head. caniys^ng capatid na lalaqui. 

Whom are you writing t«)? ^.Sino bagii ang sinusulatan mo? 

I am writing time letters to my Sinusulatan co si ina nang tatl6ng 

mother. .*<ii)at. 

To go up stairs. Pumanhic, manhic. 

Grand-father. Nono or nuno. 

(irand-son. Apo. 

,, ^ , \ Apo sa tulunl (literallv, grand-son 

Great-grandson. . ^ ., , „ ^ v ^ . n 

* f from the knee). 

« . . I \ Aim') sa talampacan. (lit. grandson 

Great^reat-grandson. ^ ^^^^^^ ^^^^. fcK)t-plant). 

Quill. BagUis. 

Countryman, fellow-citizen. ('al>abayan. 

Seed. Bingbi. 

Widower, widow. Btiuo or balo ■ babave 

Wire. Cauat. 

(1). Coiitractidii frmii pngmaniran. 

f 2). Corruption! from S^)aiiiHh wonl rautar, "to Hinjr**. 

(3). BmigiiiAny contract imi of hinigayan. 




From whom ilo<'S the mcrclumt borrow hi.s goods. He docs not U.or- 
row :iny j^oods from anylMxIy, lie huys \\wu\ from other meridiants, but he 
borrowed some money from one of his eountrymeu some days ago. Who 
is he whom the baker will borrow money from? He will borrow some 
from liis uncle's carpenters. Had you already Iwrrowed anything from 
Peter when I arrived here? No, when you arrived here, I had not yet 
borrowed anything from Peter. Whom shall I borrow from? Borrow 
from your aunt. Where did Jesus Christ endure many hardships? It 
was at Mount Calvary where Our Lord endured many hardships.? Shall 
you have put up with many grievances when you are old? Yes, I shall 
have stood many grievances when I am old. Whom have you stolen this 
book from? I stole this book from nobody, it was given to me by my 
sister. How often did you steal anything from your parents? Three 
times. How much at a time? Twice, twenty five cents and once one 
dollar. What is my sister-in-law watohing over? She is watching over 
her plants. And the soldiers, what do they watch over? They watch 
over towns and roads. What place is the beat (covers) of John? John's 
beat is the large bridge. What do you wish me to note? I wish you 
to note this I am teaching (showing) to you. What is it? That happi- 
ness here on Earth soon passes away. What did you wound him with? 
I wounded him with a knife. Where did you wound him? I wounded 
him in the arm. Who will sing to-night? Alfred's daughter will sing 
to-night. In whose honor will she sing? She will sing in honor of her father. 
What does she sw? (what is her saying?) She says, oh mother!. To whom 
(lid mv female cousin sav that? She said that to her aunt. Where did \'eu 
throw the rotten wood? The sea was the place where I threw the rotten 
wood. Where did the servant put that cheese? The table was the plac(» 
where he put it. To whom did their brother write? It was his children 
to whom he wrote. To which house do you wish to go up? It is to 
your house that I will go up. What is your father's father? My fat- 
her's father is my grandfather. And your grandfather's son's son? He is 
his grandson. And your father's grandson? He is his great-grandson. 
And your father's great-grandt^on? He is his great-great-grandson. Is your 
female-cousin still married? No, she is already a widow. 



I'm U the chief verbal jmrticle to express the iinreL-iprocated act oT" 
Ihe agent, either towards himself or others when the action is not modi- 
fied in number, manner or time, or otherwise carried away from its simplest 
senee. In many cases it is difficult to decide npon the choice liet- 
ween wm nnd maif for conjugating a root, many of the latter admittin<r 
of both without any appreciable difference of seni^. The fiict is, however, 
that Mi« looks forward more to the subject; while wiff, on the contrary, refera 
more to the object. The student may however derive useful information 
from the foltowinfj; remurks: 

Roots denotinjr (jualilica cjipuhle of being assiniilalwl by the agent through 
a slow process, may Im; conjugated by am to indicate the conversion wheu 
still in progress. 

The tihirt is liecuming wiiiu-. (whitt-ni 
The flower Iwcamc red. (reddened). 
The water will liecomc cold. 

) I' 

1 bar 

Tlie broth bad bcco 

[■ bol. 

Peter will have grown tall. 
The patient is slowly recovering. 
My niece in becoming lany. 
Natives are becoming industrious. 
Prieete are growing cowards. 
The women will ln'come wise. 
This Hiring it* liemming buig. 
Amerienns will grow richer. 

ignuipitlf -i 
I'ungmnla ang butac-lac. 
Lulamig ang tiibig. 
\ Nacainit ang sabiio; (lietter) ungminil 

/ na. 

\ I>alaqui na Si Pedro, (better) naca- 

( laqui na. 

(lungmagaling ang niaysaquit. 
\ Ang pamangquin cong babaye tung- 
) mal.aniad or iiaguigning tamad. 

Ang manga Tagalog ay ttuugniiHipag. 

Ang manga pare,i, dungmodtJuag. 

Dndiiniing ang manga babaye. 

Vlong lObid na ilo,i,bungm'nhnbn. 

Viiyamau im iing mnHgn Amerieuno, 

Some ftdverlw may lie liki'wisi- conjugated in ibis s 

Mary's virtue is surpassing Jane's. 

J Lungmalalo ang ( 
( sa cay Juana. 

Actions through which the agent gains control of something. 

To bay. 

To overtakp, to come at. 

To take. 

To receive, to accept of. 

To borrow. 

To come across. 

To go out lo meet, to nice 

lo welcome, 

To catch, to plunder. 

Bum ill. 

T'mabut, uniabot. 




, Sunialohong. 



To seize. Duniaquip. 

To filch, to purloin. Umomit. 

Voluntary acts of motion. 

To run, to hasten. Tumacbo. 

To leap. Tumal6n. 

To jump. LumocbO. 

To flee. Tumanan. 

To walk. Lumacad. 

To swim. Lumafigoy. 

To stop. Tumahan. 

To cease. Humimpay. 

Purposely performed acts of posture. 

To stand up, to spring to one's feet. Tumindig. 

To lie down. Huniiga. 

To lean on. Humilig. 

To crouch, to Im with huttoks upwards Tumouar. 

To place one's self face downwards. Dumjipa, tumaob. 

To place one's self on one's back. Tumihaya. 

To place one's self with one's face (t i 

ahead, to place one's self in front of. j ^ * 

To place one's self on one's side. Tumaguilid. 

The steady progress in self-producing, up-growing procesics, if repre- 
sented as continuous and not intermitent or recurring, when their full deve- 
lopment has not yet been accomplished. 

To put forth shoots. Sumibol. 

To be growing up. (plants). Tumubo. 

To bud. Umusbong. 

To sprout. Sumupling. 

Atmospheric occurrences, provided the root word doe^i uot begin in b. 

To be windy, to be blowing. Human gin. 

To rain, to be raining. Umulan. 

To thunder, to be thundering. Cumolog. 

To lighten, to be lightening. Cumidlat. (1). 

To strike (lightening). Lumintic. 

Astronomical transitions when not otherwise expressed and the change 
is represented as going on, provided the root does not begin with h. 

To be growing light, to be sunny. Umarao. 

To be growing late, (to take an after- ) Humapon. 
noon luncheon). ) ^ 

To be growing dark. Uumal)i. 

To rise (the tun or anv other lum- ^ cj _' x n 

, \ V . • I bumicat, sumilang. 

inous body). > 

To set, to be setting (any luminors ) 

heavenly bodies), to launch into, to > Lumobog. 

dive. ) 

To set to be setting, to get (some i^^^^,,^^^ 

one) drowned. ) 

To be growing dark. Humilim, dumilim. 

To eclipse. Lumimlim, lumaho. 

(1/ The student will easily uiidtTstand that the n»it-w<inl for all those verbj? 
ifl that part which reinainH after takiiir away the partiele f/m, aii'l tint (^ is changed 
into C oefpre a. o, ff, Thus the root for cmnidht is qnidlat. 


Destructive intentional actions?. (1). 

To kill, to extinguish. Pumatay. 

To destroy. Suinira. 

To set fire to, to commit arson. Sumonog. 

To lay waste, to exterminate. Liimipol. 

To wound. Sumigat. 

To pinch. Cumorot. 

To cudgel. Pumalo. 

To cause to break into pieces. Eumasag. 

To split, to cause to break into splints. Bumali. 

Controllable or uncontrollable, but consciously performed acts of the 

organic functions, and life-supporting actions. 

To make water. Umihi. 

To go to stool. Tumae. 

To weep. Tuniangis. 

To sob. Huniibio. 

To laugh. Tumaua. 

To sneeze. Bumahin. 

To blow one's nose. Suminga. 

To eat. Cuniain. 

To drink. Uminom. - 

To spit. Ijumura. 

To bite. (/Umagat. 

To swallow, to glut. Luniamon. lumagoc. 


Who is growing rich? The merchant is growing rich. Ia the niece 
i»f our neighbour growing poor? No, she is not growing poor, she is grow- 
ing healthy; but her child has Ix^en aggravated in her sickness. Did the 
stuff of my pantaloons become shrunk? No, on the contrary, it has been 
stretched out. Who is giowing old? My father is growing old. Is 
Anthony's son growing tall? No, he is not growing tall, but he is l)econi- 
ing stronger. Did Tagals become wiser? No, they have not yet become 
wiser. When will they become industrious? When they will l)ecome 
wealthier. Has your sister received already the hitters? She has not 
yet received the letters. What are Americans buying? They are buying 
lands. What shall I do? Take some bread and go away. What did your 
cousin reach? He reached some wine. Who has borrowed monev? This 
man borrowed money. What shall we trv to attain? We shall trv to 
obtain riches. What did vou find? I found some chwsi*. Whom are 
you going to meet? I am going to meet my uncle. Did you catch any 
mouse? I caught on<*. Whom do sentries seize? They seize thieves. Why 
do you purloin money? I do not steal, it is the servant who purloins. Why 
is your daughter running? She is running because she vishes to catch a bird. 
What is their brother doing? He is leaping into the sea. Why are the children 
jumping?They are not jumping, they are only walking? Doi^s the sailor know 
how to swim? He knows how to swim. Where is the stopping place of your 
father? My father stojjs her(^ Why do you not cease sleeping? Because 
it is early and I went to lK?d yesterday at mid-night. What did he say? 
He said, rise first and tlien j)lac(^ yourself face downwards. Is it not bet 
ter that 1 should place myself on uiy bjick? No, face nie and then lie 
on your side. How are already the plants in your ganlen? They shoot 

(1). If what raiiH»s destnu'ti<»ii i.-^ mii iiitiniinatr a;:<'iil. Ww vrrl» ir^ coiijnjjfflttMl l»y 
inaca. Ang UivUd ay ntirnsird «a siinhnlmn, "ihe enrtininake dcetroyed tii« church." 


and the trees at the bank of the river are blooming. How was the weath- 
er yesterday? Yesterday, it rained, thundered, lightened and flashed, and 
the sun did not shine. Where are you going at present? I am going 
home, because it is growing dark and the moon will not shine before 
mid-night. Why does your brother kill birds, waste the plants, wound 
swine, break plates and split canes? Because he is cruel, although he is 
cudgeled by my father. Why is the child crying? He wishes to make 
water and loose his body, just a moment he was laughing when eating and 
drinking and swallowing fruits. What is to be done? Let him spit and 
see that the dog does not bite him. 



THE U«E OP UM (continued). 

In actions implying mutuality, the acts of the agent upon others when 
Buch action is not reflected hack hy the latter, are conjugated by uvi. 

To accompany, to lead, to conduct » ^ ^ 

personR. i * 

To chide. rnuiunv. 

■T # 

To speak to, (hut not to converse), to / |, 

bring up a law-suit. ) ^ ^'^'''''^^^ 

To withdraw, to separate one iierson ; ir i ' u- i ' 

from another. • Humiualay, yhumh.y. 

To unite, to associate. Pumisan. 

The acts of our senses, if they are consciously executed hy the agent, 
l>rovided the first letter of the root be not B. 

To hear* Dumingig. 

To look for, to see. Cumita. 

To look at. Tumifigin. 

To feel. HumiiK). 

To smell. Umam6y. 

To taste. Lumasap. 

Bodily actions when j>er formed upon another person and not upon th^ 

To cure others. (lumamot. 

To shave „ Umahit. 

To whip ., Humampas. 

To comb „ Sumuclav. 

To cut another's hair. (Uimupit. 

To wash another's face. Humilanios. 

To scratch others. Cum:imot. 

Roots denoting wea|>ons, tools or instrumenis if conjugated hy vm. ex- 
press the hnndling or playing therewith. 

To drum. (luniimhal. 

To shear. <iumunting. 

To spear, to dart. Suniihat. 

To stab. Cmiua. 

To handle the adze. Duniaras. 

To plane. • Cuniatani. 


Finally, by Mm nro verbaiizi-d the tirting of the ag«nt upon others, 
iiwn motion in artions which, allliuugh intransitive, arc consciouHly or volun- 
lariiy executed, and those bj- whic)i the afient draws Bomething towarrlt 
himself. So. giimntnot, means "to cure otliers"; wliile mnif-gnmot in "to cure 
line's self'; lutnubdn from Itibdn, "uutside"; is "to go out", hut timiflahde in "the 
drawing out" of something. Though "to go out" is an aetion intransitive in elia- 
racter, it admits, however of volition and is therefore verbalized l>y um; vut- 
liter, "to stumble"; ie an act itcportiug motion and of an intransitive kind; 
but is not a voluntary one and cannot, on this account, be verbalized by 
um. Umahol expresseB the reaching of something by the agent for himself; 
magabot is his reaching lor others. 

.S((^ ';iq", ' at", oFj better ta ?ay, an abl» of place, may b*T ^-onj igated 
by i(»B to denote permanent, but'not trahsilory slay at a place. 

(Sod ia everywhere or on everything. 
Jesus Christ is in Heaven. 
Americans settle down in the Phi- 

Ang Dios ay sungmasaliiugit. 
Si .fee«cristo,i, sungmasalii^git. 
Ang maflga Anictieiino.i, sungmns.' 

For the sake of euphony, roots lieginning with um or any 
terchangeahle with m (1) are not conjugated by tim in tin- ma 


Tiie passive of um is common lo most verlis conjugated by mttif, 
since the agent becomes patient in the grammatical senwe and the trans' , 
cendent action cannot go beyond. Only wlien mag intensities the meaning 
of the action verbalized by um in the way to be explained hereafter, 
or causative or purposely defined acts are to l»e expressed, pat/, pin'ifi 
should be used. It also serves for some verbs conjugated by Tiuira, as. 
fncuHn mo si)/*i, '■frighten him". 

Bring out some fooJ. (gei 

ed rice). 

Take out this nail. 



Ingalis o 


Order those pictures to Ite taken out. 

AiiKin mo it6ng paco. 
i Pagalisin (or, better, ypaaliB^ raoiyang ] 
' maiiga larauan (or riiadnt, Up-). 

Passional circumstances of the subject expressed Ity vui in the active • 
oice of the verb may Iw eonjttgatuil by tlie jmesive of urn to express* 
rrelative .ictive action. 


) Natatacot Si Juana, ?i .Iiiana.i, iiata- 
( tacot. 

Tucotin mo siyii. 
) Nagogotom ang caluiyo, ang ealiayn,i, 
( nagogotoD^. 
Gotomin mo siya. 
Why did your sister allow the jxtultry ) ;, Baquit baga inohao nang iyimg caira- 
to perish from Ihirst? i tid na babaye ang manga manoc? 

■Tane is afraid. 

Frighten her. 

The horae is 

Starve it, make it feel hungry 


Who accompanies you? Nobody accompanies me now, just a moment 
1 .icompanied John wlio was speaking to bis sister, slie joined Peter, 
who was .scolding his friend and I took him aside. Does the Frenchman liear 
something? He hears nothing, but I see birds singing on the bianchas 
of trees. Who touches women? Only naughty boys touch women. Is 
your female-cousin doing sometliing? She smells flowers and tastes fruits. 
Whfit do physicians do? They cure others, but they neither shave, 

1 1) Tl"^ 

li-ri'haiitn'altle witli n 

rut (other people^s) hair. Whom is your father whipping? He is whipping 
his servant, because he did not wash his master's face. Is the servant 
of Peter doing something? He is combing and scratching his mistress. 
Who will beat the drum? Mv son will beat the drum, while his friend 
shears horses. What will you do with that spear? I will spear boars. 
Who stabbed Magellan? Natives of Cebii stabbed him. Are the carpenters 
tloing something? Som3 of them are adzmi;, some others are planing. Where 
is Our Ijord God? G(mI is everywhere and His precious Son is in 
Heaven at His right. Why did not your servant take out any seats? 
He is taking some out, but he ha.^ already taken out these tables. Do 
you want anything else? Wm, order him to take out all the plates that 
were before on the table. What shall I do to the dogs? Frighten them, 
for the cats fear them and are hungrv. Whv does mv master chide 
me? He chides you, beeauat* you cause the dogs to suffer thirst and the 
cats to starve. 





Owing to a lack of fixedness throughout in Tagalog, some verhs are 
conjugated in the active voice either by using unifm, in the present tense 
or by prefixing na to the root. Outside Manila it is not uncommon to 
hear natives say: nahill, nahand, nasulat, nacdln, instead of bungmibilij bvniftna. 
ha i, smufvumdat, rungmacdin] but the regular conjugation is also in use. 

In the present, past and imperative tenses of the active, dyssillabic 
verbs admit of an irregularity analogous to that above-mentioned, if 
they begin in a vowel or in ft, c, p, or t. In such cases a n is prefixed 
to the vowel; />, r, />, t, change into n for the present and past tenses: 
w, is prefixed to the vowel, and the afore-said consonants change into 7*^ 
for the imperative, as seen in the following tables, but the regular form 
is likewise in use. 


To return. ^ Umoui. 

Present indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he. e/c, we, vou, thev, re- Nonoui ac<^. ca, siv:i. tavo, cami, eavo. 
turn, etc. sihi. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, they returned, Noui ac6. ca, siya, tayo, cami, cayo. 
etc; have, etc. returned. si la. 


Return, let him etc., us, them return. Moui ca.siva, tavo, cami, cavc^, sila. 


To go for, to fetch, to call for. Cumaon. 

Present indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, they fetch etc. ! ^f?^^**" ''"^''^ ^''^^ ^^>'"'' *^>'^' ^^'"^^ 

f sua. 



Fetch, let him, etc., us, them fetch. Maon ca, siysi, tayo, cami, cayo, sihi. 


To part a line. Pumiitir. 

^Present indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, they, part, etc. j ^j|;J*^'^"* ^^^' ^'^»' ^'^^^ *^^> ^^' ^^"^^'^ ^^-^ ^' 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses, 

I, (hou, he, etc., we, you, they parted Natir aco, ca. siya. tayo, cami, cayo 
etc; have etc., parted. nila. 


Part, let him etc. XMi, them, part. Matir ca, yiya, tayo, cami, cayo, tfila 


To tempt. Tumocso. 

Present inaefinite tense 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, they tempt Nonocsd aco, ca, siyji, tayo, cami, cayo' 
et<;. si la. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, vou, tliev tempt- X(K'so aco, ca,sivci. tavo. cami, cav6, 
ed, etc., have etc. tempted. sila. 


Tempt, let him, etc. us, them tempt. M<k'B(5 ca, siya, tayo, cami, cayo, sila. 

The student should conjugate the following verbs in the preceding 
irregular form which they all admit. 

To captivate. Mihag, bumihag. 

To^^retreat, to go backwards, to fall j ^^^,^^^^ umiirong. 

To go for water. Miguib, umiguib. 

To sting, to peck. Muca, tumuca. 

To gather flowers. Mitas, pumitas; cumitil nangbulac-lac 

To take the lead, to overrun. Mun^, umun^. 

kJome trisyllabic and j)olysllabic verbs having initial letters as above, 
are conjugated by the particle ma)} and tb^y will l>e tn^tod of in the proper 


Verbal r<X)tf cons ir^tin;." of more thiui two ryllable.- and prefixed bv th^ 


particle pa are conjugated in a special manner; urn dinappears completely, pa 
is dropped in all the simple tenses; and replaced by ma in the future and im- 
parative, and by na in the present and past tenses. Here the second and 
not the first syllable is repeated in the proper tenses, as shown in the 
subjoined conjugation: 


To conquer, to overcome to vanquish. Panalo, manalo,. 

Present indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, they conquer { Nananalo aeo, ca, siya, tayo, cami, 
etc. ( cay 6, si la. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, they con- Nan alo aco, ca, siya, tayo, cami, cayo, 
quered; have etc. conquered. sila. 

Pluperfect tense. 

I, thou, he, etc., we, you, Nan alo na aco, ca na, na siya, tayo, cami, cayo, sila. 
they had etc. conquered. Nacapamilo „ „ „ „ „ „ „ 

Future indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall etc. Mananalo aco, ca, siya, tayo, cami, 
conquer. cayo, sila'. 

Future perfect tense. 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they Mananalo na aco, ca na, na siya, tayo, cay6, sila. 
shall etc. have conquered. Macapanalo „ „ 

>j )5 j> n 


Conquer, let him etc., us, them conquer. Manalo ca, siya, tayo, cami, cayo, sila. 

The following verbs are conjugated like parmto. 

To listen to. Paquinyig, paquinig. 

To receive Holy Communion, to profit. Paquinabang. 

To serve, to wait upon, to flatter. Panuyo. 

To sight, to look at from afar, to J p ^ 

behold. \ ranoor. 

To lodge. Panuluyan. 

To lead, to guide. Pan6got. 

To make water. Panubig. 

To trust, to believe. Paniuala. 

To think, to muse. Panimdim. 

To lean on a staff. Paniin. 

To squat. Paningcayad. 

To kneel down. Panic-lohor. 

'Can, to be able, to be able to do. Pangyari. 













Panga yompapa . 

Pafigarap, (aloud^; paiiaguinip. 



To talk, to reprimand. 

To precede, to go before, to commence, ) p . 

to start. i ^ ^"^ 

To lose by trade. 

To shiver, to cramp, to ague. 

To quake, to tremble. 

To drowse, to get drowsy. 

To be jealous. 

To feel a tingling pain in the teeth. 

Tr keep holidays. 

To become disdainful. 

To warn, to be on one's guard, to J „ .^, 

sneak away. rangiiag. 

To shake, to shudder, to be panic- /> t> ^ -i 'u * 
stricken. {Paflgilabot. 

To be jealous (the married partietii) 

To court, to pay aJdresses to. 

To become humble. 

To dream. 

To hurt, to damage. 

To see one's self in a glass. 

danlS*"*' ^ *^*'' """^ '°»«g""^'>' j Panganib, paflgamba. 
To^briiig forth, to lie in for the first j p^^^g^^^y pafiganganay. 

To bring forth, to lie in. 

To bury one's face in the hands. 

To place one's self with one's arms 


To get tired, to become torpid. 

To become weak, to become meagre. 

To get tired from too much standing. 

To dare, to venture. 

To promise. 

To pierce, to pasa through, to move, ) pj,naimtim 

to cause emotion. ) 

To persevere, to abide, to persist. Panatili. 

To sit on the ground with one's lege ( po^a^^ili 

crossed.. \ 

To come, to go down, to go down stairs. Panaog. 

To mourn over. Panambitan. 

To trust, confide. Panalig. 

To put one's self under another's con- j p^^^g^i.^^^^. 

To sigh, to lament. Panaghoy. 

To envy, to bear an envious feeling. Panaghili. 

To offer, to offer the primices. Panagano. 

To hurry on, to incite, to provoke. 

To wave (a dog its tail). 

To pray, to crave. 

To live in a house. 

To swell. 

To bathe, to take baths. 

To rise early. 



Pafigalo, pangalos. 



Pangahas, pangangahas. 

Pafigaco, panata. 



Pamanhic, pamamanhic. 





Roots beginning with h, if conjugated in the instrumental passive 
maVy for euphony's sake, admit the following irregularity. The particle in 
i& inverted or it changes into na for present and jiast tenses, as heraeafter. 


f thiiifi) ki (lit- ^ruund. Yhdlot;. 

'Present indefinite tense. 

I. thou, hf ftc. wf, you, thi;\ 
etc. it lu tht grouiKl. 

dash ; ViiiVioholiif; 
S niyd, inilin. i 

f^f tenses. 

I, thoH, he etc. wv, you, they diiHlied j 
etc., have ete. daslied, it to the J 
ground. ' 

Rhuhiilog 1^0, nio, 
ninvo, nili, 

Yiiihi^lug or ynahulo); co, im 
nutin, namin. ninyd, nilit. 

This irref!uhirity applieti also to roots beginning with ' or with a 
vowel, espet^iiilly to ttiose beginning with im, iii, tin, tho they may hIho 
(ollow the regular conjugation. TIiuh, it may be said with equal propriety 
yniiagdy, yaalagdy, or yUnat/dy, "I put it;" yniuatd. and yiitttald, "was 
liiBt"; yniuira and j/inuira, "pronounced"; and ho forth for the pr(»eut, 
thus avoiding the hart>h sound produced by the concurrence of two i'». 


When will you return to town? I wisli to return there to-morrow. 
Whom did you call for? 1 called for the phyaician. Can you part this 
siring? I can part strings, but I cannot part this. Why did your 
friend tempt Jane? Because she hurt him. Did the Americans make 
many Tagals, priaioners? Yea, the Tagals fell back and the Americans 
laid hold of many. W'hore is your servant going for water? He goes 
for water tt> that well where birds peek husked rice and your sister gather:* 
flowers, Where is the child? The child is ahead, running to take the 
lead of Frank. Who beat the Spauiards? The Americans heat the Span- 
iards.. What does Peter do? Peter listens to the priest and is going to 
receive Holy Communion. Who serves the man lodging at your father's? 
Your sister's servant serves him, but now he is beholding the procession. 
Who led the Tagals in their war against the Americans? The Tagals were 
led hy Aguinaldn whom they trusted. Where is the child making water? 
He is making water in the garden. What does the oldman think Of? 
He thinks of leaning on a staff, at he cannot kneel ilown. Whom is the 
American talking with? He is talking with some of his countrymen. 
Who takes the lead of Alfred? Frank took the lead of him. Do you 
gain much by your trade? I gain nothing by it, I, on the conlrary, lose 
money. Is the servant shivering with cold? No. he is trembling for 
fear. Who is becoming drowsy? Nobody is getting drowsy, but your 
friend's friend is jealous and feels a pain in his teeth. What do prieats 
say. They say to every body to keep holidays, and to take great care of not 
becoming disdainful to God. Why is your wife shuddering? Because 
it is thundering. Why is Jane's husband jealous? Because she is being 
courted by her neighbour. Do you become humble before God? Yes, 
itnd every man should lieconie bumble before Him. What did your cousin 
dream last night? He dreunil that he was hurting his sister, and that 
?he was seeing herself in the looking-glass. Why does your sister dread? 
She fears because she is going lo lie in. Is she going to He in for the 
first time? No, it is the second timt she brings forth. Why does his 


father burv his face in his hands, and use to stand with hi?* arms folded? 
He got tired and became weak. Do you dare i)romise to abidt* by virtue? 
I persist in doing that. Why does she not go downstairs and sit there 
with her legs crosseil? She mourns over the death of her husband. Do 
you trust in the Holy Virgin? Yes, 1 put my oontidonce in Her. Why 
IB your 8i8t4?r sighing? Because her friend Mary l)ear8 her envy and 
incites her to take a bath. Do you fear that dog? I don't fear him, 
because he his waving his tail. Do you live in a house? No, I live 
in the forests. What do vou pray me? I pray you to rise early and 
to bathe in the sea. Wfiat have you on your face? It is swollen. 
Why did your son throw that dog into the sea? Because it bit him. 
Why do you not give him a good education? Because I did not put 
him in a college. Why does not your brother speak English better? 
Because he does not pronounce well. Did you cause the horse to disappear? 
It was the servant who made it return to the woods. (who is to be 
blamed for the loosing of). 




Magy may be used with roots boginning with m, which should be con- 
jugated by vin according to tlieir signification, thus avoiding harshness. 

To insult, to dishonor others. 
To start, to commence. 
To experience, to perceive. 
To inherit. 
To perceive. 
To enhance. 







Actions by which the subject loses control of something. 

To sell. 

To lend. 

To take along with, to convey one's 

self to. 

To give, to deliver. 

To grant. 

To present with, to make a gift. 

To give back, to restore. 

Moral or material acts moving from the subject, those meaning scat- 
tering included. 


Mag6tang. (l)etter) magpaotang. 



To say. 

To give notice. 

To explain. 

To narrate. 

To permit, to allow. 

To grant leave. 

To show, to make shown. 

To throw awav. 

To forbid. 

To launch a ship. 

To throw missiles, to pelt. 

To fell, to cause to fall to the ground. 

To sow grain, to put seeds into a hole. 

To scatter, to waste. 

To diffuse, to si)read out. 

To sow grain by scattering it about. 



Magsaysay, magsalaysay. 














Verbs of remotion in the active sense, that is to say, when the moving 
affects some outward thing. 

To draw something nearer. Maglapit. 

To put in, to put into. Magsilid. 


To lift up, to raise, to heave, to elevate. Magtiuiis. 

To set up. Magtayo. 

To take clown, to lower. Magpanao^r. 

To fell, (trees). Magboual. 

To remove to a distance. Maglayo. 

To take away. Magalis. 

To place something upright. . Magtindig. 

Bodily actions if |>erfornu»d })y the subject upon himself. 

To cure one's self. Mag-gamot. 

To shave „ „ Magahit. 

To whip „ „ Maghampiis. 

To comb „ ,, Magsuclay. 

To cut one's hair Mag-gupit. 

To wash one's face. Maghilamos. 

To scratch one's self. Magcamot. 

To wound one's . self, to Inn'onie ul- / ivr _ .' . 

eerated. > Magsugat. 

To wet one's self. Magbasa. 

To clean one's self. Maghugas. 

Words, either jmre «)r corrupted, taken from Spanish or other alien 
languages are generally verbalize*! hy may. "R<K)ts of offices may take iiiaif 
Ui express the disi'harge of (official duties. 

Mass, to officiate. Mim, (Sp.), magmisa. 

To gamble. Jiiyar, (Sp.), magsugal, (Tag.). 

Tobacco, to smoke, io .sell tobaciu). Tnbaro, (Sp.), niagtabaco. 
Chocolate, to take, t<» elal>orat«*, to / .,, , , .^ v • i ^ 

^n chocolate. / '"""'"''• ^^^''^' magsuolati'. 

To play baw-ball. Magbeslnil. 

\i - 4 u . 4 4 , ^ S Capiidn, (Sp.). magrapitan, njagpre- 

Mavor, t4> WMi mavor, to act asniavor • •/ . ^ ' ^ ' ^' 

' ' ' * f sidente. 

Father, priest; to 1h* a priest. Padre, (Sp.), magparc. 

Roots denoting any piece of wearing a)))mrel, may be verbalized with 
mng to express the wearing thereof. 

Trousers, to wear trousers. Salaual, magsalaual. 

Shoes, „ „ shoes. Sapin, magsapin. 

Spectacles, ;, ,, s|>ectacles. Salamin, magsalamin. 

Hat, „ ., a hat. Sambalelo, magsambalelo. 

Apron, „ „ an apron. Tapis, magtapis. 

Mag verbalizes all those personal actions which arc dual or collective in 
character, both sides iKMng meant, as: 

To fight, to quarrel. Magiiuay. 

To join with, to lie associateil with. Magtipon. 

To converse. Magusap. 

To assemble. Magpolong. 

To admit the company of others, to / ,, ^,,„a 
. • .■ • * .' Aiiaifsama. 

jom others m company. \ ^ 

To dispute, to conti^nd. Magtalo. 

Reciprocal verbs wh<»n the action is of such a kind as to admit of ri- 
valry or competition, if no special stress is laid on the (utntcntion. 

To see each other. Magquita. 

To write to each other. Magsiilat. (In^tter) njagsulatan. 

To mix with each other. Maghalo. 

To reconcile to each other, to gre<»t i ». , .. 

each other. \ 



Voluntary rociprooal actions, <*specialiy those of an affe(*tive kind, aro 
likewise eonjujiatt^d l»v iiKHf; liut the root sliouhl he aflixed witli nn. 

To love 

. faeh 


Majjjsintahan, ma*r-ihigan. 

To aid 

• « 



To bi»ar, to 


'r V 

« « 


To curse 

• « 



To cudgel 


« 1 


To ohev 

« < 



To hite 




To laugh at 

« « 



To kick 



Magtadyacan, magsicaran. 

To mock at 




To use ahusive 

laneuaire. to 


• Magtungayaujin. 

each other. 

r^ r^ 


Does vour brother insult Peter? He does not insult him, he onlv 

reminds him of his duty. What shall I do to make m\'8elf resj)ected? 

If you sell anything, grant reasonable prices, and if the goods are not 

satisfactory, give back the money. Will vour father lend any monev 

to his friend? He did not lend him money, he gave and sent him 

a present. Have your servants reported the tale to their friends? No, 

they only explained to them that the children had thrown stones on 

their roof. Why does your father allow you to go out in the night time? 

He granted me leave to see the launching of the ship. Where did you 

throw the rotten fish? I dashed it to the ground. Would you 

fell many trees if you had an axe? No, 1 wish to sow grain and to 

scatter some to the poultry. Did you notice the smell diffused by the flowers? 

Yes, and I plucked one to put it into the pot. What do you intend to 

lift? I do not intend to lift anything, Imt I intend to set up a house 

and to take down these two pictures. Are you going to take the nails 

away? No, I am going to place the images upright and to remove them 

far away. Do physicians cure other people? Yes, but they do not cure 

themselves. Does your friend shave, comb and whip himself? No, but 

he cuts his own hair and washes himself? Did Anthony wound himself? 

Yes, yesterday he wet himself to clean his body and on scratching himself, 

he wounded his skin. What is the priest doing? He is now gambling 

but he officiated before. Does your son smoke? He does not smoke, 

but he takes chocolate every evening. Do priests wear trowsers? No, but 

they wear shoes, hat and spectacles. Do women in your Province wear 

aprons? They do not. Did Peter and Mary join? They joined, con- 

verfeed and quarreled. Why did the principal citizens of the town assemble 

yesterday? They only kept company to each other and they contended 

together. Do Jane and Frank see each other? They do not see each 

other, but they write to each other. Do milkmen mix milk with water? 

Thev do. What did vou do to the brothers Rosario? I reconciled them 

to each other. Ought married persons to curse and cudgel each other? 

No, on the contrary, they ought to love, to help, to bear and to pardon 

one another. Do the Ruiz couple ol>ey each other? No, they bite, laugh 

an<l kick at each other. 



USE OF MA(i (coiitiiUKMl). 

In using may to verbalize aetions admitting of reciprocity, care should 
Ikj t^ken in regard to their nature and to the intension and purpose with 
which executed; for here, as elsewhere in Tagalog, a great laxity prevails. 
Properly speaking, mag, alone, looks more toward plurality than reciprocity. 
As mag, likewise, intensifies or pluralizes sometimes, and sometimes mo- 
difies actions verbalized with urn, a gradation of methods is established 
to express reciprocity. Tlius, tumiri(jin, means "to look at", in the positive 
or simplest degree; but viagtingin, signifies, either the "looking at by many", 
or "to look at" in some intensive manner. Here, mag alone, cannot express 
true reciprocity, for it makes the sui)erhitive degree of ^ vm. 80, mng- 
fifiginan is necessary to make up the reciprocal sense of looking at each 
other. Reciprocal verbs must be transitive in so far as tliey require an 
object that returns the action. If then, the prefix viag and the suffix, 
an combine with a root which has not an active* sense, but which 
admits of competition, the action expressed is one of rivalry. LumocHy, 
for instance, expresses the simple action of jumping, and maglocHO, therefore, 
the action performed by many or in an intense degree; but maglocsohan 
expresses the actirm of jumping ])erformed by many in comi)etiti()h as to 
who will excel or surpass the others. If the action is transitive and 
this latter sense of rivalry is to be expressed, the single suffix an is not 
sufficient and should be repeated, as in the following illustration. 

To push somebody out of his place, i 

(This action is active and may be / Tumolac. 

made reciprocal). ) 

To push hard, to push by many. Magtdlac. 

To push each other. Magtolaciin. 

The pushing by many of one another i 

in rivalry as to wlio will ])ush the > Magtolacanaii. 

most. 1 

Sometimes the discrimination between the pluralizing and reciprocal 
sense is made by changing tlie accent, as, for instance, in: 

To approach (intransitive. ^ Lumiipit. 

To draw near. , Magliipit. 

To approach eacli other. Maglai>it. 

To see manv things, or to look nt / mr. ... 

mtensivelv. \ ^ ^ 


To see each other. Magquita. (1) 

(1). In this aa in everytliiiijrr «*Ih*^, wt» cnjh'avour to cnnvi*)' to ilw t»tn<k»nt'8 
mind some idea of the variouH iiKHlilicHtioiiH of soiiho wiiicli a mot iiiav nii<U'rgn if 
c<mjugated by w«jf; but tliey arc po manifold thnt it wo\ild U' imiMj^sibU' to cxhau.^t 
them. Practice a(one can Imj rcconnnended on thif* i>«)inl. 


Actions conjugated by iini and which admit of intension njay be con- 
jugated by maff to denote such intension, or plurality, if the action i? 
not otherwise modified in meaning, as: 

To run. (simple action). TumaclA 

To run bv many, or to run a great ji *, . i . 
deal. • •' pMagtacLo. 

To write (simple action). Sumiilat. 

To write a great deal. Magsulat (The word is made acute). 

To drink hard, to drink by many. Mag-inum. 

To eat much, to eat by many. Magcain. 

To read, (many or a great deal). Magbtisa. 

To walk, (simple action). Lumacad. 

To walk quickly. Maglaca<l. (1). 

To weep, (simple action). Tumafigis. 

To weep, (by many or beyond meiu^ure) Magtafigis. 

This manner of intensifying the action or pluralizing the agents is 
not exclusive and may be considered as of a first degree of intension. Mnfj 
and the repeating of the first syllable of the root intensifies more, and 
the repeating of the whole root, even more. 

To sell in a wholesale manner. Magbibili. 

The following bv nm„y in a rapid | m „odg„„od. 
order of succession. S ^ 

To think deeply. Mag-isipibi]). 

To meditate profimndly. Magnilaynflay. 

This latt<?r composition with some verbs of motion denotes sometimes 
to do what the root means and the contrary. 

To pass on and to pjiss back again ^ mr i i . 

j^ . ^ i Magdaandaan. 

and again. \ ^ 

He goes out and in, he goes about ) x- i i i i i • * 

. ^ . • . 4 i >aghijat)aslaba8an siva. 

going m an coming out. \ ^ 

Verbs denoting an unsteady motion my l)e formed in the same way. 

To oscillate. Magquilingquiling 

To wabble. Magquindingqiiinding. 

To stagger. Magsuraysiiray. 

To change continuously the jM^slure. Magbilingbiling. 

To walk with wavering pace. Magocorocor. 

To flutter. Magbalingbaling. 

To place one'8 self face downward and i Ma^balibaligtad. (2) 
then on one's back again. ^ -^ e v / 

Nag, with these and similar verbs may be dropped in the present, 
the first syllable being repeated. 

He walks on tiptoe. Titiartiar siya. 

He loafs, wanders about; he walks ) ^^ y ... 
about purposeless. ( ^^ ^^' 

(1). Here, as in many verlw of motion which are grave in accent, the acceleration 
is expressed, Iwtli by mag and by making the word acute. The same is the case 
for other at^tions which are intensified as seen above. 

(2). The orthography of Tagalog words is yet hardly fixed by any rule. The 
stadent may perhaps find these words written mahaling h&ling etc. We write them 
as in the text, this seeming more in accordance with the inflective character of the 


If an adjetive of ma couipoi^ition is conjugated by maff, the sense 
resulting is one of boasting, swaggering, if the action admits of lx>asting; 
but the word is made acute. 

To boast wisdom. Magmarunong. 

To swagger. Magmatapang. • 

To boast beauty. Magmariquit. 

To boast prudence. Magmabait. 

If the action does not admit of bragging and the adjective is of double 
composition, the sense is one of assimilation, growing, becoming. 

To become, to grow forgetful. Magmalimotin. 

To grow infirm. Magmasactin, magmasasactin. 

If mag conjugates an abstract noun formed with the prefix ra and the 
suffix an, the sense resulting is one of putting into practice tlie correspond- 
ing quality; but such words are only used in the infinitive. 

To do justice. Magcatouiran. 

To practice virtue. Magcabanalan. 

To act chastely. Magcalinisan. 

To behave one's self o]>scenely. Magcahalayan. 

The diminutive sense of verbs is formed in the um conjugation by re- 
peating the root, (or the first two syllal>les thereof if consisting of more than 
two), as: 

To run. Tumacbo. 

To rove, to rambl«\ Tumacbd-tacbo. 

Peter is gadding. Tumatacbp-tad^o Si Pedro. 

To drizzle. Umuliin-olan. 

The same diminutive sense in the may conjugation is likewise generally 
made by repeating the root and affixing o/* or ban. 

To write. Magsulat. 

To scrible. Magsiilatsulatan. 

This manner is common to actions admitting of feigning, gesture, imita- 
tion or mockery. 

To be a hyiKXjrite, to affec;t virtue. Mag])analbanalan, niagpapaimbabao. 

To nibble or to feign eating. Magcaineainan. 

To snivel, to make crying grimaces. Mag-iyac-iyacan. 

To affect to be deaf. Magbingi-bifigihan. 

To „ „ „ sick. Magsaquit-saquitan. 

To „ „ „ mad. Magololololan. 

The playinir of children at making ^ xf u u u i 
little \oL:. i Magbahaybahayan. 

But attention should be i)aid to the action, as this same composition 
forms intensive reciprocal verbs which can only be distinguished by the 

To embrace each other warmly. Magyacaj^yacapan. 

To look at each other closelv or ^ «, .... ... . 

, Magtingintifiginan. 
cross-way. ^ ?? ^ f^ 

To reach many things or to i)ass ) Maff'ilK)t-ilx)tan 
them from hand to hand. \ 3lagaix)t aix)lan. 

Roots denoting things susceptible of being sold or made, if conjugated by 
may, express the selling or making thereof. 

To sell rice, Majrliijjit^. 

,, „ fish. Map-iada. 

., ,, pickkfl iiph IT lo jirt-jiarc il. Ma^bug6oi)g. 
.. ., eggs. Mag-iitlc^. 

., make housee. Magbahay. 

If nounx dcuolhlii^ cur relation ur relationship serving as romplement to 
a verb or an adjective are prefixed by mng, the action referring to the pre- 
fixed noun falls back to its correlative party. 

To behave well aw a son. to know how ' .i _,i „„ , „ „ ■ 
to be « ,„„. 1 «»"'"<"'e nmgam>. 

To behave well an a father. Mariinong maganac. 

It i. a «,rr»wful thing t» have »m, „ . , ; ,, ^. 

who do not repay our cares. ) b » i 

Some verba of the um conjugation may admit of the two |jarticles to 
denote a sense of enterprise, endeavour, eamestneBS. 

To endeavour. Magpnmilit. 

To make for, to make the utmost ) ,, __ - -. 
.xertioni, for. ( ""S"™""!""- 

To dispatch one's self, to make haste. Magdumalf. 

A second degree of |)liirality, befiides those hillierto explained, may 
lie made by inserting rign, in the active conjugation "f in»if, the ff of the 
particle being transferred to the tnd, thus, ninFii/nij for im^ierative and 
future, ntiilgag, for the present tense. 

To converse, (two or more irersons). Magiisap. 
To converse (a multitude) Mafigag&iag, 

and so forth for other verbs. 


Why do the boys run and push my old horse in competition with 
each other? Because they ate and drank much. Di<l they write and read 
a gi>od deal? No, hut they walked quickly and wept beyond measure; 
but let them meditate about their passing to and fro. How do jiersoiiK 
walk? Drunkards stagger and oscillate, yonng girls, wabble; fools, flutter; 
oldmen, waver; sick persons change posture and children walk on tiptoe. 
What do persons affect to be? Pools, feign U> W wise; cowards, to tw 
gallant; women, to be beautiful; rascals, to be prudent, and hypocrites, 
to be virtuous. What do other persons become? Love-sick persons become 
forgetful, and old men, sickly. Does the Judge practice virtue? No, but 
he does justice. What girls act wisely? The judicious act chastely, but 
the injudicious act obscenely. Did the children rove in the garden? 
They did, but they coulil not go on because it is drizzling. Does the 
son know already how to write? No, he only scribbles a little. Is 
Alfred's child judicious? No, he, on the contrary, affects to be virtuous, 
is always niblillng and sniveling and sometimes he feigus to be mad. 
Why does my servant affect to be deaf and sick when 1 call out to him? 
Because he Is naughtv and and is alwavs playing at making little houses 
with other l>oys. What did the father' ami ihc son do? They at first 
looked at each other clowely and then embraced each other effusively. 
What are those men doing? They are lianding over sacks to each other. 
Do you Bell rice and fish? I sell pickled fish and eggs and also make 


houses. Is your brother a gooil son and a jjood father? He is not a 
j^oikI father, hut lie is a g*>o<l son. Is ht* also a good son-in-hiw? He 
is, although it is very difficult to he a good son-in law. What diK*8 he 
sav to his son? He savs to him, endeavour to learn, make everv exertion 
to he happy an<l dispatch yours<df. What were that multitude doing 
there? Thev were C(m versing. 







As has been said in less^^n twenty fourth, tlie passive of nm is common 
to the vwg conjugation. Thus, pfuj^ the ]>assive particle for wia//, in the 
im|)erative or simple future; pinfuf, in tlie present or past; and najHUfn >«"- 
}}fi(f, in th(» past iK»rf4H?t and future perfect t^Mises, sliould not ]>e ust*d, un- 
less they are required lo impart scmie special sense. 

To take away. Magah's. 

Fake that awav. Alisin mo iviin. 

To give hack. Magsaolf. 

(rive the money hack. Ysaoli mo ang pilac. 

1 had alrea<ly given back the panta- Naysaoli co na ang .^alaual, nang 

loons, when he arrived. siya,i, dungmating. 

^.r, , I *i I- I- »o W.Saan vtinaixm niva ang canivang 

Where has he tiirown his shirt.' : u .> ' * ' 


It was the garden where I threw it. Ang halamanan, ang tinap^jnan co. 

To attain. Ma'gcamit. 

It is easv to sav it, and ditticult to P %r v i -u* i* 4 * 

,....' ' ' ; Maraling sahihm, maliuag camtan. 

aixain ii. y 

Pag should be used in the passive if mag is used in the active to in- 
tensify the action expressed by the verb or to denote plurality. 

To destroy many things Magsira. 

The swine destroyed these many Pinagsira nang mafiga biibuy it6ng 

plants. mafiga halaman. 

There are many plants destroyed. Maraming halaman ang pinagsisirti. 

To count many things. Magbilang. 

Did Peter count much money? 1 iB«!ig'n"ang bag* Si P^l^o nang ma- 

( rammg salapi: 

Oh!, he counted more than ten thou- jAbaa! mahiguit sa sanglacsang pi- 
sand dollars.! sos ang pinagbilang niyi. 

When, both actions being transitive, m/ig in the active converts the sense 
of the root from the subjective, as conjugated with um, to the objective 
sense, pag should In? used in the passive to make this change of meaning 

I borrowed that money I gave him Ynotang co iyang salapi ybinigay co 
yesterday. sa caniyi cahapon. 

I will borrow a hundred dollars from OotaHgan co Si Juan nang sangdaang 
John. piso. 

i P]nago6tang or pinao6tang co itdng 
I lend this money. I salapi, or ypinagpapaotang or ypina- 

f papadtang co itdng salapi. 


1 bought thii! hat. 

This* hat is what I Umglil, this hat is / 

my purrhase. ( 

I Hell theue houiK^s. 

It ieUt my neighbmir Ihiil I Ijavi' sohl 

this rice. 

Reciprocttl verbs reqiiii 
action ie expressed. 

Those coiiiipmned to eternal imtiish- 
metit ill Hell curiae each other and 
help one another in doinf! evil. 
Thev abused eiich other at the market. 

Biiiil coitong sambalilo. 

Yl6ng sambalilo ang hinili co. 

Ypinaghibili co ili.ig manga biihay. 
liav.' solil Ang aquing caapirbiibay, ang pinag- 
hilhan eo nifing bigus. 

pay in the patisive if the motive or plaee of Ihe 

Ang mafiga napacanamii sa infierno 
nag^iisumpaan sila at pinagtutolofigan 
nila ang pagaua nang masama. 
Ang tiangui, ang pinagnionthun nilfk. 

The i^ 

i the case with actions of a dnal or collective character. 

Gambling was the reason for them to Ang pag.*usugal iiy and ypinagauay 

quarrel. nili. 

They are aBsemblcd in the hfuiwe of Ang baliay nang ini rao.i. ang pinng- 

your mother. ratiponan nild. 

Verbs of fiction require likewise pag. 

Menial servants feign to be »iek, (so as) Ang piniigsaquitniiquitan nang iiiaftga 

not to be whipped. alilB,i, ang hindi Mia jmloin. 

Fools affei't to be wise that they may Ang ypinagmamariinong nang maRga 

be praised. bafigal, ay ang silu,i. purihin. 

Active verbs of mn<i conjugation roquirepag if the jilacc wiicre tlie action 
ifl executed is expressed in the sentence, especially when the verb requircj- 
the passive of mi for the direct object. 

I paid my iHTsonal tax in Manila 8a Maynila pinaghayaran qo ang 

when I was still them. iiquing IkiuIs, nang dur6on pa ac6. 

Take care of the horses at tlie enclos- Ang hacoran pagalagaan imi nang 

are, tnaiiga cabayo. 

Your brother jmt the plute on this Ytong lameSang iti.i, pinaglag-ian 

table. nang iyong capatid nang pingiin. 

TranBilive action.'* ■ 
lienefit of others, rcqui 
person (or whom perform 

■f th. 

■ kinil of those which are executed fi>r the 
i- instrumental conjugation with paij if the 
xpressed, the latter to lie put in the nominative 

For whom are you cooking that fish? Hinoangypinagliiluton 

r 1 »L- !■ u I 1-11 \ Angmafigaanac co,i, ; 

I cook thi, l«h lor mj- chlUla-l,. j j„,; _^„ »„j„^ ,,j_! ■ 

i ypinaglu- 

For whom did Mary .- 

For Jane. 

Make an nmelpt for ll 

;SiHO ang ypinagtahi ni Biangui nang 
Si Juana. 

Ypaggauii mo itong maguinoo nang 
ising lortila. (corr. from Sp. word lor- 

I liave Ypaghohogiii sana quita uang iyung 
dainit, ngnni.t, ualA acong sabon. 

t\vp:nty eighth exercise. 

i!ii I tiild you? No, iH'ciiuse I don't know what you 
Wlint j^hiill"! do? Take awav that nail and give hack 



the letter to my brother-in-law. Shall I explain to him the death of the 
bird? No, don't say to him anything about that. What shall I ask 
him? Ask him when he will come to visit me. Did you not see each 
other the other dav? Yes, we saw each other on the street. Do vou 
wish nie to throw away this pin? No, but throw the wood into the garden. 
What did you rei>ort to your barber? 1 reported to him the sermon of 
the priest this morning at church. Where did they launch the ship? 
The ship was launched at Cebii. Have you sown anything at your farm? 
Yes, I sowed rice. Where did you sow it? I sowed it at the farm, at the 
beach. What are you putting into that jar? I am putting some bread 
into it. Where do you intend to build your house? I intend to build 
it on that ground bearing trees. Where did they quarrel? They quarr- 
eled in the room. Where were the Americans conversing yester- 
day? They were talking to each other on the Escolta, then they fought 
each other at the large bridge. Why did you help each other? We 
helped each other, because we were willing to attain a reward. Why did 
the countrymen fell so many trees? They felled so many trees, because 
they wanted wood for their houses. Count them if you did not count 
them. I have counted already more than three hundred. Whom did 
you buy these needles from? I bought them from the merchant, but I 
intend to sell them again to tailors. From whom will you borrow the 
money you want? I will borrow it from my friends. Did your sister- 
in-law lend you anything? No, on the contrary, she borrowed from me 
six reals. Why did you cudgel each other at the wood? Because he in- 
sulted me first. And did many people assemble there? Oh! yes, many 
people gathered on the spot of our (luarrelling. Why does your servant 
feign to be deaf? H(» feigns to be deaf to avoid coming here. Where 
did your son put my spectacles? Ho put them on your bed. For whom 
are you making that (^hair? For my mother. Is it not for your grand- 
father that you are sewing those pantaloons? No, it is for the priest. 
Why does ^lot the carj^enter wish to make a tal)le for me? It is because 
he is a lazv fellow. 




Students should not lose sight of the fact that no intentional or vo- 
luntary act, no state suffered voluntarily by the subject or in any way 
under his control, nor anything occurring through his consent admits of 
ma conjugation, and that, on the contrary, any action, however transitive 
in character, may be conjugated by vm if it takes place accidentally or 
beyond the subject's control. Thus, verbs as **to run", "to leap", "to go in", 
"to go out", etc., though intransitive, are not conjugated by ma on account 
of being voluntary acts. Apparent departures from this rule are found 
sometimes, but these often arise from a difficulty in classifying a parti- 
cular verb in Tagalog. 

To slip, to slide. Marulas. 

To stumble. Matisor. 

To go astray, to lose one's way. Malihis, maligtio. 

To fall down, to fall to the ground, ) ^^ , *, 

to lose one's standing. \ 3ianoiog. 

To die, to die away. Mamatay. 

To lose, to miss. Mauala. 


But, to make to disappear, to get rid of somebody or of something, 
and to flee, which are conscious acts, are expressed by matjvald. 

In the same way acts of the mind which, if consciously or piirjmsely 
executed, are conjugated by nvi or matj^ are conjugated ])y ma if unconscious 
or uncontrollable. 

To omit doing something ]>uri)()sely. Luniisan. 

To forget, not to have remembcTed ) xti*.. 

to do something. ) 

To neglect, to try to forget; not to \ 

be willing to recollect, to cast into > Liimimot. 

oblivion. ^ 

To forget, (unconscious ate). Malimot. 

Acts of corporal position may be conjugated hy ma, if tlu^y are involun- 
tary or if status and not the action is meant. 

To go to bed. (to place one's self ) Humiga. 

m a lying posture). ) ^ 

To be in bed. Mahiga, nahiga, nahihigii. 

To kneel down (consciously), to bend ( L^uuohod 

one's knees. S 

To make others kneel down, to kneel ^ Ar.,„i.,iw,,i 

down with some thing hanging down. \ 

To kneel down (unconsriously). to be i ^j,i,,i,^,i nalolnbnd 

jn a kneeling po?ition. s 


To stand, to be in an upright position. Matindig natindig, natitindig. 

To be a prisoner, to be with one's feet ) xt«u:v.:i««„,x ««^«^„«««rx 
, , * , . J } rsabibilango, napapangao. 

in stocks or bilboes. ) r ? t- r r? 

To be seated. Naujx), nauupo. 

To lie with one's face downwards. Nataol), natataob. 

Sometimes the agent's rationality or irrationality determines whe- 
ther the action is to be conjugated by ma or other verbalizing particles, 
as shown in the subjoined, illustration. 

mu -1 A 1 1 r !.• X ^ Ang nagaaral tungmatav6 sa harap 

The pupil stands Iwfore his master. I - x * /b,. \ 

* '■ ^ n ang can n ang wirteaf ro. (opy. 

m. .,, e I • w i Ang manga haligue nang aquing ba- 

The pillars of my house are upright, j ^^^^ natatayo or raatuid. 

Place those images upright. Ytayo mo iyang maiiga larauan. 

Uncontrolla])le i)assional states of the sul)ject arc generally conjugat- 
ed bv via. 






Malogod, matoua. 















sleepy, to be 



As regards other intransitive actions of the subject which are more 
or less controllable, as to laugh, to weep, etc., their being consciously or 
imconsciouply performed should be taken into account in applying the 
proper conjugating particle. 

Actions of a destructive character when thev are fortuitous or accidental, 
and not caused by the deliberate act of a conscious agent, or when re- 
ference is made to an actual state of destruction, take ma. 

To become destroyed, to \ye destroyed. Masira. 

To grow dry, faded; to be dried up ) ^i^^^^^y^ 

out of decay. ) ^ ' 

To break off, broken. Mabasag. 

To be cleft. Mabali. 

To be parted, to be divided, to be cut ) xr^y x x« 

f^ } lYLaiagOL, mapai/ir. 

To rot, to become rotten, to be putrid. Maboloc. 

Here, too, the nature of the destroying agent may determine whicli 
conjugating particle ought to be employed. For instance: sonog, "burning"; 
if what causes burning is a person, sunwnog', if it is some inanimate thing, 

Manga, naiiga, may likewise be introduced in this conjugation to express, 

Many i>ersons are dying or dead. Marami ang nafiganamamatay. 

All of them (a multitude) will be sad. Silang lahat ay naiigalulumbay. 

If stress is laid upon the involuntariness of some transition of state 
going on, the slow process of assimilation by a subject may be expresssed 
by vm, na. 

Your sister is growing mad. Nauulol ang ca^mtid mong babaye. 

She will become a stutterer. Magagaril siya. 


Also for the sake of briefness, roots denoting some state of destruction may 
be used alone, and, generally, any actual state which may be gathered from 
the context, or from the root, or which is manifest, can be expressed in 
the same way. 

The fish is putrid already. Boloc na ang isda. 

The dog is dead. Patay ang aso. 

The work is finished. Tapus na ang gaua. 

The letter is ready. Yari na ang siilat. 

Maca and naca are sometimes used for mn and na, to which particles 
they are respectively analogous in many respects. 

He forgot. Nacalimot siya. 

He is upright, (standing) Nacatayd siya. 

He sat. Nacaupo. 

Of course, acts verbalized by ma do not atlmitof passive form, but they 
may be conjugated in the instrumental or local verbal cases, since any 
occurrence, however intransitive it may be, can have a reason, an instrument, 
a time or a place by which or where it takes place. Ca is the particle used 
for those forms of conjugation, what nas been said in the eighteenth lesson 
about the pluperfect and future perfect tenses in the active voice, holding 
good for these other forms. 



Dying, to oiie. Matay, mamatay. 


To die from, with, of, or at some ) ^ . . 

specific time. \ Ycamatay. 

Present indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they die etc. Yquinamamatay co, mo, niyd natln, 
from etc. namin, niny6, nila. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses* 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they died Yquinamatav co, nio, niya, natin, 
etc. from etc.; have died etc. from. namin, ninyo, nild. 

Pluperfect tense* 

I, thou, he et€. we, you, they had etc. Yquinamatav co, mo na; na niyd, 
died from etc. natin, namin, niny6, nild. 

Future indefinite tense* 

I, thou, he etc. we, you. they shall Ycamamatay co, mo, niya. natin, na- 
etc. will etc die from etc. niin, ninyo,* nila. 


Future perfect tense* 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they shall etc. Yciimamatay eo, mo na; na niya 
will etc. have died from etc. natin, namin, ninyo, niW. 


Die (thou), let him etc. us, them die Ycamatay mo, niya, natin, namin, 

from etc. niny6, nila. 

The student should conjugate in the instrumental i)assive the following 
intransitive verbs. 

To be ruined. Maduc-ha, malugui. (by trade). 

To be lame. Mapilay. 

To be blind. Mabiilag. 

To be deaf. Mabingi. 



Drowning. Lonor. 


To be drowned at. Calonoran. (1). 

Present indefinite tense* 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they, is etc. are Quinalolonoran co, mo, niya, natin, 
drowned at. namin, ninyo, nild. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses* 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, th(»y was etc. Quinalonoran co, nio, niya, natin, na- 
were; have etc. been drowned at. min, niny6, nila. 

^uperfect tense* 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they had etc. Quinalonoran co, mo na; na niya, na- 
been drowned at. tin, namin, ninyd, niU. 

Future indefinite tense* 

I, thou, he etc. we, vou, thev shall etc. Calolonoran co, mo, niy^, natin, na 
will etc. be drowned at. min, niny6, nila. 

'1). Tliis word also mean:. *thf' (X'oi«lont". "thp wost'". for nativ^^ pav; '♦ho 
Sun ie drown(*d'*, jnetead of s^avin^, '-tho Sun sots". 


Future perfect tense. 

I, thou, he etc. we, you, they Bhall etc. Calolonomn go, mo n:i; oa niyil, iia- 
will etc. have been drowned at, tin, namin, ninyd, iiila. 


Be drownied (ihou), let him etc. us, L'aloiioraii mo, niy^, natin, namin, 
them be drownerl at. ninyo, ilila. 

The student should conjugate in the loeal passive the fojlowiiig verba: 

To he with nne'.i feel in stot-ks. Mapangao. 

To fatnt, to swoon. Muhiln. 

To be tired out. Mapiigod. 

To be included in. Masac-lito. 

To fall down out of di-ciiy, to drop off. Malaglug. 

To be extinguiabed. Mautaa. 

The prefix en is dropped in tlie local passive of these verbs when i 
place or deliberate act, but the person affected by the event or chance is 
m^ant, as shown in the following iiistancee. 

Let him die in the hospital. Camatayan niya ang lio»p!(<il. (Sp.). 

Let his mother die, let him be de- 1 ■ 

prived of his mother h}- death, let r Maraatayiln siya nang ina. 
death deprive him of his mother. ) 

Ir. this l.<.„,e I mi™,l mj ring. \ Q'"n»»«l»" '? i'^-B !«"■»)• «" "6 

■' '^ ( nang aqumg smgsmg. 

The ring was lost (niisseil) to mt-. Naiinlaan aco nang singsing. 

SometimcB vvt combines with viaij in the local passive to denote the 
aource from which something comes, 

i Ang pinagcacasiraan nang juafiga 
The ruin of towns comes from war. < baya,i, ang pagbabaci, or, angyqui- 
( nasisirii etc. 


Where >liil your servant ^lip and stumble? He, not only slipped and 
stumbled, hul fi-ll down in the forest where he went astray. Wliat have 
you missed, a.-; you are so sad? Death has deprived me of ray son. 
Where did she die? .She died in Manila. \\'hy did your sister omit to 
confers that sin? Because she forgot to confess it. Why was your 
mother terrified last nighl? She was in be<l when it was thundering, shf 
became terrified and sprang unconsciously (o her feet and wo found her 
knelt down. Did you see the thief? Yes, he was face downwards and 
with his feet in stocks. Is our neighbour hungry or thirsty? He is 
neither hungry nor thirsty, he is angry. Who is ashamed? Nobody is 
ashamed, but Peter is astonished. W'bat is the destruction caused by war? 
Destruction by war extends itself tci many things; buildings, are destroyed; 
trees, are faded; their branches, cleft, and the wires of the telegraph cut 
oft. Why do they not eat that fish? Because it is already putrid. WTiat 
did my grandmother die from? She died from age. Where did she die? 
She died in church. Why is that man staggering? Because he Is lame 

and blind, and he is sad because lie is riiine<l. Why doe« he feign to be 
deaf? He d(M^s not feign to be deaf, lie is certainly deaf. Where did 
the fugitive fail to be drowned? He failed to Ihj drowned in the river. 
How is your female-cousin? She is tired out and fainted away. Why 
did this fruit fall down? Because life in the three is being extinguished. 




True aiixiliiiry vorbs not exiating in Tagalog, the participle, either present 
or past, cannot aasurae an invariable form as in English, where it is com- 
plementary to the tense and mnod of the auxiliary verb with which it is 
ivspociated, Admitting however, tht existence of mich a part of speech in 
Tagalog, it may be said that there are as many participles as there are 
tenses of the verb (the imperative excepted) in all its forms of conjugat- 
ion, and that it sufficeB to make nng or some demonstrative pronoun precede 
any tense of a verb, to form the proper participle corresponding to such verli 
and tense, or a parti<'ipial noun or adjective expressive of the sam' action 
and len^e. Hfnee, adjectival or sul>ordinate English clauses containing a 
relative pronoun may be expressed in Tagalog by these participial or ad- 
jectival forms of the verb. The tenses of the active voice serve to form 
the active or present participles, and those of the passive voice, the passive 
or past participles in all the forms. 

To fall down. 

The place of falling (without any 
reference to time); the meaning, (the 
range within which any expression 
comes to an end). 

The place where some thing will fall. 
The place where some thing has fal- 

The person on whom some thing fell 
To dash to the ground. 
The thing dasheil to the ground 
(infinitive or indefinite). 
The thing to be dashed to the ground. 
What was dashed to the ground. 
To befall, to descend upon. 

Wisdom descended upon the Apostles. 

Disease befalls our body. 

Remainder, surplus. 

To leave off (something), to leave 

something liehind. 

To remain somewhere letting others 

proc^'ed, to separate one's self from 

the company. 

(1) Alagail ;f „hyiir, 'Miwii)!.'". 


Ang cahologan; ang cahotogiiii. 

Ang cahohologan. 
I Ang quinahologan. 

( Ang nahologiin. 

I Ang yhiilog. 

Ang yhoh6Iog. 

Ang yhinrtlog, or, ynah»5log. 

( Ilungmiilogangcarunuhgan sa maRga 
J alagad (1). ni _7f«i(f:/'i«io, or, sa mafiga 
f^npottolea. (Sp.). 
\ Hungmohillog and saquit sa ating 

, Magtira. 


To be left behind, to be left remain- / at .. - 
. 1 ' • Miitirn. 

mg at some place. \ 

What has been left behind as a ) 4 x- • ' 

remainder. S ^""^ >'*»""•"• 

To write, to make readable characters. Tumitic, magtitic. 

To write, to inform by writing. Sumiilat. 

To believe in, to profess, to vow. 8umampalataya. 

To obey. Sumunod. 

To suck, to draw milk from the ) ^ 
breast. j Sumoso. 

To nurse, to feed the suckling. Magpasosd. 

The wet nurse, the teat or duK, con- ) ,. • , ., 

..:i^«^i *i r T 1 [ Ang sisiua, ang susuhan. 

sidered as the feeding place. j » fe 

The milk, the feeding substance; the ) 

dug or teat considered as to the fo(xl > Ang susuhin. 

drawn from it. • ) 

To report, to tell. Magsalita. 

Reported, told, (without any refer- ^ ^ y., 

ence to time). \ ''^ ^'^' 

The reporting person, reporter. Ang nagsasalita. 

The person who reported. Ang nagsalita. 

„ „ „ will report. Ang magsasalita. 

„ „ „ would „ Ang magsasalita disin. 

What was reported. Ang sinalita, ang ysinalita. 

The tale to l)e reported. Ang sasalitin, ang ysasalita. 

The tale that is re|X)rted. Ang sinasalita, ang ysinasalita. 

'^\SSi:,^T' ""■ "^"^^ " i Ang Pagsalitaan. 
The person to whom something has ^4 . Vi \ 

been reported. ^ b P g 

The person to whom something will ) 4 v* ' 

be reported. [ ^"8 pagsasahtaan. 

To wrap up. Magbalot. 

Wrapped up. (without reference to ) WoIq*:, 

time, manner or place). \ 

The thing which is being wrapped up. Ang binabalot. 

That which has been wrap]>ed up. Ang binalot. 

The instrument by which something ) ^ vbabalot. 

Will be wrapped up. S 

The bundle or the thing to be wrap- ) 

ped in, the covering. ( indetermi- > Ang balotan. 

nate). ) 

The covering which served for some ^ *„,, ,.,-„„„i.„i„+„« 
Au« u- u 1 \ Ang pmagbaiutan. 

thing which was wrapped up. ) . 

The destruction of Sodom is written Ang pagcasira nang Sodoma,!, nati- 

in the Holy Scripture. tictic sa Santong Siilat. 

The coming of Jesus Christ was writ- Ang pagdating ni Jesucristo,!, naca- 

ten in the Holy Scripture. siilat sa Santong Siilat. 

Write on that paper. Sulatan mo iyang papel. 

This is the paper for him to write Yt6ng papel na ito, ang siying susu- 

upon. latan niyd. 

On what paper did you write the ^,An6 baga «ang sinulatan mo nang 

verses? mafiga tula? 

What will be written by your father ^,An6 ang susulatin nang amii mo ea 

to your brother? iyong capatid na lalaqui? 

He has already written to him to come Ysiniilat na niya sa caniya na parit6 

here inmediately. siya pagdaca. 

Let them write with this pen. Ysiilat nild itdngpluma. 

Let this be the pen with which the Ytong plumang it6 ang ysiilat niU 

prayer be written by them, nang panalafigin. 

Let thin l»e the pen with which you 
shall write to your school-master. 
He who Ijelievee in Christ and oheys 
(follows) his doctrine will he eavetl. 
That obeying (obediunt) boy will be 
obeyed when a. man. 
A judicious j^irl is praised by evf- 

The virtuous man was eeteemed. 
This present is tor my sweetheftrt. 
The jwraon who in lnvt-d and reci- 

The person who is loved without being 
aware of it. 

Creed, the Aimstles' creed, the believer. 
To kill. 

The killing poiftou. ((he jtoiBou that 

Killed, (without reference to the act- 
ion or time). 

The man killed, (he who was- killed). 
The detr that is being killed. 
The dove that will l>e killed. 
The instrumenl otkilling, (indefinite). 
The sword which was uned in killing. 
The one which will hu need for killing. 
The person whom the death of the 
victim affects. 

The place where tlie murder is to 1 

Do do do has been committed. 
The place of a wholusalc massacre. 

Ytdng plumang ito, ang ypagsusulat 
nio sa iyftng maestro. 
Aug sungmasampalataya cay Jesu- 
crieto at aungraoeonod sa caniyajig 
; ^ral, siya, ang mapapacagaling. 
Yyang bataug sungD'osonod, sunorin 
siya naman cun lumaqui. 
Ang niahinhing dalaga,i, pinupuri 
nang lahat. 

Anp; bana! na tau6, ay minahal. - 
Ytftng biyayang it<i,i, ea iiquing eini- 
Ang yniihig, ang sinisinta, 

Ang nafbig, ang nasinti. 



Ang pungmapatiiy, or, nacamamfttiiv 

na lason. 

J Patiiy, patayiii. 

Ang pinatjiy na tau6. 
Ang usang pinapatiiy. 
Ang calapating papatayin. 
Ang ypatay. 

Ang ypinatily na eandatH. 
Ang sandating ypapatay. 

Ang patayan. 

j Ang patayan. (the word is made grave) 

Ang pinagpiitayan. 
Ang piigpatnyanan. 


What is the cause for many persons to fall down? The cauae for 
many to fall ifl their stumbling. Is fever a cause of many persons dying 
in the Philippines? Not imly fever, but also other complaints are the 
cause of manv Europeans dying in the Philippines. Where did the servant 
fall? He fell on the road." Why did he tall down? He fell down on 
account of his being drunk. By whom has this been dashed? It has been 
dashed by our friend. What shall we dart to him? Let us throw an 
orange to' him. For whom did the godfather throw the money on coming 
out from church? He threw it for the boys. How much is the remnant of 
the money I sent you last week? The surplus is thirty three dollars. How 
much of it will be left after paying the tailor? There will remain only 
sixteen reals. Where did my eousin wish to stay the other day? He re- 
mained (willingly) at Cavite. And where was their son left behind by his 
companions? He was left behind in the woods. Did the pupil dictate well? 
No, but his handwriting is very good. What did he write with? With 
a quill. On which paper shall I write? Don't write on any paper, you 
shall write on a hoard. Do you believe in God? Yes, Sir, I believe 
in God and obey Him. because God deserves to be obeyed and loved. 
Does your baby suck still? It is still sucking, as it is only six months 
old. Svho nuraes it? It is fostered by a nurse who came from the country. 
Has she gnod milk? She has very good milk anfl her nursering is very 


good. What news from abroad? Peace has not yet been made. Who 
reported that to you? The pajiers say so. Do you trust what papertf 
say? What the papers say is not always true. What will you tell your 
grandson? I will tell him nothing To whom Sid the blacksmith report 
that news? He reported it to my brother's countrymen. What is the 
woman wrapping in that paper. It is some stuff she is wrapping up. 
What thing is to be used by her to wrap the stuff up? She uses paper 
to wrap it up. What do you say? Do not kill mice with a gun, kill 
them all with poison. How many wild boars will the native kill? He 
will kill many, for he is clever. What does he kill them with? He kills 
them with a spear. Where did he kill those seven he brought the other 
day? He killed them in the forest. What shall you do with that sword? 
I shall kill my enemy with it. 




The studying of the piit^sive jiarticle in all its fornifi and the spe- 
cial meaning imparted to it by the particle with which it is composed 
in of great importunce in order to understand the most difficult thing 
in the Tagalog language, that of determining which of the various passive 
forme of tlie verb should lie nsed, and for what -purpose. 

The participles, as has been previously said, taking, bv the article 
which precedes them, the charactei of verbal noiins expressive of all the 
tenses of the verb, it follows that there must be a passive participle or 
participal noun tndelerminate in time corresponding to the infinitive in 
the passive. Now. in primitive verbs, the root without any particle is 
tH)metimes used to express tense, when the latter is otherwise determined 
by some adverb of time or can lie easily gathered from the context. 

What do you say? 
What i» lieing said by you? 
Wliat did he say yesterday? 
What will they say to-morrow? 

;.An6 ling aabi mo?. 
\ j.Anb ang sina.^abi mo?, ^ano ang sab 
( mo rigay6n?. 

/Ano ang sabi myk cahapon?. 
\ J,\n6 ang sabi niU hucas?. (better) 
/ sasahihin. 

The same may be said with regard the passive participle; it is bet- 
ter however to use it in the proper tense, if not otherwise determined, 
or, if stress is laid on the time. 

What is the child doing? 
What did he do?, what is 
done hy liim? 
What will tb.v do? 
This is what I did, 

(^Ano an" guinagaun nnn;; bata' 
f ;,An6 nnj; jjuinaua nivA?. 
;r.And ung gagaoin nild? 
Yt6 ang guinauii co. 

If the action is one of acquisition or assimilation on the part 
of the agent, the in passive participb* generally denotes tlie acquisition; 
that in y, the instrument, if the action admits of one, or the reason 
for the execution; and that m an, the person from whom something is 
got, or the plac^. 

To seek, to look for. Hnniaimp, cumita. 

The thing to be sought, (lie thiiie i . , . ■ - 

which hal h,e„ soughl. ( *"? '"""P'"' »"? '•""'°'f- 

The instrument for some thin" to I . . ■ 

b. .ought. ) A"s y'"'"i'' 

Do do with which has been ^on^ht. Ang yhinanap. 
The place of Eeeking. Aug paghanapan. 

To tak», In obtain, (n get. numoha. 


™r ^ ^"^ *"''*'"' """^ '^'"'''' ^''' i ^"S ''"'"" (contraction), ang ciuinoha. 

The instrument. Ang ycoha, ang iquinoha. 

The person fron, whom or the place | ^ ^^^^^ (contraction). 

wherefrom. 5 

To eat. Cumain. 

Eating, the food which has l>een ^ a«,,^««;^/« ♦*«^*;^«\ ««« r.ii;no'{n 

. ^^ J Ang canin (contraction), ang qumain. 

The place, dining-room. Ang can-in, cacanan, (contractions). 

To drink. Uminom. 

The drink, what has been drunk. Ang inomin, ang ininom. 

The vessel, the tumbler. Ang inoman. 

To buy. Bumih\ 

Wn ToSSr' ^^^ *'"^ ''^'''^ ^''' \ ^"8 ^^""" ^contraction), ang binili. 
The money with which to buy some ) . r^.j. 

The money with which some thing ) 

has been bought or the person for / Ang ybinili. 

whom. ) 

The person from whom. Ang bilhan, ang binilhan (contractions) 

To reach for the subject. Umabot. ) Note the difference in ac- 

To overrun, to overtake. Umabot. \ centuation. 

Thing to be reached, and which has ) ^ , .. • «u^* 

, ^ , J ' I Ang abutin, ang inabot. 

been reached. 5 » & 

The person overtaken. 
To grasp. 

Ang abotan. 

Thing grasped, that which was gra>?ped Ang quimquimin, ang quinimquim. 

To ask for. 


What asked for, what was asked for. Ang hifigin (contraction), ang hiningi. 

The person from whom. 
To snatch, to pray on. 
Snatched, been snatched. 
Person from whom. 
With what. 

Ang hifigan. 


Ang camcamin, ang quinamcam. 

Ang camcaman. 

Ang ycamcam, ang yquinamcam. 

In verbs which govern two objects as those of giving, saying, etc., in is 
generally replaced by y, the latter expressing the direct complement or 
j»ccusative: an, the indirect or dative. 


To give. 
To advise. 
To say. 

To tell. 

To give back. 
To present with, 
to make a gift. 
To report, to an- 

To teach. 

To sell. 

To show, to point 


To recommend. 





Ang ybinigav. 


„ { ysinab\ 
„ ( ypinagsabi. 
„ j ysinalita. 
„ ( ypinagsalita. 
„ ysinaoh'. 


Ang K big-ian. 
( biniguisln. 

( Magbiyaya ,, ypinagbiyaya 



^ Magtoro. 



,, ji yaral. 
„ '( yniaral. 
.. ypinagbili. 












In actions which may be considered as i)erforme(l for the benefit of 
otherR, the papsive participh* with i/, in the pajf^sivo voice of vm, may likewise 
be made to express the direct complement, although the one in in is also 
admissible; an, generally, denotes tlie phice, and y, in the passive of ?n/(j7, 
the person in benefit of whom something is done. 

To cook. Magloto. 

Thing cooked. j ^/J^j''''''^''' ^'''^''^''' ynaloto, lotoin 

The cooking-pan. Ang lotoan. 

The person for whom something has ^4 • 1 ^ 

been cooked. \ ^"8 ypmagloto. 

Place. Ang paglotoan. 

To fry, to roast. Mag-ihao. 

Pried, roasted, (present) Ang yniihao. 

Prying-pan. Ang ihaoan. 

The person for whom. Ang ypinag-ihao. 

To cook in water, to lx)il. Maglaga. 

The thing cooked, boiled. Ang ynilaga. 

The boiling-pot. Ang lagaan. 

The person for whom. Ang ypinaglaga. 

To reach for others, to pass over, to ) ^r i . 

handover. ^ Magabot. 

Sometimes the thing got at as the result of an intransitive action is 
expressed by the in passive participle, if this is not otherwise expressed. 

To run. Tumacbd. 

The thing run for. Ang tacbohin. 

To alight. Lum6song. 

The thing alighted for. Ang losonguin. 

To jump, thing jumped for. Lumocsd, locsohin. 

To go out. Lumabas. 

What to be sought in going out. Ang lalabasin. 

To go upstairs. Pumanhic. 

The person found uj>stairs. Ang panhiquin. 
The staircase, the ladder, (considered ) . , • 

as to the action of going up). i ^"« panh.can. 
To go, to come downstairs. Panaog, manaog. 

What is being sought in going or / . 

coming downstdrs. i ^"« pananaogum. 

The staircase (considered as to the ^ a « , , 
action of coming down). \ ^ panaoga 

Involuntary intransitive actions do not, of course, admit of in pass- 
ive participle, unless they are made active by their being recombined with 
some other verbal particle imparting an active sense. 

To be afraid. Matacot. 

Being afraid. Ang natatacot. 

Been afraid. Ang natilcot. 

The person feared. Ang catacotan. 

To frighten. Tunuicot. 

The person that is being or has l)een } . . ., 4- '^ ^ 

frightened. \ ^"« *"^"*'"' *'""^*'*- 

In fortuitous occurrences l)y which -somobody is affected, the passive 
participle indicative of the person affected by the event is made, with an 
suffixed; the place, with ra prefixed and an suffixed: yea indicates the 
cause or time. 


The iKTRon iiffcclci! liy Hi.- 

The place. 

The cjiuse of death 


Ang matay:in, aiig iinmntftyan. 

Ang cani&tayan. 

Ang yfamiitiiy, aiig yiniinamatiiy. 

But if the action 

To be glad. 

The person or thing over whom or 

which one is glad. 

The reason. 

even I. 
the time. 

if* not fortuitous, rn I'hould be used. 

Ang catouaan, ang quinatouaan. 
Ang ycatrtua, ang j-quinatoua. 

Forwards and towards 
"11 tor the person. 

To come. (here). 

The i)erson object of the 

The reason or time. 

To go there, (distant plae 

The i)er.''on whom to Bee o 

The reason. 

To repent. 
Th.' lime o 
To sleep. 
The time o 

i-ith intn 

verbs of motion, take i/, yrn for the reason, and 

■iuit. Ang paritohan, ang pinnritoban. 

Ang ypinarilu. 
') Pardon. 

■ the place, Ang jiaroonan. 

Ang y(|iiinapiirrton. ang ypinaparnon, 

itive verlis also indicates lime. 


Ang vpinagi'isi. 


Ang ii)uinatdlog. 

Where shall I look fur the shirt? lA)ok for it in the room. With what j 
is it to be sought? Seek it with this light. What have you taken? I took ' 
the hook from John. Why does the child refu&e to eat and drink? He has < 
nothing to eat or drink and beeideB he has no plate or turaWer. What 
has he bought? He has bought a flower from Jane. Have you the where 
withal to buy a house? No, I have not the wherewithal to buy it. Why 
do you not ask from your uncle? I cannot, I snatched from hira this money. 
What is the advice given by you to your son? I advised him (tohim) to 
give back the money to his uncle. What did your father present you with? 
He presented me with a wat«h. What ^las been announced by you to your 
friend? I reported to him the death of his sister. What is jxiintwi out by 
that boy? He points out that tree. To whom has he recommended the 
commission of his servant? He "has recommended it to the priest. What 
are you cooking? It is some fish that ia being cooked by mc. For whom 
do you cook it? I cook it for my brother. Will you also fry some bana- 
nas for her? I have no time, for she is washing my linen. What does . 
that sailor intend to reach running so much? He intends to reach that dog. 
Why does Peter jump so much? He jumps to reach some fruit. For whom i 
did you go upstairs? It was my brother for whom I went upstairs. By 
which staircase did you came down? By that which leads to the front 
door. Whom are your sisters afraid of? They fear the dead. Let them 
fear God and let them not allow themselves to be frightened by ghnets. 
Whom has the neighlwur been deprived of by death? His mother has J 
died (to him) (He mourns the death of his mother). When did she die? i 
She died the first day of March. What did she die from? She i 
drowned. Over whom do you rejoice? I rejoice over mv children. Whom ' 
will your relation come for? Hr will come for my sister ti) behold the 
procession. Why did my cousin come here? He came here to pay hia 
debts. Whom are you going to visit? I am going to visit tlie priest. 





The meaning and the proper use of the different passive forms of 
the verb is of the greatest importance in order to master and thorougly 
underatand the language. 

In, is the true passive, to be used with most active verbs when the 
direct object or necessary complement is specifically expressed in the sen- 
tence, and no indirect object or circumstance of place, instrument, reason 
or time as to the action is added. 

As there are some active verbs which, for various reasons, do not 
admit of in passive and, on the other hand, some intransitive ones which 
admit of it, the following general rules are given as to this important 

In passive is used in verks denoting acts of appropriation, either mo- 
ral or material, on the part of the subject. 



To carry away by birds of prey. 
To despoil, to pillage. 
To choose, to select. 
To scoop, to take out something 
from a hole. 

To borrow some thing, (not 

To pray for, to crave. 
To implore. 

To 8wallow, to devour. 
To suck. 
To absorb. 
To sip. • 
To call for. 
To nod for. 

To go for, to send for some- 

To look after, to search for, to 
search about. 
To look about for. 
To grope for. 
To receive, to accept of. 
To go forth to meet some- 

Pumili, mamili 















Diiguitin, dinaguit. 
Samsamin, sinamsam. 
Piliin, pinili, 

Docotin, dinocot. 

J Hiramin, hirmin, (cont.). 
( hiniram. 



Lamonin, linamon. 


Hithitin, hinithit. 

Hinigop, higopin. 

Tauaguin, tinauag. 


Songdoin, sinongd6. 

Halihaoin, hinalihao. 

Salicsiquin, sinalicsic. 
Tangapin, tinangap. 

Salobofigin, sinal6bong. 



The different manners of getting at something, or the instrument or 
tool serving to take hold of something, generally admit of in passive to 
indicate the thing got at thereby. 

8 been caught by a snare of j ^^^ binating. 

Meshed trap to catch boars or wild 


What has 

this kind 

To hawk. 

The fowl hawked. 

To hunt by a dog. 

The game taken. 


What has been caught thereby. 


Fished with a net. 


Fish that has been hooked. 




Ang pinaugati, nacati. 

Pangaso, mafigaso. 

Ang inasoy pinaiigaso. 


Ang siniic. 




Ang bininuit. 

Ualis, pafigualis. 

Ang iniualis, niualfs. 

The acte of the five sensci^ in the general or modified sense admit of 
in passive to express the definite result of such acts. Only tumingin, "to see", 
*'to look at" in a general sense; timtim, "to taste a liquor"; are, on account of 
euphony, conjugated in the mi passive for the direct object. 



To sight, to see from afar. 


Ang tinanao. 

To look askew. 


„ sinuliap. 

To behold. 


„ pinan6or. 

To look backwards. 


„ linifigdn. 

To hear. 


„ dinifigig. 

To listen. 


„ minatyag. 

To relish. 


„ linasap. 

To savor. 


„ ninamn^n. 

To feel, to touch. 


„ hinipo. 

To smell. 


„ inamdy. 

To scent. 


„ Sinanhor. 

Acts of the mind or will, also admit of in 


To think of. 


Ang inisip. 

To remember of. 


„ inaalaala. 

To wish. 


„ infbig 

To verify. 


„ inolotsiha. 

To explain. 


„ sinalaysay. 

To consider, to calculate. 


„ pinagbiilay. 

To love. 


„ sinintd. 

To esteem. 


„ linfyag. . 

To caress. 


„ inirog. 

In verbs the action of 

which necessarily 


upon a person, the in 

passive generally deaotes the person. 




To invite. 

To wait for. 

To ask. 

To prevail on. 

To reprimand. 

To. succor, to carry an infant 

in arms. 







Ang inaquit. 

hintin (contraction), 
tanofigin. (to whom) 




Verbs of destruction and those implying change or transformation 
in the object, generally admit of the in passive to indicate the result of 
such change, if no reference as to the instrument or cause is meant. 



To do away with. • 

To kill. 

To set fire to. 

To unseam. 

To change, to exchange. 

To bldcken. 

To set in order, to disentangle. 








Ang guiniba. 

The effect of some destructive animate agent is expressed by putting 
the root indicative of such agent, in the passive of in. 

Locustus, destroyed by locustus. 

Rat, „ „ rats. 

Crow, „ „ crows. 

Ant, *- „ „ ants. 

Kite, eagle; preyed on „ kites. 

Balang, binalang. 
Daga, dinaga. 
Ouac, inouac. 
Langam, linamgam. 
Banoy, binanoy. 

In the same manner, verbs of carrying, cutting, weighing, measuring 
or moving take the in passive for what is the result of any such actions, 
when considered on the agent's side or terminated therein. Thus, "brought," 

dinali: "sent, ypinadali. 



To carry on one's Pumasan, masan, mag- 



To drag along. 

To carry along with, 

to carry along some \ Magtaglay. 

thing hanging down. 

IS.t^t°' '"'°" I "-SO""- 

To carr, in one', j n.g„|^„ 


To cut. (generic). 

To tear. 

To cut out. 

To hew. 

To fell, to cut down. 

To weigh, (generic). 

UquSr"^ ^"" "^ i Tumacal. 

To measure, to ascer-^ 

tain the quantity of a 

liquid by sounding it 

with a rod. 

To move, (one's body) Cumibo. 

i Magpotol, mamotol, pag- 
l p6tol. 




SumaiK)l, magsapol. 



^Tumarol, magtarol 

Ang pasanin, ang pinas-an. 
„ hilahin, „ hinila. ' 

„ taglayin „ tinag-lay. 

„ quiliquin, „ quinilic. 
„ calongin, „ quinalon. 

potlin, (cont.) pin6tol 

guisiquin, „ guinisi 


Tag-in, (cont.) tinagi. 

sapolin, ang sinapol. 



„ tinarol. 

,, quinibo. 

The prepositive possessive pronouns are conjugated by tjiis passive to 
assert the. property \of, or the holding out «>f something sa^ appertaining to 
the persons expressed by the pronoun. 




I repute it to be mine 


Ynaaquin co. 

I reputed it „ „ thine 


Ynivohin CO. 

Hold it as thine. 

Yyohin mo. 

I will hold it to be hie or 



Cacaniyahin co. 

Let him hold it rc' ours. 


Aminin niyi. 

We repute it as oura. 


Ynaatin natiu. 

I will hold it as youra. 



Yinyohin co. 

Make it theirs. 


Canilahin mo. 

[id having: an attrilnitive Winse may he 

Minamarapat co. 


m niyj 

Adjectives formed with mii 
construed in the same manner. 

Just, fair, upright. 

I hold it to he juet. 


He will repute that as bad. 

The thing made or to be made, or into which is to be transformed some 
raw or preparatory material may be conjugated by in, the matter acted 
upon l>eing put in the nominative mse. if it is not circunti-cribed in 

I will make shoes out of this leather. Yl6ng balat na ito.i, saeapinin co. 

Make pants and aprons out of thiit Yyang cayong iyii,i, salaualin at tapi- 

stuff. sin mo. 

What is your father going to make 6An6ng gagaoin nang ama mo niyang 

out of that lumber? cahoy na iyan? 

He is going to make a honae out of it. ( (,^},„^ „„ ]vi~ * " ° - " ? 

I made a walking-stick out of that log. Yaong cahoy na yad,i, tinongcor co. 

If a noun expressing a condition capable of Itein^ assimilated by, or 
extended to, others, is conjugated in this kind of passive, the subject's 

design of acquiring such condition, is expressed. 

Make him your friend. 
I consider you as my father, you are / 
my godfather, (stand as father to me). ( 
Consider me as a son, stand a god- > 
father to me. ( 

Catotohin mo siya. 
Ynaamii quita. 

Anaquin mo ac6. 

Some intransitive actions which a<imit of a definite purpose for 1 
performance may be conjugated passively to express the object toward 
which the action is directed. 

To fly, the object of pursuit. Lumipad, ang liparin. 

To run, the thing run for. TumacbA, ang tachohin. 

To swim, the thing taking hold ot } , - . , - 

hy .wiraming. ( Ln».«..g6y, a„g l.tlgoym. 

To dive, thing dived for. Sumisid, ang sisirin, 

To peep out, what or who was per- / n ™ - j- = 

ceived in p<4ping out. ( Dumong.o, .ng dmuflgso. 

The sentences with this king of passive are construed by putting the 
agent in the possessive case and the otject in the nominative, II the 
sentence includes some indirect connplement, the case of the tatter remains 
unchanged and the proper preposition should be uwd, or the verb is put 
in the other corresponding passive required by the nature of the indirect 
complement with the latter in the nominative and the direct one in the 

I lioiight this house. 

'<f Binili co itong hahay, aquing binili 
/ itong biihay. 

Your (thy) brother e»l. Ihe h,.n,>,». j ^°>""''" """« ™"""''' ""■ °"^ '"" 

Pinatay iiiyi siya. 

J Pinatay iiiyi eiya imng i-andatA, aitg 

t ssmdalA ang ypinatay, iiiya Kauaiiiyii. 

Hinaniip co ang ufyiu Ba silid, piiiag- 

hanapnn co ang silii.] iiang bihiu, 

He killed him. 

He killed hira with the sword. 

I sought the chicken in the ruoni. j 


Why do you pillage the fruits, and the clothes which your father 
wore? These fruits have Iteen selected by me in the garden, and as to the 
clothes I borrowed them. What is your sister scooping? She is taking out 
the needle from a hole. What did you crave of your mother? I craved of her 
to give me the money. What is that child sucking? He is sucking his bro- 
ther's sugar-cane. Have you called the servant? I did not call him, I 
nodded for him. Whom are you going tor? I am going for the barber. 
Did he search about for the hammer? He looked about for it. Have 
you received the letter? I received the letter and now I am going out to 
meet my friend. Have the Americans trap])ed these boars? These boars have 
been trapped by them. How did this man get at these birds and that fish? 
He hawked the birds and hooked the fish. Has the sailor sighted the 
ship? He did not sight the ship. At what is the girl looking askew? 
She iw not looking askew at anything, she is beholding thu procession. 
What did they taste? They lasted the wine. What shall we scent? 
We sh&ll scent thone flowers. Do you remember what your father told 
you? I remember it because I love him. Do you love too your mo- 
ther? Yes, indeed, I love her. Did she caress her child? She did not. 
Whom do you invit*? I invite my friend. For whom is she waiting? 
tihe is waiting for her husband. Whom do you ask? I ask the neighbour. 
Whom have you reprimanded the other day? I reprimanded my son, lie- 
cause he did not carry his brother in arms. Who has destroyed (done 
away with) this house? It was set fire to. Why did they not set their 
hooks in order? Because they were unseamed. Can you carry this log on 
your shoulders? No, but I can drag it along. Whose is that rosary you 
earry along hanging down ? It is my mother's. What do you carry below 
your armpit? It is a prayer-book, for my child cannot walk and I carry 
him in my arms. Why did you cut the bread and tear my stuff already cut 
out? I did not do that, I did hew the log and I felled the trunks of banana- 
trees. Have you weighed the iron and measured the paddy? I only sounded 
the wiue. Why! do you consider this book as mine? I bold it to be theirs. 
Do you believe it to be yours? No, I reput« it to be ours. Do you bold as 
just what was done bj' your son? No, I repute it to be wrong. What is 
he going to do with that stone? He is going to make a church. Why 
doe* your friend consider Peter as his father? Because Peter considers 
him as his son. What is that kite flying for? It is flying for a chicken. 
Will you overtake your enemy? I shall overtake him in swimming. What 
does he dive for? He dives for a ring. 




( continued ) 


Generally, the employing of the verbal case passives is decided by the 
special modification imparted to the action by some indirect comple- 
ment existing in the sentence, Y passive is, however, essential to those 
expulsive acts whereby the subject loses control of something by his own 
will, and to those acts importing throwing, sowing, scattering, spilling, 
commixing, adding and placing, which do not generally admit of the in 
passive. So, this is the true passive for the verbs which, on no other 
account than the nature of the action in its simple sense, are conjugated 
by mag, differently from those conjugated by uwi, which latter generally 
take the in passive. 



What to he (indefJ) Wkat has been. 

To sell. 

To give, to hand over. 
To sell by retail, to do 
something little by little. 
To throw away. 
To sow. 
To scatter. 

To propagate, to spread 

To emit, to send forth. 
To spill. 

To mix, to add some 
different substance to. 
To add. 
To unite. 
To place. 

To heap, to put things 
in layers. 

To sun, to expose some- 
thing to sunshine. 


I Magotay. 




? Maghalo. 





Ang ypagbili. 
„ ygauar, 

„ ypagotay. 

„ ytapon. 
„ ysabog. 
„ ybulagsac. 

„ ycalat. 

„ ysambiSlat. 
„ ybohos. 





{ Magbilad. 


Ang ypinagbili. 










In actions capable of being executed for and against the subject or 
in a manual way, distinction should be drawn as to the performance by 
the subject or by others for him, and as to the manual act considered 
objectively, or the objetive effect of such act upon other things. Thus: 


To stretch out one*s arm to reach some 

thing, is. 

Ang the thing which the subject 

reaches at or which is handed over 

to him by others, is. 

To stretch out the arm to pass some 

thing to others, is. 

And the thing thus handed over. 

To mix in the sense of shaking, is. 

The thing shaken. 

To mix, to add some thing by mixing 

it with. 

And the substance thus added to some 


Ang gauarin. 


Ang ygauar. 
Ang hinalo. 

Ang yhalo. 

Y passive is generally used in sentences with verbs the action of 
which necessarily requires two complements, (although in is sometimes 
used with some of them), when the direct one is discriminately expressed. 


Passive participles indica- 
tive of the thing done. 

To give. 

To present with. 

To tell. 

To ask ta 

To teach. 

To show. 







Ang ybinigay. 
„ ypinagbiyaya. 
„ ysinalita. 
„ ytinanong. 
„ yniaral. 
„ ytinuro. 

The ideas of conforming, adjusting a thing to, of transferring 
translating or copying into, admit of y passive to indicate the thing thus 
adjusted, etc. 


The object of the action. 

To conform, to render suit- ) ^r i . 
able. i Magbagay. 



To translate, transfer, copv } ^r i- 
out. jMagsalin. 

To compare. 
To equalize. 

Ang ybinagay. 

Ang ypinaghalimbaua. 
Ang vpinarA. 

Ang ysinalin. 

Out of the foregoing cases in which the passive of y is used in 
reference to the especially determined direct object of a sentence, y, in- 
dicates the instrument or cause by which the action is executed, or the 
specific time in which executed. It is enough to name any such circums- 
tance with the verb in the proper tense of this passive and the direct 
object (if theie is any,) in the accusative, to make up an y passive 

What has he made this ganta with? 
He made it with the knife. 

Why do you bear those grievances? 

I bear them for God's sake. 
At what time did they arrive? 

They arrived at day-break. 

^An6rig yguinaua niyd nitdng salop? 

Ang itac, ang yguinaua niyi, ygui- 
naua niyd ang itac. 

^ And,t, ypinagbabatA mo iyang maftga 


Dios ang ypinagbabatd co niyan. 

^,An6ng oras ang ydinating nilA? 
j Ydinating nild ang pagbubucang 
( liuiinag or liuayuily. 


Y, meaning the instrument. 

If an action of those requiring the y passive admits of instrument 
and the latter is expressed in the sentence, this is generally done in 
the regular way through the proper prei)08ition. 

He threw away this sand with a hoe. j ^'*'"T" "'^* '^^"^ »)uhangin nang 

•^ ( panhway. 

I sow mv rice with tl>e liand. \ Ysinasabog coang aquing palay nang 

( Camay. 

If tlie root denotes an instrument and is conjugable, the root alone 
in the proper tense of this passive may stand for the whole indirect ob- 
ject if no direct object represented by a noun is stated in the sentence. 

What did they kill it with? c!An6 ang vpinatav nila? 

Thev killed it with a gun. \ X';l"*"^ "V* ?.■• ^"»«"1 ""^' Pin^^^ay 

^ i nila nang l)aril. 

What is required to accomplish some action and the means of ac- 
complishing it may likewise l)e considered as an instrument for the using 
of 2/. ' 

The priest does not officiate to-day, Hindi nagmimi&il ang pare figayon, 

because he has no garments to say sa pageant, uala s.yang damit na ypag- 

mass. mimisi. 

He has not the wherewithal to buy ^ tt i ' • ' u-v **,- u* ^^ 
this farm. \ ^'^''^ ^ly^^ng ybib nit«jng buquid. 

I have the wherewithal to pay you. Mayr6on ac6ng ybabayar sa iyd. 

Y, meaning the cause. 

1", generally means the cause with intransitive actions. 

The reason for my having wept, was Ang ytinangis co,i, ang eamatayan 

my father's death. ni ama. 

Thou art the cause of my remaining ^ t ' x» • i-aa 

1 T * I t 1 [ Icao, ang vtinira co dito. 

here, I stay here for your sake. ) » & ► 

I will go upstairs for his sake. ^iy^,i, ang ypapanhic co. 

rpi ^ a 11 * > 1 ^ Ang ari co, ang vsinusonod (or 3'qui- 

They follow me for my nionevs sake. 1 ® i\ ma ' • ^ j^ 

^ J " I nasusonod) nila sa aquin. 

The reason or cause for ma intransitive actions or in causative verbs, 
is made })y yea, which also serves to indicate time with the same verbs. 

The ruin of his estate came from Ang yquinasira nang caniy.'ng ari, 

gambling. ay ang pagsusugal. 

It is solitude which makes me sad. Yquinahahapisco,i, ang paftgoftgolila. 

The difference between y and yea as to the cause of an action, is, 
that yea designates thoroughly perfected acts, in verbs the action of which 
admits of a slow development. 

The weather is the cause of his ^4 u^ • -. ^ • u^ i a 

improvement. \ ^"^ Panah6,i, ang ygumagahng niyd. 

The taking of this medecine was what Ang pag-inom nit6ng gamot, ang 
made his recovery complete. yquinagaling niyA. 

Y, expressive of time. 

The sense of time with y differs from that nf cnUAe, only in that 
the cftiisative thing is replaced hy some word importing time, in the no- 
minative, yrn being used with the eame verbs and fur the same purposes 
an ahove explained. V expresses time generally with intransitive verbs. 

\ Ang arao na ydarating nang aquing 
I asuua. 
Ang oras na yquinamatiiy niyi. 

If the expression of timtt is a determinate one, it may be put before 
or afl«r the verb; if it is indeterminate, it should be put before'. 

The day my wife will arrive. 
The hour at which she died. 

On I,nt.Frid.,vi., me.l shoulj not b, \ ^}}e '■'"""> "•"« ca«™m.di yquina- 

The vear in which I embarked for the ) , 
Pbili'ppines. i ^ 

ang viernes nang euaresma. 
f Ang taring ysinacay CO sa Pilipina.'*. 


Sentences which include a verb requiring this passive are construed 
by putting the agent in the possesive case and the direct object in the 

I threw away the liook. 
He cast up (vomited) thf i 
Pflter gave ihia money. 

Ytinapon co ang libro. 
Ysinuca niyi ang gatas. 
Ybinigiiy ni Pedro itiing salapi. 

Sentences in which y jKis.'iive is n.sed to express inatruraent, cause 
or time are construed by putting the word indicative of any such cir- 
cumstance in the nominative, and the direct complement (if there is one), 
in the accusative, whith the agent always in the possessive case. 

With thiB .tring vou will t.slen the i ""'"f l"""'.' .VS«g«Pj» "» •" Wlan- 
pri»„er', hnnJ? t'o hi, buck. j ^TntLu " "'° " '"'""*'°'" """'' 

It was on account of her that I came Siyit, ang yquinaparito or ypinariti 
here. co. 

We went away yesterday, Cahapon, ang yniah's natin. 

The putting of the nominative before the verb and the using of the latter 
in the participial sense, makes the express^ion somewhat emphatic. 

The indirect object of an action performed for the benefit of others, or 
the peraon for whom some act is executed, may be put in the nominative 
with the verb in the proper tense of the y passive. 

Buy me (tor me) tliis gun. 
Make chocolate for Father CI 
Have a house maile for rue. 
Roaring, bustle, hum. 

Ybili mo acd nitAng baril. 
\ Ypagloto mo si Pare Carlo* 
i ^icolate. 

Ypagbahay mo act'*. 



What did the mercbajit sell bv relail? He sold mv sinter's needles and 



pins. What do you throw into the fire? I wish to throw my father*? 
wood into the fire. Whv does vour cousin sow rice on his farm? Because 
it sends forth a good smell. What did the native mix (add to) with the 
wine? Water. What did the merchant add to the hutter? He added mv 
father's tallow to it. What did your cousin put on that tahle? He put there 
my sister's prayer-book. Why do you expose that linen to the sun? Because 
it was wet. What do you present your mother with? I presented her 
with a pair of spectacles yesterday. What did he say to your eister-in- 
law? He asked her about the state of lier aunt. What hast thou taught 
this child? I taught him tlie doctrine. Which did they show your female- 
cousin? They show(»d her my fan. What does the pupil copy? He copies 
the verses. What have vou cut mv bread with? 1 cut it with your knife. 
AVhat have you written his letter with? I wrote it with a pencil. What 
has he wounded our friend with? With a stick. Why do you not pay me? 
Because 'I have no money to pay with. With what money will Peter buy 
the bed? He will buy it with the money he received from me. Why does 
that woman weep so much? Because death deprived her of her child. 
Why had he remained heie? He had remained here for Ann's sake. Why do 
soldiers obey their chiefs? Thev obey them through fear. What made him 
completely wealthy? The sale of hides rounded out his fortune. When 
would he arrive at the sea had he departed in time? He would have arrived 
there to-morrow by ten o'clock. Whom an* you going to visit here? I came 
to visit vou. 







An passive is but rarely employed in reference to the direct object. 
There are, however, some verbs which, althougli requiring the in passive 
if looked upon in regard to the nature of the action, are, for the sake of 
euphony or the contractions they undergo, conjugated by an for the direct 

To see, 

To experience, 
To salt, 
To pierce, 

To hold, to grasp; 

To taste. 
To pay for 

what seen. 




held, etc. 

paid for. 



\ Tumafigan. 

i* Magtangan; 

ang tingnan f^cont.) 
pagmasdan. (cont.) 









ba varan 



Magdraly "to learn"; admits of pagaralan for what is learnt. 

Verbs, the action of which proi>erly requires a person as their direct 
complement, generally take an passive to indicate whom the acction falls 



To threaten. Magbala. 

To cohabitate with. Magapir. 

To frighten by suddenlv ) r> i , ' 

rushing out. ' \ Bumaluca. 

To clothe. Dumamit. 

To deceive. Magdaya. 

To kiss. Humalic. 

To Bmack. Maghalic. 

To clean of lice. Humingoto. 

Ang pagbalaan. 
„ apdan. (cont.) (the female party) 



damtan. (cont.) 
hagcan. (cont.^ 
pinaghagcan, (cont.) 
hingotiin. (cont.) 

Sometimes an indicates the i)erson, in, the thing. 

To unfasten, to absolve. 
The person absolved. 
The thing unfastened. 
To hear. 

The person listened to. 
What head. 


Ang calgiin. (cont.) 

Ang calguin. (cont.) 


Ang dingiin. (cont.) 

Ang dinguin. (cont,) 

If the action js such as to admit a plac*^* for its direct nbject,;tho latter^ 
iff generally expressed by the an pari^ive. 



To open, to lav open. Magbucai?. Ang bucasan, bucsan. (cont.) 

To Hprinkle with water Biimuga. j g^^^^ ^^^^^ j 

from the mouth. Magbuga. ^ »» © \ / 

To plant. Magtanim. „ tamnan. (cont.) 

To fill. Mamon6, magpono. „ ponan. (cont.) 

To line. Magsapin. „ sapnan. (cont.) 

To cover. Tumaquip. „ tacpiln. (cont.) 

Open the door. Bucsan mo ang pinto. 

John planted his farm. Tinamnan ni Juan angcaniyang buquid. 

Will they fill the vat? ^Poponan baga nila ang tapayan? 

He had already covered the table Natacpan na niya ang lamesa nang 

when I arrived.* ac6,i, dungmatiqg. 

But, most commonly, an stands for the local ablative and replaces the 
adverb of place or the proposition which otherwise should have been, and 
is to be employed, if the verb obtains in any other form of conjugation. 
Thus, if a sentence with a verb other than those of the class above-stated 
includes an indirect complement of place relating to the action, it is enough 
to name such place with the verb in this passive to express the relation of 
case which is in English made up by means of a preposition. 

Jane is gathering flowers in the Ang halamana,!, ang lugar na pinipi- 
garden. tasan ni Juana nang mafiga bufac-lac. 

In this house mv father died. j y],^"f. ^'^^y °» »**' *"« quinamata- 

( yan ni ama. 

It may be said that an replaces sa, a preposition which governs the 
ablative and sometimes the accusative cases, but which is more adapted 
to the dative. Hence, if in a sentence, there enters in English a da- 
tive of person governed by the prepositiou **to", (1). the person may be 
named in the nominative with the verb in the pasive of an. 

He gave me this nail. j Biniguian niyk ac6 nit6ng paco. Ac6, 

^ ( ang bmig-ian niva nitong paco. 

Whom have they sold my shirt to? \ ^^'"^^ **f * *"« pinagbilhan nil4 nang 

•^ -^ ( aqumg baro. 

( Pinagbilhan nilk ang caniling mafiga 

They sold it to their friends. < caibigan, or, ang mafiga caibigan nila 

f ang pinagbilhan nili. 

Are you admonishing Alfred? j Sj?.^*^^"'*^*" ^** "*"•''* ** ^^■ 

It is not Alfred, but his sister that S ^'"l-f ^ ^'?1?°' ''""'^^ *"*•« caniying 
we are admonishing. j ^»P»*^'* "* .^^^^^ *"« pmaflguftgu- 

^ ( sapan namm. 

An, also stands for the i)erson fn>m whom something comes, in actions 
by which the subject tries to draw something to himself. 

(1). '*To'\ governs the dative case when the action is of such a kind as to 
make the subject part with something. If it is of a mercenary or associative kind 
and i>erformed for the benefit, or in behalf of others, or if the dative is of ac^isi^ 
tion, "for" should then b? us^^i. We have seen that **for'' in this case is ttans 
lated by the y passive. 'She sews these pantaloon? for me". YpijtaffttLtah* niy^ ac^ 
nitpnp salauah 

To buy. 

To take. 

To seek, tu chiini. 

To receive, to accept. 

To ask for, to reiiiiire of. 

To entreat, to pray. 

Cumulm, niiihii. 





Aug liithan. 

J „ coiian. (coiit. and iiivers- 
f ion.) 

„ hanapan. 

,. tangapiin. 

„ hiffgan. 

.. daifigan. 

^ometittifs the discrimination between place and pertson 
piiil when the action admits uf a place. 

lade bv 


To Beek. Hnnianap, 

To Claim payment, to get I g^^^jfi i,, 
one'p self paid, ) ** 

Ang paghanapan. 
„ pngsifigila)!. 


When the verb is such as to require the nn passive in reference to 
the direct object, the sentence is consitnied by putting the agent in the 
possessive case and the direct object in the nominative. 

Tangnan mo itdng candila. 
i Hinahagcan nang anuc ang caniy^ng 

Tucoran mo ang cilhoy. 

Hold thin candle. 

The son kisses his mother. 

Prop the tree. 

If the sentence includeti, besides a direct complement, an indirt'ct one 
of place, the latter is put in the nominative and the direct one in the 

My grandfather plants a variety of Tinafamnan ni nono nang sarlsaring 
trees in the garden. cilhoy ang halamanan. 

Have you looked for the servant in ^Pinaghanapan mo baga saalila itontr 
this road? daang ito? 

If an stands for a place or a person in the ablative or dative cases, 
the place or person should be named (that is to say, put in the nomi- 
native) and the remainder as above; the agent, in the possessive, and 
the direct complement, in the accuaati^'e. The indirect complement may 
be pot before or after the verb, unless an interrogative pronoun or ad- 
verb of place be used in its stead in interrogative sentences, in which 
case, the adverb or the pronoun precedes the verb. As a rule, the naming 
of the place or person liefore the verb is n means of rendering it prom- 
inent in the sentence. 

I write on this paper. 

He wrote my verses. 

We shall write on that table. 

the floor. 

yinusulatan co itiing papel. 
Ysiniilat niya ang aquing mariga lula. 
t PagsuauJatan iiamin iyang lameaang 
/ iydn. 
He put the book on the floor. } *J8_ «>l>ig a-8 lin.guHn ni.,i 

I will give my money to Mr Such a Bibiguian co nang aquing pllac Si 
one. Couan. 

, 1. >> ^ iSinoiig pinagbilhan mo nil6iig ■mn- 

To whom have you ^old thi^ i 
To my neighbour's con. 

/ tamio? 
Aug t 

) nang caapirbahay 

,,ri • r XI- I lo \ ASiiioni: binabayaran mo iiit6nc hihi- 

\\ horn are you pavmc for tniH lied : ^ ^ ., 
.' 1 - f f gan r 

I am paying the merchant for tliis liinaba} aran co nit6ng hihigan ang 

bed. comerciante. 

I will buy the high house from the Bibilhan co nang mataas na bahay 

owner, ang may ari. 


What do you see yonder on the top of that mountain? I see trees which 
bear large branchei?. Does he notice the roaring of the wind? He does not 
notice the roaring of the wind, for he is deaf. Has the servant salted the 
fish? He has not yet salted the fish. Has your brother pierced this buffalo 
with the spear? He has j)ierced this buffalo with a spear and tasted its 
blood. What do you hold in your hand? It is a spear that I hold in my 
hand. What did you learn? I learned the English language. Whom is the 
thief threatening? He is threatening that boy; he frightenwl him at first by 
rushing out and he is now deceiving him. Did you advise and clothe the 
child? I clotlied him and advised him to kiss his sister. From whom did 
you hear what you told mc about the unfastening of the prisoner? I 
heard it from a friend of mine. What is his grand-daughter opening? She 
is opening the garden gate. What are you doing there? I am filling 
and covering the vat. What will they buy from the American? Tfiey will 
buy my butter from him. From whom have you taken that cane? I receiv- 
ed it from my uncle. Of whom have we asked this paper? We craved it 
of the priest. Where has the servant looked for the hen that disappeared? 
He searched for it in the garden. From whom have you received this money 
in payment? I received this money from my debtor. Why does he not 
give me his bird? Because he has already given, it to his sister. Is it this 
house where they assembled? No, they met together at Mary's house. What 
did they assemble for? They assembled to speak about the tax. Where shall 
you go? I shall go nOwhere. Have yon anything to tell me? I have to tell 
you something. Where have you put my spectacles? I put them into 
the room. Whom do vou cut down that tree for? I cut it down for mv 
master. Did I not sav to vou not to cut down anv trees? Well, I obev 
my master. 



The use of tlje passive is far more common in Tagftlog than in West- 
ern languages; in fact it i;* the most common form in narration. 

An English transitive verh has two voices which may he made UFe 
of in a complete sentence; hut the change from the active to the 
paesive is not marked hy an inflexion and hence the active voice pred- 
ominates throughout in Engliwli. In Tagalog, where the passive shortens 
the sentence and concretes the sense in a way requiring some completive 
words in other languages, the contrary takes place, and it may I)e said 
that the projicr use of either voice and either kind of passive constitutes 
the greatest difficulty In the language. 

Speaking generally, the active voice looks forward more to the subject 
which it makes prominent, and the passive, to the object. Thus, if the 
Rubject is made emphatic hy whatever mean^ of wtliression fit for the 
purpose, tlie active voice is generally employed in Tagalog, even, when 
looking to the determination of the object, the passive should have been 
employed; the verb taking the active participial form, 

It is 1 who kille<l him. 

It is you who shall say that. 

He himself did it. 

It is they who stole my money. 

Aeo, ang pungmatay sa canij J. 
Cayil, ang magsssahi niyiin. 
Siyii rin, ang gungmaua. 
Sila, ang nagnticao nang salapl eo. 

The active should likewise be used in incomplete sentence? when n 
reference is made to an especially determined object either mentioned c 

I read, {pres.) 
Thou atest. 
He sees. 
We write. 

They will grant pardoi 

You begged pardon, yon asked for a ( •\\.„. 
reduction in price. ' ' 

Bungmabasil b,c6. 
t'ungmain ca. 

Nacaquiquita siyi. 

SungmuBulat caml. 

'lagpapatiUiar silii. 


But, if we say: hasahin mo, '■(inin niyd, ynnusulal namin, papalaiianh^ 
nild, it may he assumed that "read it, them"; "let him eat it, them"; "we 
write it, them, this" or "they will grant pardon to him, her, them", is meant, 
such English words as "some", "one", "it", "him", "her", "this", etc., being 
frequently understood and included in the passive particle. 

The active is generally made use of in complete sentences when the 
object thereof is in the partitive or indeterminate sense, if no circumstance 
of instrument, place or time directly connected with the action is mentioned. 

Bring in some cigarH. 
My brother ate fruit. 

Magdala ca ditd nang tabaco. 

Ang capatir co,i, cungmain nang IraRgat 

The merchant sells piiip. 
Call (or a servant. 
Don't drink any liquor, 

The Ma me is the ca 
quantity nr kind, if i 


j meant. 

Nagbibili nang anpiter ang comerciante 
Tumauag cayo nang ieting alila. (bata) 
Houag ca uminom nang iliac. 

le with sentences having an object determinate 
I portion and not the whole of such determinate 

Make use of this money. Gumamit ca niyang ealapi. 

I buy some of these bottles. Bungmibili ac6 nitong mafiga bote. 

He will 8e„d .ome of our fnrnitore. \ MagP»l»"i.l4 »l,i nangamingeMang- 

( capan. 

\ Cocoha disin siyii nang apat aa aquing 

( manga caban. 

He would take four of my trunks. 

To Bay, gamilin mo iydn;/ mlapf, hiuibili co ildag m/irifia hole, etc., would 
indicate Ihe whole. 

The active ia naeil with intranpi 
ti> intrtrument, cause, lime, place oi 

tive actions, unlesa rcfi'rence U made 

They hiugh. 
We die. 
You walk. 

Tungmatiiua silii. 
Namamutay cami. 
LungmalUcad cayii. 

In interrogative sentences when an agent and not an object is inquir- 
ed after, the active in likewise used. 

Who calls them? 

Which of them loves you? 

What hurt me? 

In complex sentences in which 

God, will atfai 

^8inong tungmatauag sa caniU? 
\ },A\in or t^ino sa canila ang sungmi- 
I finta sa iyfi? 

;, An6ng nagpasaquit sa aquin? 

the .lul'ject ia enlarged by an adjective 

The man wli 

The knavish boy who dissipates 
fortune deserves to be chastised. 

Ang tau6ng sungmisinta sa Pios ay 
niagcacamit nang caloualhali'an. 
Ang hunghang na bagong tauong nag- 
aacsayii nang caniying ari ay dtipat 
siyiing hampasin. 

The passive should be used in eent^nces the oltject of which is indivi- 
dualized, or is circumacribed and fixed by some attribute or attributive 

Call for Mary. 

He will bring my book. 

Don't whip that cat. 

Bring in the shoes I ordinarily wear 

In interrogative sentences when 

What do you want? 
Which dog did lie kill? 
Whom do you hate? 

When vuty, vmyr.'.on, iinlii or any other verba are used as determining 
ones, the verbs determined by them are used in the passive. 

I have to say. 

Li will not have to ask. 

Tauaguin mo Si Maria. 
Dadalhin niyi rito ang aquing Ubro. 
Houag mong hampasin iyiing pusa. 
^ Dalhin mo riti5 ang maftga sapfn na 

( guinugiimit congmadahis. (earanfuan). 

a determinate object U inquire<l after. 

;.An6ng Ibig mo? 

^Aling aso ang pinatiiy niyu? 

jSino ang quinapopootan mo? 

Mayriion acong sasabihin. 
Ualu caydng ytatanong. 


Be deaerved to he puninhetl. 
Thev ilpservp to be rcwanlcd. 

riiipat siiiiiig gamilii'ii. 

r humim 


The use of the various paasiveB is TOmewhat arl>itrary as there exints a 
kind of interchftiipeahility with each other which is difficult to fix hy any 
rule. In sentenpee with a definitely c i re iiiu scribed object not including 
any other circuinstuniiHi element, the passive to bo used is that which the 
nature of the action requires in regard to tlie direct object, according to the 
rules previoualy laid down for the purpose. 

AcL-ept of my good will, 
He will throw away these 
Have you advised him? 

Tangapin mo an;; 16ob cong magii.ndft. 
\ Ytntupon niyi itiing mafiga sinelas 
i u'orr. from Sp. word, fhindas). 

J, Hinatolun mo siya? 

In sentences containing one indirect complement directly connected with 
the tuition, the dineriminating choice between y and an paHttivos, iH made 
in accordance with the indirect object meaning instrument, place, time or 

Search fur my ,™.ile with this lit-ht. | J^'j',°,?„,""" ■'■•''»"''''" '"" '»"« "I""* 
Did you search aiiout thi- rofiiii for his (.Sinulicsiian mo haga nang caniyang 
letter? Bulat ang ^ilid? 

On our c.ndiarking th^ hurricane Ang pagea^acay nittin yiiuinatadn 

lang biiguio, or, onc^s. 

■ Anong yiiuinaniamatiiy nang iyong 



What doeH your uncli 

■ from'' 

In sentences havinjr more than one indircit eomjdement. the cho 
pai^sive is decided by the sjieaker'a de^^ire to lay more rilres.-^ upon eill 

■ of 

Kill this cat in the 

treet with your Ypatay mo uit6ng pusa ang iyong 
liaril sa lansafigan. 

Stress i: 
by Haying: 

With your \ 
the street. 

Rill this cat 

hereby laid on the instrument, and thi 
•ry gim, kill this i 


ith your gnu 

I U>E 

Ang haril mo rin, ang ypatay i 
t6ng pusa ^a lan»ailgan. 

Ang lansafigan, ang pataydn mo ni- 
tong pusa nang iyjing haril. 

The place is hereby niailc prominent. The b. 

mphasized by saying: 

In the street itself kill thin 
with your gun. 

Ang lansaHgan, ang patayan ino 
nilong pusa nang iy6ng bnril. 

If stress is lai<l i 
regular way, saying: 

Kill this cat in the 

the object, the sentence 

be construtil in the 

ilh Patayin mo it6ng pusa sa lan^niigan 

or made it more emphatic by saying: 
ThiB cat, let it be killed Ity you in 

ihe street with 

Yt6ng 1 

ito.i, ang pataym Ino 
nang iyong baril. 

Studente shoutil take care to <iiHtinguiith cireiimstaiitial memhere 1 
cnnneptetl with the aetion from ailverhs or ttiiv»Thial pxpn-rfaion!!, on Ufliti)! ] 

ihe passive finmn. 

He did this purjjoscly. Sadijanp; Kuinaua niya i'o. 

He assaulted him furinu.-^ly (,vilh Diiialohong niyi siyii ii..;ip hoong 

)jrreat fury.) bagitlc. 

Attention Hhonld he paid to the followini^ illustration)?. 

Bring me these hooka upstairs. 

He tonk the child upstair^ 

I will meet you upstairs. 

Will he look for the hook whifh i 

was miiised? ' 

Overtake my brother, 

Run after him and d.-livi-r 

letter to him. 

Whom did you inquire after? 

Whom do you inquire from? 

I asked him whether he was 



To dis 

to detect. 

Panluciln mo aui'i nitong mailga lihro. 

Ypiitanhie niya ang bata sa huhay. 

pHpanhiqiifn quita sa bilhar. 

;. Hahaiiftpin niyi aiig Hbrong nauald? 

Hftliulin mo ang aquing eapatir 
; Htii>ulan niii siya idtbng eulat. 

,-,SinonK ytiminon^ mo? 

^Sino any: tinatanong mo? 
{ YtinanoTip v<> sh eaniy& eung hagii 
< siya,i, capatid n]\k, or. linanoiip i 
( siya eti'. 



Was il your nephew that eut off the hranch? It was not he who out 
it off. Is it they who sjiid I was imprisoned? It was my niece who said it. 
Was it the It;iiians who discovered America? No, it was not the Ita- 
lians, it was the Spaninriii: that discovered it. Who ordered the crimi- 
nal to be put to death? It was the king that ordered it. Was it not 
the judge who ordered your cousin to In- released? It was not the judge, 
it was the captain. What are you reading? I am reading the book my 
friend lent me. Whom do you ask for pardon? I ask pardon from my i 
teacher. Why do you not wish to eat? I don't eat because I cannot. 
What do you bring? I bring some fruit. Where have you taken 
I took it in the forest. Does the priest take chocolate every morning? 
He takes chocolate every norning after mass. What will Mary buy? She 
will buy bread and wine. Would it not be better if she would buy need- 
les and stuff? She has no longer the money you gave her the other day. 
Why! is it so? Yes, indeed, I thought she had not yet made use of 
it. Which water shall I drink of? Drink of this water, for it is cool 
and clear. Muv I take some of this money? Take only twenty three 
dollars out of it. Whom are the children laughing at? They are laughing 
at that drunkard. Why do ihey laugh? They laugh because he staggers. 
Why do you walk so much? Because we are in a great hurry. Why did 
your son wound this dog? He wounded him because he bit him. Who loves ' 
your sister? Peter loves her. Who did this? The man that came last 
Sunday did it. Who is running? The girl that tore your stocking is 
running. Shall I call for her? Yes, call for her. What has the mer- 
cliant to tell me? He has to tell you to pay your debt. How much do 
1 owe him? You owe him thirty-six dollars. Who else came to inquire 
after me? The Chinese tradesman came to claim payment for the shoe.«. 
What did you say tn him? I told him you had no money to pay with. 
Why does he whip his servant? Because he stole a ring from him. Did 
he not reward him some days ago? Yes, he rewarded him for his honesty. 
Why does not your friend come for you at home? He fears the dog. 
Why are you not willing to raceivt this money? Because it is not good. 





The Tagalog language abounds in verbal prefixed particles modifying 
the original range of nignification of the root as to the manner, intension 
and purpose of the action, in a way generally requiring long round-about 
forms of expression in other languages. These particles are sometimes 
essential to the verb, that is to say, express the primary action, but, 
most commonly, they stand for verb attributes, which should otherwise 
have been employed, thus imparting a wonderful conciseness to the speech. 

Man, (active) paiiy (passive) is one of the principal. It is generally 
applied to habitual actions and to those which, although may be indif- 
ferently or occasionally performed, have acquired a character of fixedness 
by habit, trade or exercise. 

That this sense of habitude may be imparted, it is, however, neces 
sary that the original signification of the verb with uni or mag, he not 
changed by m««. Thus, umasdua, means "to ent^r into marriage" (referr- 
ing to the bridegroom); mngasdva, *'to marry" (both parties); but ma- 
n^asdua, "to pay addresses" in the simplest sense this can be done. The 
same may be said of actions not admitting of habit or instrument for 
their performance, and thus, manganar, "to lie in," "to bring forth"; does 
not express frequertcy. 

Verbal roots the first letter of which is h or p and which, according 
to their signification, should have been conjugated by vm, are pluralized 
or intensified by man. Bumilt, "to buy"; mamlll, "to buy many things"; 
pumuti, **to whiten"; mamnti, "to grow rapidly or very white". 

The interchangeability of letters which in other conjugations is some- 
what vague and sometimes optional, has in this of vian more consistency. 
The n of man or pan is dropped before roots beginning with />, p, «, /; 
and replaced by ng in those beginning with a vowel. In roots beginning 
by c-g, both the latter and the n of the particle are dropperl and replaced 
by hg. B and /> are changed into m\ », I and sometimes d\ into n. 

The manner of conjugating roots with this particle does not deviate 
from the regular one in other resi)ects. 

- ;^ooTr'. 

Scoff. * :/./ Libac. : .. • 

Habit, custom. Bihasa. 

Fault, censure. Pintas. 

Curse. ftumpa. 

Temptation. Tocs6. 


Wish, desire, love. 





To scoff. 


Person or thing. 




To habituate. 


Habit, custom. 

Pinamisanhan. (1). 

To train others, to cause others to get ) xfaanamihaKa 
accustomed to. S .Magpamitiaba. 

The cause of being accustomed, what ) .^„ «„,.o««^:u«ei 
causes habit. i ^"^ nacapamihasa. 

To train one's self to. 


To what. 

Pinagbibihasanan. (1), 

To what has been accustomed. 

Quinamisanhiin. (1). 

To find faults with. 


Action censured. 

Ang pamintasan. 

Censurer, critic. 


To curse others. 


To curse manv. 


To be cursed bv others. 

Sumpiin, pagsumpain. 

Reason or the nature of the curse. 

Ang ysumpa, ypagsumpa. 

To curse each other. 

Mageumpaan.* ^.^ 

To curse customarily. 


Nature of the curse or thing cursed 

> Ang ypanumpa. 

over customarily. 

Person before whom an oath is taken. 

Ang panumptian. 

Habitual cursing. 

Ang panunumpa. 

Habitual curser. 


To tempt other. 


Do others, (many or many timtv) 


To be tempted by. 


Do hard or frequently. 


Do, with or on account of. 


Do do, hard. 




To go about tempting. 


Do, a great deal. 


Do, with. 






To wish, to want, to desire. 


Do, do (by many); to go about flirting. 


To be loved, (without one's being 

> Macafbig. 

Loved, (rx intentione). 


Loved, (casnaliter). 


Whom one loves. 


To long for. 


Thing longed for. 


Love of something. 

Caibigan. (2). 

Thing loved. 


Loving, lovely, lovable, aimable. 


To love this and that over again. 


Flirting, amorous. 

Maibiguin. (2). 

(1) For the sake of euphony, thie root 

(2) Notice the accentuation! 

in pert p r? in thifi composition. 


To |iave a leaning for. 


To pay addresses to. 

To iove each other. 

To jike. 

To take, (for one's self). 

Thipg taken. 

Person from whom. 


To go about taking. 



Thing taken, (casualiter). 

What can be taken. 




Mag-iibig, magcacaibigan. 


Cumoha, moha. 












To woff. 


Present indefinite tense. 

I,tkou,he,etc.we,you,thevscoff,etc.j^''^^'l"!^'?^^^^^ ''y^^ **>'^' '^"^'^ 
' ' ' ' ^ » . . i cavo, sila. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses, 

I, thou, he, etc. we, voii, they scoffed Nanlibac a<H5, ca, siya, tayo, cami, 
etc.; have, etc. scoffed. cay 6, sila. 

Plwpcrfeci tense, 

fNacapanlibac aco, ca. siya, tayo, cami, 
I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they had ct<!. J cayo, sila. 

scoffed. I Nanlibac na ac(), ca na; na siya, tayo, 

cami, cay6, sila. 

Future indefinite tense, 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall, Manlilibac ac6, ca, siya, tayo, cami, 
etc. will, etc. scoff. cayo, sila. 

Future perfect tense. 

TMacapanlibac aco, ca, siya, tayo, cnmi, 
I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall, etc. I cayo, sila. 
will, etc. have scoffed. ^ Manlilibac na ac6, ca na; na siya, ta- 

[ yo, cami, cay6, sila. 


Scoff (thou, ye.) let him, etc. u?, them Manlibac ca. ?iya, tayo, cami, cay6, 
scoff. sila. 


Verba I, 


The actiong ol scoffing. Anp panlilibac. 



To be scoffed at or of. Panlibaquin. 

Present indefinite tense. 

am, etc. are scoffed at by me, Pinanlilibac co, mo, niya, natin na- 

thee, him, etc. us, ye, them. min, niny6, nila. 

Present perfect aiid past indefinite tenses. 

was, etc. were: have, etc. been ) r>- « i-u a *: : 

scoffed at by me, th^e, him, etc. us, [ nhlJ" "ila '"°' ' ' 
ye, them. ; 

Pluperfect tense. 

C Napanlibac co, mo, niyi, natin , namin, 

had, etc. been, scoffed at by me, | ninyd, nili. 

thee, hi m^ etc. us, ye, them. 1 Pinanlibac co na, mo na; na niyd 

1^ natin, namin, niny6, nila. 

Future indefinite tense: 

...... shall, etcl; will, etc. be scoffed Panlilibaquin co, nap, niyij, jiatin^ na- 

at by me, thee, him, etc. us, ye, them, min, ninyo, nila. 

Future perfect tense. 

....... Bhall, etc.; will, etc. Mve been [M?r";?"'„^4"^' niya,_^ natin, na 

scoffed at by me, thee, him, etc. U6, ye,^ 

min, nihvo, nila. .' 
Panlilibaquin co na, mo ria; na niyi, 
^natin, namin, ninyo, niU. 


•. % 

Be scoffed- at, let. ..... be scoffed at Panlibaquin mo; -rtiya, "lijifin; ftamito, 

bv thee, him, etc. us, ve. them. : ninyo, nila. 


The state of being scoffed at. Ang panlibaquin. 




To scoff on account of. Ypanlibac. 

Present indefinite tense 

I, thou, he, etc. wo, you, they scoff etc. Ypinanlilibac co, mo, niya, natin, na- 
on account of. min, ninyo, nila. 

Present perfect and j^ast indefinite tenses. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they scoffed Ypinanlibac co, mo, niyi, natin, na- 
etc; have etc. scoffed on account of. min, ninyo, nila. 

Pluperfect tense. 

scoffed on account of. 

f Napanlibac co, mo, niya, natin, namin, 
I, thou, he, etc, we, 3'ou, they had etc. ] ninyo, nil4. 

" ' ' " I Pinanlilmc co na, mo na; na niyd, na- 

tin, namin, ninyd, nil^. 

Future indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall Ypanlilibac eo, mo, niyi, natin, na- 
etc. will, etc. scoff on account of. min, ninyo, nilsl. 

Future perfect tense. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall 
etc., will etc. have scoffed on account- 

Maypanlibac co, mo, niyi, natin, na- 
min, niny6, nilA. 

Ypanlilibac co na, mo na; na niy^, nn- 
[tin, namin, ninyd, nila. 


Scoff (thou, ye); let him, etc., us, them Ypanlibac mo, niya, natin, n«;min, 
scoff on account of. ninyd, nild. 

The action of scoffing on account of. Ang ypanlilibac. 



To scoff in. (place) Panlibacan, 


Present indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they scoff Pinanlilibacan co, mo, niy^, natin, 
etc. in. namin, ninyd, niU. 

Present 'perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

I, thou, he, etc, we, you, they scoffed Pinanlibacan co, mo, niyai, natin, na- 
etc.; have, etc. scoffed in. min, niny6, niW. 

Pluperfect tense. 

f Napanlibaciin co, mo, niya, natin, na- 
I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they hud, etc. J min, niriyo, nila. 
scoffed in. 1 Pinanlibacan co na, mo na; na niyd, 

[^ natin, namin, niny6, nilk. 

Future indefinite tense. 

I, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall, Panlilibacan co, mo, niysl, natin, na- 
etc, will, etc. scoff in. min, ninyo, niW. 

Future perfect tense. 

f Mapanlibacan CO, mo, niy^, natin, na- 
1, thou, he, etc. we, you, they shall, ! min, niny6, niW. 
etc., will, etc. have scoffed in. 1 Panlilibacan co na, mo na; na niya, 

(^ natin, namin, niny<^, nila. 


Scoff (thou, ye), let him, etc. us, them Panlibac^n mo, niyi, natin, namin, 
scoff in. ninyo, nila. 


The action of scoffing in. Ang panlilibacan. 

The student should conjugate in the active and in the various passives, 
the following verbs. 

To arise, to proceed from, to take ) w q. 
rise or origin from. ) ^^^^ ^^' 

To cure habitually or professionally. Mangamot. 
To imitate, to mimic, to mock. Mangagar. 

To mix. (by trade or customarily). Mangamao. 

To reprimand, to criticise loudly. Msngasa. 
To milk. Mangatas. 

To exercise, to practice. Mangaua. 

To lay waste, to cause havoc, or to 1 
gain a living by drawing products > Mangubat^ 
ifrom the forest. ) 

To scout. Manhanap. 

To wash one's face. Manhilamos. 


Manghola. (1). 

I Manlabong. 


f Manlambay. 


To take away the nits. 

To soothsay. 

To live by rapine. 

To put forth shoots the bamboo trees, 

or, to gather in the same shoots. 

To cast the net for fish. 

To fish with a net. 

To sail or walk along the banks of a 

river fbr. 

To hover about one place, to haunt. 

To stare, to look crossly al some one. 

To gather fruit by shaking the tree. 

The following roots are given to illustrate the change of letters they 
undergo conjugated by man. 

Habit, custom, cunning, craft; to use, ) p., a 'u a 

to be accustomed. \ iiiHasa, mamiiiasd. 

Censure, fault: to censure, to find ) o* * ' • * ' 

faults with. j PmtaB, mamintas. 

Curse, to curse. Sumptf, manumpil. 

Temptation, to tempt. Tucso, manucs6. 

LfOve, desire; to flirt, to be of an ^ ^i . , ,. v « ri • 

amorous diBlwHition. • \ ^b^g- ("asa, nais); mafigfbig. 

Taking to take continually, to b*. ^^^ maftgoha. 
engaged in taking. ) »> • ■ b""»- . 



To habituate. 


To find fault with. 


To curse, to swear. 


To tempt. 
To flirt. 
To take. 





Present indefinite tense. 

Use, -st, -B. 


Censure, -st, -s. 


Swear, -est, -s. 


Tempt, -est, -s. 

Flirt, -est, -s. 
Take, -st, -s. 



perfect and 

past indefim 

Used, -dst; have, hast. 

han used. 


Censured, do do do do do censured. 


owore, ,, „ ,, ,, 
Tempted, „ „ „ „ 
Flirted, „ „ „ „ 

lOOK, ^ „ „ ,, 

„ sworn. 
„ tempted. 
„ flirted. 
„ taken. 


(1). If the root begins with h, may receive g before. 



Phiperfeci teunc. 





sworn . 




will, -It 


1} ^y 


yy yy 


Nacapamihasd, namihasd na. 
Nacapamintas, namintas na. 
Nacapanumpd, nanumpa na. 
Xaeapanucsb, nanucs6 na. 
Nacapaflgibig, naftgfbig na. , 
Nacapaiigoha, naiigoha na. 

Future indeiinite tense. 







Future perfect ten^e. 

Shall, -It, will, -It, have used. Macapamihasd, mamimihri >i na. 

„ „ „ „ „ censured. Macapamintas, mamimintas na. 

,, „ „ „ ' ,, sworn. MacapanHmpa, manunumpa na. 

„ „ ., „ „ tt^mpted. Macapanucs ">, manunucs6 na. 

,. ,. ,, „ „ flirted. Macapafigibig, mafigingibig na. 

„ ,, ,, ,. ,, taken. Macapafigoha, mafigognoha na. 


Use, let use. Mamihasa. 

Cejisure, „ censure. Mamintas. 

Swear, „ swear. Manumpa. 

Tempt, „ tempt. Manucso. 

Flirt, „ flirt. Mangibig. 

Take. „ take. Mailgoha. 


The action of using. 

„ ccnsuiinp. 


Ang pamimiha^d. 
„ pamimintas. 
„ panunumpii. 
„ panunucs). 





To be accustomed, 










■Present indefinite tense. 


rty is accustomed. 

„ „ censured. 

„ „ cursed. 

„ „ tempted. 

„ „ flirted. 

,. „ taken. 







Present perfect and pad indefinite tenses. 

Was, -st, were; have, hast, has been accustomed. 

„ censured. 
„ cursed. 
„ tempted. 









Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst been 









Napamihasa, pinamihasa ua. 
Napamintas, pinamintas na. 
Napanumpa, pinanumpa na. 
NapanucHO, pinanucsd na. 
Napafigibig, pinafigibig na. 
Xapafigoha, pinangoha na. 

Future indeiinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It l>e 









Pamimiliasanhin. (epenthesis.") 

Future perfect tense.. 

Shall -It, will, -It, have been accustomed. 

„ „ „ „ „ „ censured, 

>> j> » j> >> )» 

» » >> j» >> n 

» » n )> j> n 

» » » >j >» jj 


Mapamihasa, pamimihasanhin na. 
Mapamintas, pamimintasin na. 
Mapanumpa, panunumpain na. 
Mapanucsd, panunucsohin na. 
Mapangibig, pafigingibiguin na. 
Mapangoha, pafigongonin na, 


Be, let be accustomed. 

„ „ „ censured. 

„ „ „ cursed. 

,, ,, ,, tempted. 

„ „ „ fliFted: 







The Btate of being accustomed. 







Ang pamihasanhin, 









To accustom because of. 
censure. „ 

curse at. 
tempt with, 
flirt on jiccount of. 
take with. 








Present indefinite tense. 

Accustom, -est, -s because of. Ypinamimihasa. 

Censure, -et, „ „ „ Ypinamimintas. 

Curse, „ „ at. Ypinanunumpa. 

Tempt, -est, „ with. Ypinanunucso. 

Flirt, „ „ on account of. Ypinafigifigibig. 

Take, -st, „ with. Ypinafigongoha. 

Present 'perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Accustomed, -dst; have, hast, has accustomed because of. 


Censured, do do do do censured „ ,, 


Cursed, „ „ „ ,, cursed at. 


Tempted, „ „ „ „ tempted with. 


Flirted, „ „ „ ,. flirted on account of. 


Took, „ „ „ „ taken with. 


Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst, accustomed because of. Naypamihasd, ypinamihasi na. 

censured „ „ Naypamintas, ypinamintas na. 

cursed at. Naypanumpa, ypinanumpd na. 

tempted with. Naypanucso, ypinanucso na. 

flirted on account of. Naypaf^gfbig, ypinaf^gfbig na. 

taken with. Naypaf^goha, ypinaligoha na. 


FiUure indefinite tense. 
















Shall, -It, will, -It accustom because of. 

censure „ „ 

curse at. 
tempt with, 
flirt on account of. 
take with. 








Future perfect tense. 

have accustomed 
















yy )> 

>) >> 




do censured do do. Maypamintas, 
„ cursed at. Maypanumpa, 

„ tempted with. Maypanuci?6, 

* •• 'Jii'S? X "• i Mayp.«gibig, 
taken with. Maypanguha, 



ypamimihaga na. 

3'pamimintas na. 
ypanunumpa na. 
ypanuuucso na. 

ypafigifigibig na. 

ypangungiiha na. 

Accustom, let 







accustom because of. 

censure „ ,, 

curse at. 

tempt with. 

flirt on account of. 

take with. 









The action of accustoming because of. 
„ censuring „ „ 

„ cursing at. 
„ tempting with. 
„ flirting on account of. 
„ taking with. 









To be accustomed to. 
To animadvert on. 
To curse before. 
To tempt at or in. 
To flirt with. 
To take from. 

Ang ypamihasa. 










PamihaHanhan. (epentheniH). 





Paiigonan. (contraction). 

Present indefinite tense. 

Am, art, are accustomed to. 
Animadvert, -est, -s, on. 




at or in. 
„ with, 



Pinanunucsohan . 

Present perfect and pa^t indefinite tenses. 

Was, -st, were; have, hast, 

Animadverted, -dst; have, hast. 








has been accustomed to. 
animadverted on. 
cursed before, 
tempted at or in. 
flirted with, 
taken from. 













Pluperfect teme. 

Had -dst -been accustomed to. 
animadverted on. 
cursed before, 
tempted at or in. 
flirted with, 
taken from. 







pinamisanlian na. 
pinamintasan na. 
pinanumpaan na. 
pinanucsohan na. 
pinafigibigan na. 
pinangonan na. 

ffUnre indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It be accustomed to. 

animadvert on. 
curse before, 
tempt in or at. 
flirt with, 
take from. 









Pa mi mi ha sa nan. 







Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, wilt -It have been accustomed to. 

animadverted on. 



cursed before, 
tempted in or at. 
flirted with, 
taken from. 

Mapamisanhan, pamimisanhan na 
Mapamintasan, pamimintasan na 
Mapanumpaan, panunumpaan na 
Mapanucsohan, panunucsohan na 
Mapafigibigan, paf^gingibigan na 
Mapafigonan, paiigofigonan na 


Be, let 






. be accustomed to. 
. .animadvert on. 
.. curse before. 
. .tempt at or in. 
. .flirt with. 
. . take from. 








The state of being accustomed to. 
The action „ animadverting on. 

„ cursing l)efore. 

„ tempting at or in. 

„ flirting with. 

„ taking from. 









Ang pamisanhan. 
„ pangibigan. 
„ pangonan. 




The student should conjugate by man the following roots: 

Share, to distribute. 

Care, to care for. 

House, to live in a house, 

(as opposed to live in the woods.) 
Town, to live in town. 

Pale, 10 grow pale. 









(I). The root, in this tense, fns^rts n for the sake of euphony. 



to fish eels. 




to fish frogs. 




to cut up. 




to write professionally. 




to lay snares for. 




to go al>out destroying. 



Claim for payment, 

to collect money. 



Winning, conquering; 

to win, to overpower. 




to blaspheme. 




to wear an apron. 




to pray for. 




to preach. 




to fish with a torch. 



First, prior; 

to precede, to go l)efore. 




to flee. 




to go round biting. 




to cling to here and there. 




to devour. 


ui afigain. 

Man is fit to express the seasonable production of plants. 

To blossom, to bloom. Mamulac-lac. (from bidar-hr). 

To fructify, to beat fruit. Mamufiga. (from hon(ja). 

To put forth or gather in the shoots T»r , , 
of bamboo.tree8. Manlabong. 

It expresses habit, frequence of acts or multitude of agents in some 
actions, the first degree of which is expressed by «m or mag. 

To cut off with the hand. 

To gather flowers. 

To spin. 

To spin, to be 8i)inner. 

To give, to lavish. 

Pumuti, cumitil. 
Mamuti, mangitil. 
Magbigay, mamigay. 

But the sense with those actions which may bo mercenary is one of enga- 
gement or trade. Thus, for instance. 

To sew. 

To sew a great deal. 


But, to engage in tailoring, to earn !i ^ Ar i ' 
living by sewing. \ " 

To write, (the action looked upon as ) g^j^jJi^* 
to the agent ) \ ' 

To write something. 


But to earn one's livelihood by writing. Maniilat. 

Roots of instruments, tools or arms are conjugated by man to indicate 
that they are worn or irade use of to some puri)ose. 


To wear side-arms. 

Axe, to wear an axe. 

Chopping knife, to wield it. 

Dagger, to wear a dagger. 

Life, to live. 

Palacol, mamalacol. 
Tabac, manabac. 
Yiia, mafigiua. 
Buhay, mamuha3\ 

Common nouns of places are conjugated by man to indicate habitation 
or residence therein. 

Mount, hill; to settle on a mountain. 

Town, to live in town. 

Sea, to lead a sea-faring life. 

Bondoc, mamondoc. 
Bay an, mamayan. 
Dagat, managat. 

UontR of wearing garmpiitp if pnnjugaU^d by man, indicate the wearing 
thermf. The itifferenee in senne lielween the tronjugaling of the same by 
lang and mnn, is timt iKe former expresses the occasional and the latter 
the custumary wearing. 

Sliirt, to wear a shirt. 
Apron, to wear an apron . 
Hat, to wear a hat. 

Baro, mauaro. 
Tapis, manapia. 
Sambalilo, manambalilo. 

The extractive industry of forestry and fishing products being so widely 
spread throughout the Islands, roots indicative of any such products may be J 
conjugated by man to denote the engaging in the working as a ' 

Wood, to e 


Rattan, to gather rattans. 

Deer, to chase deer. 

Fish, to be a fisherman. 

Oyster, to gather oysters. 

the wood-monger's 

Cfthoy, manga hoy. 
Ouuy, mafigouity. 
Usa, maHgusii. 
Ysdn, mangisdu. 
Talabti, manalahii. 

!-<heIl, mother of pear shell to pick In- , 

. ., u 11 i Cap!.-*, maftsapis. 

up, to gather shelle. S 

asing or getting at nuch prooucu 

The instrument made use of in fishing, i 
may likewise he conjugated by vinn. 

Fishing-rod, to be a rod fisherman. Bi'uas, mamiuas. 

Hook, to use hooks in fishing. Hinuit, maminuit. 

Net, to fish with a net. Lambiit, inanlaml>at. 

Gun, fowling-piece; to hunt with a gun. Bari!, mamaril. 

But distinction should l>e drawn ttetween these instruments conjugated by J 
vmn, and the same conjugated by utii. Urn, looks forward to tlic action orj 
use, MwiM, to the work or effect. Thus, Uao, "light;" innUuo, "to make u 
11 light;" that is, to aay, "to light;" m'lnjilfiii, "to get a living by em[tloying I 
a light". (To fish, using a torch). 

Man, conjugation is a very important one and the pupil i.i recommended to J 
acquaint himself with it as thoroujijhly as possible. Into it. many a root of 1 
um and mng conjugations, if beginning with h, p, I, «. >:, or a vowel, come to be , 
resolved. Biifdy, vuim.iyay; pdmtr, mamdior; tornp, mnnorop; unln^ mnntiia; ■ 
Idral, mnitniildral- etc. 


Whom does my son scoff at? He scoffs at you. Why does he scoff at ' 
me. Because you are curing my dog. Where do they come from? (take 
origi 1 of) They come from the first settlers. Does he know how to mimic 
cats? No, but he know how to milk cows. Whom arc Americans scout- 
ing for? They scout tor rebels. Did John practice medicine? No, but i 
he practises soothsaying. What do rebels live by? They live by rapine. 
Where do childr'm lay snares for birds? They do not lay snares for I 
birds, they earn their living by netting and by fishing with a hook. What J 
are you accustomed to? I am accustomed to censuring and cursing, Whom j 
U the youngman always tempting? He is tempting his female-cousin. ^ 
When did you fiirt? I used to flirt with girts when a lad. What was J 
your father engaged in taking? He was engaged in taking thieves. Among I 
whom do you distribute that money? I distribute it among my relationa. f 
Does your servant take care of the garden? He takes care of his farm, 
for he does not live in town, but in the country. What kind of fishing i 
our neighbour engaged in? He is engaged in fishing eels and frogs. 
What is your trade? My trade is that of a writer, What do insurgents 


go about destroying? They go about destroying farms and villages, and 
collecting money, and they blaspheme because they do not conquer. Whom 
do you pray customarily? I pray God and the Holy Virgin. Is the priest 
preaching to those women wearing aprons? Yes. What is her husband 
engaged in? He is engaged in fishing with a torch. Is that dog used 
to bite and devour boars? It is not used to bite, but the boars are 
used to flee and do not allow themselves to be overrun (preceded). What 
is the condition of the trees in your garden? They do not yet bear fruit; 
but they are already in bloom. What was Jane engaged in when still 
alive? She was engaged in spinning and gathering flowers. How does 
he earn his living (provide for)? He sews and writes. Do officers wear 
side-armB? .They wear a sword, but they do not wear axes. Does your 
grandfather lead a sea-faring life? No, he was a woodman and a chaser 
of deer. Was not your father engaged in fishing? He has engaged in 
gathering oysters and shells. Did they fish with a hook or a rod? He fished 
with a torch and sometimes with a net. Does his friend hunt boars with a 
gun? No, he used to hunt boars with dogs. 







On encountering dissyllabic and trisyllabic verbal particles, the student 
should be reminded of the general rule regarding the rei)eating of the second 
or third syllable of the particle instead of the first of the root, for the pre- 
sent and future tenses. In applying this rule to maca, we must say that 
here, as elsewhere, the rule is somewhat arbitrary, and that the custom 
prevails in some parts of the Islands of repeating ra, while the first sylla- 
ble of the root is repeated in others. The latter form is to be preferred, 
especially in those roots which admit of en in the passive. 

Mara, applied to roots admitting of um or mag conjugations verbalizes 
in a potential sense, and in a causative one, if applied to those involun- 
tary actions that are conjugated by ma, that is to say, according to mora 
being made use of for actions or affections. The pluperfect and perfect future 
tenses of maca have very little use and cannot, of course, be formed in the 
suppletory way of respectively prefixing naca and m^ca, without entailing 
confusion with the past indeflhite tenge and the imperative. Thus, these 
latter with the completive particle na after them are used to express the 
respective perfect tenses. 


Pace. Lacad. 

Sadness. Hapis. 


To walk. Lumacad. 

Thing walked for. Lacarin. 

Place whereto, or person to whom ) j 
somebody takes anything, by walking. \ 

To walk a great deal, or to carry ) 

some thing along with one while > Maglacad. 
walking. ) 

Thing thus carried along, or the foot. Ilacad. 
Person to whom. Lacaran. 

Route whereby. Paglacaran. 

To walk merely as a pastime. Maglacarlacar. 

Place whereon. Paglacarlacaran. 

To be able to walk. Macalacad. 


To be sad. Mahapis. 

Caase. Icahapis. 

The object cauising sadness. Cahapisan. 

How sad! Cahapits-hapis. 




To be able to walk. Macalacad. 

To sadden. Macahapis. 

Present indefinite 

Can, -St walk. Sadden, -est, -s. Nacacalacad- (1). Nacahahapis. (1). 

Present perfect and pa.^t indefinite tenses. 

Could, -dst; have, hast, has l>een ) 

able to walk. Saddened, -dst; have, > Nacaliicad. Nacahaju??. 

hast, has saddened. ) 

Phiperfect tense. 

Had, -dst been able to walk. Had, ) ^^ i ^ i x* u • 

-dst saddened. \ ^^^^"^^^^'^ n^- Nacahapis na. 

Fntnrc indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It h^^aWe to walk, j ^^j^,^!^,,^,^^. (1). Macahahapis. (1). 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It. will, -It have been able to walk. ) Macalacad na. Macahapis na. 
„ „ „ V V saddened, S ^ 


Be able, let. .. .be able to walk. ^ *r ,. , /^v ^r u 

Sadden, let. . . .sadden. S ^^^^^"<'^^^'^^' (^)- Macahapi.. 


The action of being able to walk. / . i - j * u • 

„ „ „ saddening. ^ Ang pagcalacad. Ang pagcahap.s. 


The poteneial eense of maca, admits of the three passives; the can- 
setive sense only admits of ;/ passive. The passive particle correspond- 

(f) XeLracahi^ad , nacacahapif; maracaldcad, macacahapiA aro also in^iiPe. 
(2) Speakfing properly, l^cad, in «the potential senge, lacks imperative^ 


ing to the ix)tential sense is mn, the one corresponding to the causative 
sense, is en; {yea, since such verbs admit hut of y passive). In the pas- 
sive of in, this particle is dropped in all the tenses, which is a peculiarity 
of maca conjugation, only ma or na remaining as seen hereafter. 



To be run over, {to he able tobe run over). Malacad. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Am. art, is, are run over. Xalalacad. 

present perfect and pa^t indefinite tenses. 

Was, -5t, were; have, hast, ha s cecn run over. Nalaci^d. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst been run over. Nalacad na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It be run over. Malalacad. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have been run over. Malalacad na. 


Be, let. ... be run over. Malacad. 



To be able to walk with, (a staff.) Maylacad. 
To sadden by. Ycahiipis. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Can, -st, walk with. Naylalacad. 

Sadden, -est, -s. Yquinahahapis. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

* ■ • ■ 

C6uld, -dst walk; have, hast, has been \ 

able to walk with. Baddened, -dst; > Nayldcad, Yquinftbapis. r 

have, hast, has saddened by. S 


Pluperfect teuHe. 

Had, -dst been able to walk with. ^ v. i * i v^ • u 

„ „ saddened by. i >aylacad na. ^qumahapis na. 

Future indefinite tem^e. 

Shall, -It. will, -It be able to walk with. ^ mr , ,. , v- u u 
„ „ „ „ sadden by. < Maylalacad. \cahahapis. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have been able to ] 

walk with. [> Maylalacad na. Ycahahapis na. 

i, „ „ ,. do do saddened by. S 


Let be able to walk with. Mavlacad, 

Sadden, let sadden by. Ycahapis. 


The action of \m\\v: able to walk with. ) ^ i * j 4 u • 

.. „ „ Baddening by. \ ^"t' "'ajl^C'^d. Ang ycahapis, 



To be able to walk at. Malacaran. 

Present indejinite te)t,^e. 

Can, -8t walk; am, art, is able to walk ^ x^ 1 1 

. ' ) > » \ Nalalacaran. 

at. S 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Could, -dst walk; was, -st, were; have, ) xt 1 

hast, has been able to walk at. j iNaiacaran. 

Piiperfect tense. 
Had, -dst been able to walk at. Nalacaran na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

.Shall, -It, will, -It be able to walk at. Malalacaran. 

Putvre perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will. -It have been able to ; xr i i 

walk at. • . . • • < >I«lal'«^"an na. 


Let be able to walk at. Malacaran. 


The action of being able to walk at. Aug malacaran. 

The student should conjugate the following verbs by mora, both in 
the active and in the various forms of passive. 

To make merry, to gladden, to cheer. Macatoua. 

To make melancholy. Macalumbav. 

To frighten, to intimidate. Macatacot. 

To harm, to do ill. Macasama. 

To cause pain, to grieve. Macapafiganyaya. 

To strengthen, to cause health. Macagaling, macalacas. 

To be able to do or to make. Macagaua. 

To terrify. Macapafigilabot. 

To beautify. Macaganda. 

To cause the disgust of satiety. Macabusog. 

To hinder, to cumber. Macagambala. 

To mitigate grief. Macaguinhaua. 

Maca may be recombined with any other conjugation admitting of 
potentiality by being prefixed to the passive particle of any such con- 
jugation. Care should be taken in employing the proper particle required 
by the kind of action, so as to make the proper discrimination of sense. 

To be able 

to go out. 


M j> M 
>» u ?) 
>j >> V 

n n >> 

„ take out. 
„ go away. 
,, take away. 
„ teach. 


?> >5 V 

»» »« J) 

„ study. 
„ preach. 


Any such particle indicative of the primary sense should be preserved 
in the passive. 

I could get out from Manila. Ang Maynila, ang nalabasan co. 

I could take out from the church. Napaglabasan co ang simbahan. 

In actions, nmca, refers more to a material or physical than to a 

moral capability or permissive power. The latter is better expressed by 

mangyari or sucat, although maca is also sometimes used. 

xir I 4. u I c 4. 1 \ ^^ mafiga viernes nane cuaresma,!, di 

Meat mav not be eaten on fast-da vs. i ^ a '• i ^ a- 

( sucat cumain nang lamangcati. 

It may be given to him, he may be / g . , . > bic-iiln 
trusted with it. i ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^"• 

Might it be? ^Mangyayari baga?. 

The potential active and passives of maca may be used indiscruBinately 
without paying any attention as to whether there are objects or not in the 
sentence, or whether they are or are not circumscribed in sense. 

I can write this book. \ ^acacasulat ac6 nitdng libro. 

( Ytong libro,i, nasusulat co. 
I could, • Nacacava ac6, nacava co. 


Mara ist fit to express such actions as are inherent in the powers of mind 
or the corporal senses, to indicate the capahility they are endowed with to 
perform such acts as are peculiar to them, without the will taking any part 
therein. Thus. 

To understand, that is to say, to apj)lv ) rp if 
the power of will to understanding. ' p^maiastas. 
To comprehend. Magtalastas. 

But, to understand, to have the un- ) ^r * i .* ' 
derstanding free. | i a a b 

To hear purposely, to listen. Dumiiigig. 

To hear a good deal or many things. Magdifigig. 
But to hear, to have the hearing free. Macai ifigig. 

In the same sense: 

To think. Macaisip. 

To remember. Macaalaala. 

To make out. Macatanto. 

To feel. Macaramdam. 

To see. Macaquita. 

To smell. MacaamcSv. 


To taste. Macalasap. 

To touch. Macaramd, or, macadamd. 

To say, to pronounce. Macauica. 

To divert. Maoalibang. 

To learn. Macapagaral. 

To explain. Macasaysiiy, macasalaysay. 

To show, to declare. Macahiiyag. 

To perceive, to know how, to know as J ^r .^/i^ , 
• . f i.*iacaaia\ . 

a fact. ) 

To conceive. Macamalav. 

If an act admitting of volition is conjugated by mam, the same sense 
of involuntariness is imparted as if via were used. 

On my loitering about, I got into ) ^^ ; ^^i^^^ ^v nacapu=.oc ac6 sa 
mv uncle s inclosure. (without mv > i_ • ' 

telng aware of it) ' ) ^*'°"'" "^"^ """^"'"^ "" "'^ 

I was reading when I fell asleep. 8a aquing pagbasa,i, nacat61og ac6. 

In verbs denoting the initiative on the part of the subject towards 
some end, the tendency is expressed in the regular way; but the attain- 
ment is expressed by mara. 

-, , , . m ^ , S Humanap. Macahanap. 

To look for. To find. | Cumita. Macaquita. 

To ask for. To obtain. Humifigi. Macahifigi. 

To run for. To overtake. Humiibol. Macahiibol. 

The passive of an serves to denote the same sense of l>eing overtaken 
by unconscious agents. 

Night came down upon us before we Nagabihan camf bago dumating sa 
arrived at Manila. Maynila. 

The army were surprised on their ) ^aolanan ang hocbo sa daan. 
way by the rain. ) 

Mara is very much made use of by natives in a potential elusive 
sense to indicate something which they are ashamed to declare or vouch for. 


In confesiing what may bring piinisliment upon them or wtmt my hurt \\>B\ 
feelings of the person they are speaking to, they, geiienil ly, employ imira r 
aif an insinuation for any hucIi acts at^ they are, liowever, welt tuxured of. \ 

Have you ever purloined anything? ^Ungmomit ca bagi nang anoman.? I 

I have sometimes purloined. (I may ) .. ..i .. - purloined.) I ""''"' ""«"«>" "■'■ 

Did j-ou Be. me liill him? j f.fy'j","" ""' "^"^ pun>«««.v » ca- 

I saw. NaciKjuita ac&, naquita co, 


Active sentences the verb of which obtains In mnca conjugation are 
constructed in the regular way, with the aigent in the nominative case 
and the object in the accusatiwe, in whatever sense the verb may be used; 
hnt the object uf a verb in the causative sense should always be prece- 
iled by mo. and not by nnng. Passive sentences in which ra-ira is used in the 
potential sense also follow the general rule of construction; the agent in 
the possessive case, and the patient in tlie nominative; but the agent should 
l»e put in the nominative and the patient or object, in the possessive, 
for passive sentences where vmm is used in the causative sense. 

He can write the letters ) Nacacasiilat siya nanjt niaftga siil 

lie can write tne letters. j Nasusulat nlya ang manga siilat. 

,„ .-. ■ . L wi . / 1 I An? calinisa,i, iiacagaealins sa ca 

U.ast.ty imparts health to (^tr^ng- |^ Yquinagagaling nang cataouan ; 
ihens^ the bmly. ) ang calinisan 


Why can you not walk? I cannot walk, Ijecause I am lame. Wha 
saddens her? Her mother's death saddened her. With whom will he be glad? 
He will be glad with his children. What caused your father's melancholy? 
I^ea-faring life frightens him. What made you sick last week? Fruit injured 
me. And what made you recover? Some medicines cured me. Can he do 
that? He cannot do that. What terrifies children? Tlmnder terrifies chil- 
dren. What lieautifies girls? Modesty beautifies girls. What causes sat- 
iety? Sweet patatoes cause satiety. What would hinder him? His office 
hinders him. Who mitigated your grief? My wife mitigated my grief. Will 
he be able to go out now? He cannot go out now, but he will go away to-mo- 
rrow. Have you l»een able to take out the atone? I could not take out the 
stone. Can you not teach Tagaktg? No. I cannot, but I can learu it. Can 
he preach to the jteople? He is not a priest, bo he cannot preach. May I 
(iim I permitted) lake the hook? You may take it. Do you understand 
me? I don't understand you. Do you comprehend what I say? I do. 
I)oe"i lie hear the roaring of the wind? He does not, he is deaf. Can you 
think upon it? I cannot think, but I can remember. Can he make out 
the meaning of this word? He can feel and see; hut he cannot make out 
the meaning. Could he smell the fragance of flowers? He could before, 
but he cannot now even perceive objects by touching nor liquors by taste. 
Will he be able to pronounce? He will not be able to pronounce, for be i 
stutters somewhat. Can they exi>laia the case? They can lay it before the J 
Judge, Do they know how to read? Tbey do. What do you do here on the " 
lieach? I arrived here without my being aware of it. Has the servant looked 
for the key? Yes, but he could not come across with it. Has your sister 
asked our neighbour for flowers? No, because she know* .she will not be given 


them. What did the boy do? He ran for Frank and he overtook him. When 
shall we depart? Start early in the morning that you may not be harmed 
by sunshine. And if night come upon us in the way? Go on, for you 
will have the benefit of enjoying moonlight; but take care not to be sur- 
prised by the rain. 






Magpa, commonly verbalizes chiefly in a factitive sense. It being dis- 
syllabic in structure, pa, the last syllable of it, is repeated to form the simple 
present and future tenses. The passive particle for imagpa is pa (sometimes 
pagpa, pnpag, according to the verb requiring um or vfiag in its primary 
or secondary sense.). Pa, being monosyllabic, the first syllable of the root 
and not that of the particle should be repeated in the proper tenses of the 
passive. Care should be taken to introduce th^ passive particle required 
by the verb in its primary sense, by inserting it before or after(gen- 
erally after) pa, the passive particle of this conjugation, in the pluperfect 
and future perfect tenses of the active and passives, and the other tenses 
of the latter requiring it for distinguishing the sense. 

The two following examples of conjugation have been selected to make 
this discrimination more noticeable. 



To order to teach, to cause to teach. } x.r ' \ \r e ^ 

To order to learn, to cause to learn. \ M'^gpa^^al. Magpapagiral. 

Present indefinite t^nse. 

Order, -st, -s to teach; to learn. Nagpapa^ral; nagpapapagaral. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Ordered, -dst: have, hast, has ordered ) x^ . , . , 

to teach; to learn. \ ^^ a^P^^^ral ; nagpapagiral 

Huperfect tense. 

Had -dst ordered to teach; to learn. \ Nacapagpaaral, nagpairal na.^ 

' ( Nagpapagpapagaral, nagpapagaral na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It order to teach: ) xk ' i jt ^ 

to learn. ( Magpapaaral; magpapapagiral. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have ordered to j Macapagpaaral, niagpapaaral na. 
t€ach; to learn. j* Macapagpapagaral,magpapapagaralna. 


Order, let. . . .order to teach; to learn. Magpaaral; magpapagaral. 


The action of oMering to teach ; to learn. Ang i)agpaaral ; ang pagpapagara'l. 


Li Hit it ice. 

To be ordered to teach; to learn. Paaral; papagaral 

Present indefinite tense. 

Am,^art, ie, are ordered to teach; to j p^,,,^^^,^^. pinapagaaral. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

^^r:J?h were; have hast, has been ) pi^^^j^al; pinapagaral. 
ordered to teach; to learn. \ > i i e 

PI V perfect tense. 

Had, -dst, been ordered to teaeli; to \ Napaaral, pinaaral na. 
learn. / Napagpaaral, ])inapaga'ral na 

fntnrc indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It be orderod to teach; ) p^,,,,,,ii papagaaralin. 
to learn. ) > i i »- 

Fntvrr perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have been ordennl Mai)aaral, paaaralin na. 

to teach; to learn. Maj)agpaaral, papagaaralin na. 


Be ordered, let be onlererl to I p^^,^y,^ , papagaralin. 

teach; to learn. ) . i i . t^ 

Verba h. 
S* learn** °* ^'"^ *''''"^'' *° ^^''^^' j-^"S I'^'^'-'^l; »'>g P^gpaaral. 




Ln.t^mShS"^ "°°""""'' "■ I ^P'»«*'"^ yP^»>- 

Present indefinite tense. 

Order, -est, -8 to teach; to learn. Ypinaaiiral; ypinapagairal. 

Present perfect and past inde finite tenses. 

to tS; t*W ' '"*' '" "'"'' i YP---»; ypinapagaral. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had -dfit ordered to t^ach- to learn \ Naypaaral, ypinaaral na. 
Xlad, -d£t, oraered to teach, to learn. | jjaypagpaaral, ypinapagaral na. 

FtUtire indefinite tense. 
Shan, -It, will, -It order to teach; to | ypaadral; ypapagaaral. 

Future perfect te^ise. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have ordered to ) Maypaaral, ypaaaral na. 
teach; to learn. ) Maypagpaaral, ypapagaaral na. 


Order, let... order to teach; to learn. Ypaaral; ypapagaral. 


The action of ordering to teach; to / * . , . , 

learn. 1 ^"^ ypa^iral; ang ypapagaral. 



To order to teach to; to learn from. Paaralan; papagaialan. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Ord^r, -est, -s to teach to; to learn j pi^^^^ralan; pinapagaaralan, 


Present perfect and past indefinite teiises. 

Ordered, -dst; have, hast, has ordered ) n- ^ * i 

to teach to; to learn froili. \ P^n^-^aralan; pmapagaralan. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, dtst ordered to teach to; to Napaarahin, pinaaralan na. 

learn from. Napagaralan, pinapagaralan na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It order to teach to; ) pj,..r.,ian- Danaeaaralan 
to learn from. \ raaaraian, papagaaraian. 

future perfect, tense. 

Shall, -It will, -It have ordered to Mapaaralan, paaaralan na. 
teach to; to learn from. Mapapagaralan, papagaaraian na. 


Order, let. . . .order to teach to; to > o i ^i 

learn from. ^ Paaralan; papagaralan. 


The action of ordering to teach to; to > 4 , • 

learn from. \ ^^^ paaralan; ang papagaralan. 

The student should conjugate the following verbs by mmfpa in the 
active and in all the forms of tlie passive. 

To enact, to order to institute. Magpahalal. 

To create, to order to hring forward. Magpalalang. 

To order to do or make. Mag))agau!i. 

To order to go or come upstairs. Magpajianhic. 

To order to have something u])stairs. Magpa))agpanhic. 

To order to go or come downstairs. Magpapanaog. 

To order to get something downstairs. Magpapagpanaog. 

To be able to order to get into. Macapagpapasoc. (1). 

To order to plant. Magpatanim. 

„ „ „ write. Magpasiilat. 

„ „ ,, bolt. Magpasusi. 

,, sew. Magpatahi. 

>> fy 

Magja in the foregoing instances refers to actions to be executed by 
a person other than the subject. If the action is active and such as to 
be suffered by the subject, magpa, means to allow one's self to suffer 
willingly, or to let one's self be acted upon by the acts of others. 

(I) Potential and factitive Knsch combined : maca is conjugated, and pa w rep- 
eated in the present and simple future ten son. 


To allow one's self to be cheated. Magparaya. 

touched. Magpahipo. 

whipped. Magpahampas. 

slapped. Magpatampal. 

crucified. Magpaparipd. 

punished. MagpaparusA. 

combed. Magpasuclay. 

belied. Magpasoat. 

If magpa is applied to a root denoting a physical state got at from 
another contrary previous one by a slow self-working process, the action 
of the subject either to ])romote or not to interfere with the transition 
is meant. 

To allow to become cool, to make cool ^ w % • 
by exposure. i ^^ ^' 

To allow to grow rotten, te allow rot- ) vfaanabnlrv. 
tenness to go on. \ ^^lagpaboioc. 

To allow to get dried, to put to dry. Magpatuyo. 

To allow to fall into decay. Magpaguiba. 

Attention should be paid to what is said either previously or subsequently 
to discriminate the sense of, **to order to demolish" from that of "to 
allow to fall into decay". 

When the same effect is to be got at through the influence of an external 
agent, the latter may be conjugated by vio^pa and the purposed act of 
the subject to profit by such influence is indicated. 

To expose to sunshine. Magpaarao. (1) 

„ „ „ the wind. Magpahaflgin. 

„ ,, „ rainfall. Magpaolan. 

This is only with regard to the effect sought for in the performance of 
such actions by an agent incapable or producing the working power; but if the 
same are looked upon with regard to the causer, as God or any Power to which 
they may be attributed, the sense is of causality. 

To cause the Sun to shine. Magpaarao. 

To cause the billows to rise. Magpaalon. 

To thunder, (looked upon as to the } i^r , 

power which produces it). \ ^ "^ * ^* 

To lighten, (do do). Magpaquidlat. 

It is (Jod who causes thunderbolts to i Ang Dios, ang nagpapalintic, nagpa- 

fall down, and the trees to bloom and > pabulac-lac at ang nagpapabonga na- 

})ear fruit. i man sa manga cahoy. 

If not the effect, but the time of such atmospherical events is con- 
sidered, magpa indicates refraining on the part of the subject until such 
emergencies are over. Care should be taken to make the sense clear by 
some other completive or discriminative word with those verbs to which viagpa 
imparts different significations. 

To wait until rain is over, to wait for ^ ,. .., 

the rain to cease. \ ^^ 

To wait until dawn breaks. Magpaomaga. 

„ „ „ the dav or sun grows ) ^^r i ^- ^ ' ^' 
less hot. ^ \ Magpalamig nang arao. 

To wait until the sun rises. Magpasilang. 

To allow the water to be cooled. * Magpalamig nang tubig. 

(1) The word is made grave to distinguihh thij» sonse of that of *'to wait until the 

pun neee." 


Magpa is fit to express such acts on the part of the subject as may redound 
to the benefit of others and which can l)e resolved into the different ways of 
giving with roots having an active sense in what regards the agent. 

To impart sight, to cure blindness. Magpaquita. 

To feed. Magpacain. 

To quench, to provide drinks. Magpainom. 

To shelter, to afford a shelter. Magpatul6y. 

To lend money (without reference to ) w 'f ..«« 

reluctance or readiness). i ^ 
To lend money, (willingly). Magpa6tang. 

To clothe, to provide clothing for ) Maanaramit 
somebodv. Magparamit. 

To invest money on interest. Magpatubo. (from tubo, "to grow")* 

To send, to forward. Magpadala. 

But if the root has a passive force, the sense is one of exaction or 
asking for. 

Alms. Limos, (corr. from Sp. word liinosna). 

Pledge. Sanla. 

Tribute, (capitation tax). Bonis. 

To give alms. Maglimos. 

To ask for alms, to beg. Magpalimos. 

To ask for pledge. Magpasanla. 

To pay tribute. Bumouis. 

To collect, to exact tribute. Magpabouis. 

It should also be noticed that if magpa is ma<le use of by a person 
inferior in rank to that addressed, the sense is reversed. Thus, inagpa- 
gatid ra niydn aa iyong amd, magj)anldn ca aa Dios, <lo not mean respecti- 
vely, '*order your father to do that", **make God to send down some rain", 
but, "crave your father to do that"; "pray God for rain", and so forth in 
similar cases. 

Every student will easily make out the difference in meaning between 
"to confess to the priest" and "to confess by the priest". Any such actions 
having a passive sen^e as to the performer, are conjugated by magpa. 

To hear confessions. Magpacumpisal. 

To confess to the priest. Magcumpisal. 

To ask for pardon, to haggle, to ask ) Xumauar 
for a reduction of price. ) 

To grant a reduction of price. Magtauad. 

To grant pardon, to pardon. * Magpatauar. 

Magpa. is therefore a particle forming a certain kind of deponent 
verbs. (1). 

To get shaved. Magpaahit. 

To have one's shoes shined. Magpalinis nang sapin. 

To get one's hair cut. Magpagupit. 

To say, to recite something by many or many times as in prayers, 
may l)e expressed by magpa. 

Say (plural) amen and amen. Magpaamen cay6. 

Through a looseness of rules which prevails everywhere in Tagalog, 
mngpa may be made to mean conscious acting of the subject upon himself. 

(1). We preserve to the word deponent the sense it haH in I^tin, where it means 
a verb having an active meaning with a passive form or vice-versa. 

To enibellinh one's wlf. 
To deck one's self. 
To elftU', to dniw rrfiUt 
one's Hdf. 

MHgpHbut . 
"■''""'■ "'""' 

A cense oi involuiitarinexs or the natuJul effect < 
ifl eKpreasecl, in this conjugation, by dropping the . 
Smoke sweeps upwards. 
Water flows downwnrds. 
Vapors of the soil rise in thf^ 

Rivers flow into the sea, 

R drawn 

of tnantiuate agents, 

Napapaitaaa ang asii. 
Napapuibabii ang tiibig. 

- Ang mafiga eingao nang lupa napa- 

\ Napapiisadagat ang agus nang maflga 
( ilog. 

- Ang aquin puso, napapasainyo, Pa- 
flgin6on cong Dios, 

Verbs to which iwinjia does nut impart an ordering sense may he made 
to express it by repeating jin. 

God commands to give almw to the Ang Dios ay nagpapalimos sa maiiga 
poor. ducha. 

But it is clearer to say: An<i Viim ny nagooton mn^Umon la manga rluc-M, 

My lienrt ibrobs unto (is 
arde) Thee my Ixird. 

Did you order the children upstairs? 1 did. Do you order the ser- 
vants to bring up some firewood? I do. What does George's father order 
bim to do? He orders him to continue studing. Why do you not order 
your son to learn? I don't order him to learn, because he is sick. Does 
your brother-in-law order his servanta to attend mass every holy-day? 
He does. Why did you not wait till tlie rain «eased? 1 waited till the 
sun rose and did not start till the sun grew less hot. Why do you allow 
the plants to grow rotten? I don't allow them to become rotten, but, on 
the contrary, I expose them to the wind and sunshine, Is he waiting till 
the rain ceases? Yes. Why doey he not wait until the sun rises? Be- 
cause he is in a hurry. What did Peler order his servant to do? He 
said to him, don't let the flowers fade, (get dry). Why doest not thou 
allow the water to cool? Because it is already cooled. Why does your 
sister allow herself to be cheated? Because she is very sby. Who causes 
the sun and the moon to shine? God. What else does He cause to happen? 
He causes the rain to fall down, the lightening to flash, the thunder to 
crack, and the billows to rise. Does He cause too the trees to bloom 
and to bear fruit? He does. From whom did that beggar ask for alms? 
He l>eg8 from my aunt. Why did not the rich man U'ed those people? 
He said to his servant, feed them. Shall I quench their thirst? Yes, 
give them wine to drink. Who is that man over there asking for alms? 
He i;^ a beggar whom I shetterud last night. Does he collect plenty of 
alms? No, Sir, it is not sufficient for his living. Why do you not lend 
him money? Because I have none, as I invested my money at interest 
(loaned). Why did not Anthony provide clothing for his children? Because 
he has nothing to buy clothes with. Where shall I put water to cool? 
Put water to cool in this shed. Which priest received your confession? 
Father Jonh heard my confession. Why does that girl embellish herself? 
Because she wishes to be praised. In what direction does watej 6ow? 
Water Bows downwards. What penance did the priest impose you? 
The penance he inflicted me was to fast. Did you provide the poultry , 
with water? I did. What did yon feed them with? I fed them with huek— 
rice. Did he onler his son to rise? He did. Why do you not allow me 
to pQ^s farther? I will not allow you to pass farther until you give me 
water to drink, 





Maqvi^ for the active; paqiii, for the passive, is a h»s8 important 
verhal particle, which, if applied to a root capable of being converted into 
an action of companionhip, imparts a sense of intermeddling or joining 
on the part of the subject. In only admits of y and an passives. In 
passive finds no place with this particle {jmqni indicating an act ad 
extra on the part of the agent), unless, however, it be combined with 
magpo, Pnpaqmpngnmlin inn any anar vio nn inangn hainmj iydn, * 'order 
your son to join those children in learning". )', which is the pro|>er passive, 
stands for the thing, object of joining or association; fi«, for the person 
whom one meddles with in anything. This particle being dissyllabic, 
repeats qvi for present and future tenses. The pluperfect and futur.) 
perfect tenses have very little use and cannot be formed with naca, inaca\ 
na and ma. 


Knowing, (as a fact) 



To be growing wise. 

To know something. 

What known. 


Reason of being kind. 

Person enjoying a l)enefit. 

To feign to know. 

Bulletin-board, posting place. 

To report, to warn. 

Person warned. 

To make one's self acquainted with a 


Thing acquainted with. 

Person from whom. 




Caalaman. (obsolete) 





Umaiam. (1) 




(1). Notice the accentuation. 






To investigate, to set about to in- ) 

quire, to make one's self thoroughly > Maquialam. 

acquainted with, to sift into. ) 

Present huhfinite tense. 

Investigate, -st, -s. Naquiquialam. 

Present perfect and past indejinite tenses. 

Investigated, -dst; have, hast, has j ^.^ ^^j^^j^^ 
investigated. \ ^ 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst, investigated. Naquialam na. 

Fnture indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It investigate. Maquiquialam. 

future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have investigated. Maquiquialam na. 


Investigate, let investigate. Maquialam. 


The action of investigating. Aug paquiquialam. 



To he investigated, sifted into. Ypaquialam. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Is, are sifted into. Ypinaqui<iuialam. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 
Was, were; has, have been sifted into. Ypinaquialam. 


Pluperfni temc. 

Had been sifted into. Ypinaqiiialam na, 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, will Ix;- sifted into. Ypaquiquialam. 

Future perfect tev^e. 

Shall, will have been sift^ into. Ypaqniqiiialam iia. 


Let be gifted into. Ypatiuialam. 


The state of being sifted into. Ang ypa((iiiquialani. 



To inquire from. Paquialama'n. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Inquire, -&t. -s from. Pinaqniquialaraan. 

Prese)it per feet and />ast indefinite tensers. 

Inquired, -dst; have, hast, has inquired from. J*ina<iuiahinijin. 

PhfperfWt teniae. 

Had, -dst inquin*d from. I^inatiuialaman na. 

Pntnrc indefinite t(:ni^( , 

Shall, -It, will, -It impiire from. i^Kiuiqnialamaii. 

Future perfrrt tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have inq\iire<l from. Paquiquialaman na. 

I m per a tire. 

Inquire, let.... inquire from. Paquialamtin. 


The action of inquiring from. Ang paquialaman. 


The etudent should conjugate by imiqui actirely and passively the 
following verbs: 

To join officioulv in the teaching of ^ ^^r • . , 
others. ' \ ^^1^4V"aral. 

Do do do do do do the studying do do Maquipagaral. 

„ ,, „ „ „ „ „ i)laying „ „ Maquipaglaro. 

To embark sneakinglv, to sneak into > w 

, . . , , '^ i.V .u c Maquisacav. 

a ship, to embark with others. ) *■ 

To meddle in conversation. Maquipagosap. 

To join in weeping. Maquitafigis. 

To join in rejoicing. ^ Maquit<5ua, maquipagcatoua. 

To pick a quarrel. Maquipagauay. 

To meddle in contention. Maquipagtalo. 

To sneak into company. Maquisamd. 

To participate, to claim a share in. Maquirdmay. 

Maqui may be made to mean sharing, resemblance in or to have a 
leaning for customs or manner.-, if ai)plied to roots denoting qualities cap- 
able of being imitated. 

To conform one's self to, to comply ^ «. . ,. 
.., . ^ c Maquiogah. 

with customs. \ ^ ^ 

To adopt natives' manners. Maquitagalog. 

To behave in a manlike wav, to use ^ ,, ., , 

to flirt or mix with niale-i^ople. \ Maquilahiqiii. 

To assume Spanish manners. Maquicastila. 

To be a partisan of the American / ^f • 

1-. ^ / Maquiamencano. 

To resemble a beast. Maquihiiyop. 

To resemble a human being, to be ^ 

(an animal) tamed as not to be afraid > Maquitau6. 

of persons. 1 

To be effeminate, to be of a lecher- ^ ,, ., , 

OU8 disposition i Maquibabaye. 

The asking for small portions of victuals and cooking necessaries, such 
as are commonly exchanged freely in rural or village-life among neighbours, 
may de made by conjugating by inaqui the root indicative of any auch 

To ask for a little cocoa-nut oil. Maquilailgis. 

„ „ „ „ „ vinegar. Maquisuca. 

„ „ „ „ grain of salt. Maquiasin. 

,, ,, small drink. Maquialac. 

„ ,, handful of rice. Maquibigas. 

„ „ „ particle of fire. Maquiapiiy. 

A sense of intension is made in the conjugation of m^qui by affixing 
(til or han> to the verb. 

To hate bitterly, to detest. Maquipagtaniman. 

To meddle with others to jeer con- ) xm - .j.- ^ 
tentiously. ^ Maquipagbiroan. 

To meddle in the romping of others. Maquipaglardan. 
To interfere officiously in the con- ^ », . ,.^, 

vcrs;ition. ' ^ Maquipagsahtaan. 

To launch one's self into controversy, ) -^r - 

to dispute obstinately. ' \ Maquipagsagutan. 


From whom has he asked a grain of ^ .e- , * . .., 

1. ^ ; ibiiio baga ang pinatiuiawman luya; 

What have you thanked for? ^.Anong ypinaqiiihingi mo? 

I have thanked for a red-hot coal. Naquiapuy aco. 

Do not detest thus your neighlxjur. j **«"*« •^*"« maquipagtaniman sa cd- 

^ ^ ( poua mo tauo. 

Why does yournephew meddle in con- ) J,BiU|uitnaquiquipag8agutanangiy6ng 

troversy with John? S pamangquing lalaqui cay Juan?. 

Mary is a giil who l)ehaves in a man- ) xt • ..-i^i ,«. • : tlt ' 
like way. j Naquiquilalaqui si Maria. 

Particles and words used as different parts of speech. 

Reference has already been made to the pliable character of Tagalog words 
and how they may stand for different parts of speech. The independent parti- 
cles too, have, most of them, an enlarged range of meaning and may sometimes 
stand for parts of T»peech other than those which tliey most commonly stand 
for. In this and other lessons to follow, the various meanings of those words 
most usual in common topics will \ye considered. 


The article and relative pronoun nnfj may stand, besides, for a sulM)rdinate 
causative conjunction. 

You did not pav any attention to ^ iv- . |. .. - . , » , 

n \ ^ i,\ 1 * 1 i I'l ino aco Imnigon, ang aco,i, duc-ha. 

(looked at) me, because 1 am i)oor. S &•»?-?' 

J f • * r . • i^ ^ Hindi aco nacacabangon or inacaba- 

x cannot rise, lor J. am sick. * >. ^ • •. 

' ( ligon, ang aco,i, may saquit. 


/!', the copulative conjunction may likewise stand in the same way for a 
causative one. 

He could not come, IxK^auso he had ) j^- * ^ ^ . -* ^ * i i • ' 

, ' I in sivji. nacaparito, at mav ai)ala siva. 

work. ^ • 1 » . 

.4/=^ comes after a causative or adversative conjunction as a completive 

I cannot pay, iH'cauFc I have no Hindi ac<'» nacababayad or niacaba'- 

money. yad, sa pagca,t, uala acong salapi. 

She is ugly, but she is judicious. Siya,i, piingit, ngoni.t, siya,i, mabait. 

.,,-., 1 A 1 • S Silaiig labat av nagauit, alintana.t. 

All of them sang, but Inm. • ^.^.M ^^.^^j. . K , 


Why do you meddle to converse with old people? I meddle in their 
conversation because I am anxious te become wise. Why do you enjoin 
me not to meddle with women in jeering? I enjoined you that, be- 
cause it is indecorous to meddle with women in romping. Why did he 
meddle in disputing with his neighbour? Because his neighbour meddles 
to inspect impertinently. Does your brother assume Spanish manners? 
No, he does not assume Spanish manners. What are you going to thank 


the neighbour for? I am going to thank him fo. a handful of rice. 
Whom do you ask it for? I ask it for my friend ! -at is sick, and has 
nothing to eat. What did they thank for? I asked for a little wine. 
Whom have you thanked for it? I asked it from the sailor. Did 
I not say to you not to ask it from such a niggardly fellow? I asked 
some from him as there was no other. Is he esteemed? He was esteem- 
ed by his master when still young. How old is your son? He is 
hardly three years old; but my brother is about sixteen years and the 
infant one is already eight months. What did you give to those child- 
ren? I gave them nothing yesterday, but I had already given them 
what you told me when you arrived. Will he give me that walking-stick? 
No, but he will give you the book you charged him with. Do you wish 
to sell that horse? Why!, are you willing to buy it? If it is cheap 
I will buy it. On which paper is he writing? He is writing on this 
paper. Is he going to call for the priest? No, he is going to call for 
the physician. What are those children doing there on the l)each? They 
are playing. What will you ask for from your father when he arrives? 
That I be given money. Where are those women going? They are going 
to a very distant place. Did he pour wine into my cup? He did not 
pour wine, but he ix)ured water into it. What are you doing? I am 
putting water into your tumbler that is very large. What are those men 
looking at? They examine the image of the Virgin. What is your friend 
studying? He is studying Latin. Where is he studying? In Manila. 
Is it difficult to learn Latin? It is. Whv does not Peter salute vou? 
As I am poor, nolx)dy looks at me, were I rich I should be esteemed by 





Ab a verbal particle />//, for active and passive, differs from viagpn 
mainly in its lieing applieil to form the verbs of motion. In other minor 
resiMHits both particles differ in that pa refers mon^ to the subject while 
vmypa looks forward to the object. This similarity extends itself to the 
conjugation, for pfi is prefixed by na in the present and past tenses. 

The five adverbs of place, tlini, dito^ dii/in, doon, wtnn are conjugated 
by ^w to mean ''to come", **to go"; dinlf indicating a place more determinate 
than dito; diydn, the place where the person addressed stands, and dmm, 
a place far away from both interlocutors, Sadn, indicates motion to an 
unknown place and moans ''to move towards". Any other root indicative 
of place or resort my be conjugated by pa if motion thereunto is to l)e 
meant; but tta, altliough not absolutely necessary, should be inserted lM»t- 
ween the particle and the root. 

Pa, being a monos3'llabic particle, the first syllable of the root is to 
l)e repeated in the proper tenses of the conjugation. If, howev(?r, xa is 
inserted to conjugate a nominal root of place, na and not the first sy- 
llable of the root should be repeated, paaa being then considered as a 
true independent ])article. As to the conjugation of the al)ove four adverbs 
of place, the use has been to somi* ext(»nt (»stablishtMl of repeating (*ither 
the particle or the first syllable ni the adverb, it being indifferent to say, 
jwpari'o, pnririo, etc., althtiugii the latter fi>rni is mtm* to !)e recommended. 


House. Hiihay. 

Aid. Tolong. 


To live in a hous<\ Mamahav. 

To build houses. Magbahay. 

To be an inmate. Maquipabahav, maquipamahav. 

To beg for a parcel of ground to Iniild ) Maquibahav. ' 

a house upon. \ ^ 

To aid, to assist other persons. Tomolong. 

To render effective aid to others, Magt6h)ng. 

Person to whom. Tolongan. 

l)o do ^intensive). Pagtolofigan. 

Reason or instrument. Ytolong, ypagt<)long. 

Assistant, (one of the aiding parties). Catolong. 

To aid customarily. Manolong. 

To aid each dther.' Magpanolofigan. 




To come here. 
To go home. 
To crave help. 





Present indefinite tense. 

Come, -st, -H. 

(lo, -est, -es home. 

Crave, -st, -s help. 

Naparirito. (napaparito). 



Present i^erfect and past indefinite tens<es. 

Came, -st; have, hant, has come. Naparito. 

Went, -est; have, hast, has gone home. Napasabahay. 

Craved, -dst; have, hast, has craved ^ xt 4^1 
lielp. ' ' ' ' I Napat<Slong. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst come. 

„ gone home, 
„ craved help. 



Nacaparit6, naparit6 na. 
Nacapasabahay, napasab^hay na. 
Nacapatolong, napat61ong na. 

Fit tare indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It come. 

„ go home. 
„ crave help. 


PariritA. (paparito) 




Future perfect tense. 

-It, will, -It have come. Macaparit6,paririt J na. (paparito na). 

gone home. Macapasabahay, pasasabahay na. 
craved help. MacapatcSlong, patot61ong na. 

j> >> 



Come, let come. 

(fO home, „ go home. 

Crave, „ crave help. 





The action of coming. 

„ going home. 
„ craving help. 


Ang pagparit6. 
„ pagpasabahay. 
„ pagpatdlong. 



Verbs of motion InMiig intransitive do not adiiiit of in passive, un- 
less they be reconn)Ounde<l with some other particle imparting an active 
sense. Thus, that they may Ih> conjugated in such passive, they must be 
combined with magpa in the ordering or l)espeaking sense; as, paparito- 
hin mo siyd, "order him to come here'\ In the instrumental or causal 
passive, ca, the proper particle for neuter verbs or involuntary actions 
in said passive, should be inserted between the sign and the verb, thus 
making yea^ yquina, ete. 



To be ordered here. Paparitohin. 

home. Papasabahayin. (1) 

»? •» >i 

„ crave to l>e helped. Patolofigin. 

l^res'fvt indefinite tense. 

Am, art, is, are orderetl here. Pinariritd. (pinapaparito). 

„ „ „ „ „ home. Pinapasasabahay. 

Crave, st, -» to l)e helpetl. Pinatottflong. 

Present perfect ami jHiftt indefinite tenses. 

Was, -st, were; have, hast, has l)een ordered here. Pinaparit6. 

„ ,, „ „ „ „ ,, home. Pinapasabahay 

Craved, -dst; have, hast, has cravetl to be helped. Pinatolong. 

PInperfWt tense. 

Had, -dst l)een ordered here. Pinaparii6 na. (l). 

home. Pinapasabahay na. 

,, craved to l>e helped. Pinatolong na. 

«» »» ?> »> 

Future indefinite ten.'^e. 

Shall, -It, will, -It l>e ordered here. Papariritohin. (papaparitohin). 

„ „ „ „ „ „ home. Papasasabahayin. 
,, „ „ ,, crave to be hel|>ed. Patotolongin. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall -It, will, -It have lieen ordered here. Papariritohin (papaparitohin na.) 
„ „ „ ,. „ „ „ home. Papasasabahayin na. 

„ „ „ „ ,, craved to be helix»(l. PatotoloAgin na. 

(1) The form in the exaini>le iH merely illustrative, a« the pasHiveH of this n Hit 
are very little made xim* of. 

(2) This, and tlie futuiv iM»rfet't tense are hut rarely U8e<l. The form nnp^iHtOf 
w not admissible, a» it will entail eonfusion with the active. 




Be ordorod, lot .... he ordorod hero. Piiparitoliin. 

„ „ „ „ home. I\'ipasahahayin. 

Crave, M .... crave t«> l>e helped. Patolofigin. 


The state of being ordered here. Ang pagpaparito. 

„ ,, „ „ ,, home „ pagpapasabahay. 

The action of craving to be helped. ,, pagpapatcSlong. 



To come on account of. Ycaparit6. 

To go home on account of. Ycapasabahay. 

To crave assistance on account of. Ycapatolong. 

Prcsen t w dejin He tense . 

Come, -st, -s here on account of. Yquinaparirito. (yijuinapaparito.) 

(fo, -est, -es home „ „ „ Yquinapasasabiihay. 

Crave, -st, -s assistance ,, „ ,, Ypinatot/)long, y<iuinapatot4'dong (1). 

Prese)it perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Came, st; have, hast, has come here on account of. Yquinaparito. 
Went, -est; „ ., „ gone home ,, „ Yquinapasabahay. 

Craved, dst;„ „ „ craved assistance ,, „ J ^bng.'^^''"^' yquinapa- 

Pluperfect teiiM. 

Had, -dst, come here on account of. Nayparit6, yquinaparito na. 

cone homt. ) Naypasabaliay, yquinai>a8ahahay 

„ „ crave.1 assistance j Naypatdlong, ypinatc'.long nil, yqui- 

' " ( napatolong na. 

Fn lure indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It come here on account of. Ycaparirito, (yeapaparito). 

,, ,, go home ,, „ „ Yeapasasabahay. 

,. <Tave assistance ,, ,, ,, Ypatot^long, ycapatot^long. 

Fntvre perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, It have come here on account of. \ ^l»yP^r>td, yeapari- 

* ' ( nto na. 

L^one home Maypasabahay, yca- 

,. ,. M>nenome „ „ „ ^ pasasabahay na. 

( Maypatolong, 3'pato- 
., „ craved assijrtance ,, „ „ < t<$long or ycapatoto- 

( long na. 

>♦ V »? 

»« >» 

J? »> V 

H) W\i\\ foriuH an* usiHl in this ami the other tenses. 


Come hens let . . .uome hen* on lucount of. Ycaparito. 

Cio home, ,, ....go home ., ,, ., Ycapiwabaliav. 

Crave crave for asBistance ] Yp«it<>long or ycapato- 

* I long. 

Verba h. 

The action of coming here on account of. Ang ycapaparito. 
,, „ „ going home ,. vcapapasahahav. 

.. ., „ cniving assistance .. ,. .. ] - ,papat61ong or ycapa. 
' '^ / patolong. 



To come here for. to come here to pav ^ p ., i 
a vipit to (a person). ' \ ^^"tonan. 

To go home for. Pasabahayan, 

To provide help to be rendered by. Patolongan. 

Present indefivite tense. 

Come, -fit, -s here for. Pinariritohan. (pinapaparitohan). 

Go, -est, -es home for. Pinasa«abahayan. 

Provide, st, -s help to l>e rcn<lered !>y. Pinatotolofigan. 

Prf'sehf per feet and past imiefinite tenses. 

Came, -st; have, hast, has come here for. Pinaritohan. 

Went, -est; „ „ ,, gone home for. Pinasabahayan. 

Provided, -dst; have, hast, has provided heli» to l)e rendere 1 by. Pinatolongan. 

PInperfeet tense. 

Had, -dst come here ft)r. Naparitoliun, pinaritohan na. 

„ „ gone home for. Napasabahayan, pinasabahayan ua. 

,, provided hell) to 1k» render- / V- i i - . . , . 

J * , ' ' ' ■ Napatolongan, pinatolongan na. 

Fid n re Indrfinlfc tense. 

Shall, -It. will, -It come here for. Pariritohan. (paparitolum). 

,, go home .. Pasasahahayan. 

„ :. .. provide help to / n„*-^olon£rin 
be rendered bv. s ^ atotoJongan. 

Future perfeet tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have come here for. Maparitohan. pariritohan na. 

„ ,; ,. „ ,. gone home ,. Mapatabahayan, pasa^abahayan na. 

be' rendered bv. " >"^'"^^'^ ^""^'^ *"" [ Mapatoloftgan, patotolongan na. 


Come, let come here for. Paritohan. 

Go, „ go home for. Pasabahayan. 

Provide, „ provide help to be rendered by. Patolongan. 


The action of coming here for. Ang paritohan or paparitohan. 

„ ,, ,, going home ,, „ pasabahayan or papasabahayan 

rendered bv." ^"^"'^'''^ ^''*' "^ ^' | " P»t«l««g-" <>' papatolofignn. 

1' passive stands for the canse or reason; nn, for the place or person 
in verbs of motion, and for the person to whom a service is rendered, in 
the others. 

Why does he go to Manila? ;. An6ngyquinaparor6onniyasa Maynila? 

The paying of my tax is the rea- d Ang pagbayad nang uquing bonis, siya 
son of my going there. \ ang yquinaparor6on co. 

Where is he going? ^Sadn ang paroroonan niyi? 

He is going to Obiu Ang Cebii ang paroroonan niya. 

Whom did you come to see here? ^,Sino baga ang pinaritohan mo? 
I came here to pay you a visit. Pinaritohan quita. (cata) 

Whom does he order to render as- ^ ,u:«^ «^« , ;««*^*^i « . • a-^ 
«i8tai:ce to him? \ i^'"° ""« pnmtotolofigan niya? 

The student should conjugate in the active and passiveis of ;>a, the 
following verbs: 

To go there. Pariyan. 

To go yonder. Paroon. 

To come here. Parini. 

(Where?), to go. iPasaan? 

To repair to, to go towards. Patoftgd. 

To go to church. Pasasimbahan. 
To go into t».c countiy, to go to j p^^^,,^ .j^,, 
the farm. ) ^ 

To go to market. Pasatianggui. 

To go to the sea-shore. Pasadagat. 

To go to the mount. Pasabundoc. 

To ask for mercy. Paaua. 

protection. Paamp^n. 

„ „ support. Pacopcop. 

„ „ aid, succour. Pasangalang. 

„ „ defence. Patangol. 

>> »> n 

The above-mentioned adverbs of place prefixed with /wi may be consi- 
dered as simple roots and conjugated by wm. 

To come here. . Pumaritb, pumarini. 

To go there. Pumariyan, pumardon. 

(Saan?) to go. ^Pumasaan?. 

In passive in verbs <&f motion stands for the person ordered t6 repair 
to (some place). 

■ ■ • • • • 

Order my servant to -come here. Paparitobin mo ang aquing* bata. 
Did you say to Kim to repafr there? ^.Pinapardon mo siya?.- 


I did alreadv. 

Order him to go there. 

Pinaparoon co na siya. 
Papariyanfn nio siya. 

Pa coincides with maij^Hi in th<' acquiescing srnse, but pa denotce 
more readiness on the part of the patient. 

To ask to be kissed. 
„ „ „ „ touched. 
To consent to be beaten. 




jy » 


"To sav", in any specific manner denoted by the root is conjugat- 
ed by pa, but it does not indicate plurality as mnffpn doe?. 

To say yes, to affirm, to consent in ) p » 
anything. \ * '*'^*- 

To say, no, to deny. Padili, pahindi. 

To say not to be willing, to .^ay re- y p , . 
•_ 1 * . 1 aavao. 

fusal. \ 

To say, Jesus. Pajesiis. 

To say, the deuce! Padiablo. 



The interrogative pronoun tnio is used is several ways: 
As an interrogative conjunction of cause, followed by tif. 

Why did you not come in time? ;;An6,t,dica naparitusa capanahonan? 

And why do you eat fruit? ^,At an6,t,cungmacain ca nang bofiga? 

Ano, stands for the admirative interjection *'wliy"!, '*what"!. 

What!, are you ix»r chanct* a king? An6,! ;.liari ca cava? 

The reply to the same when the ltnn» of tlif ciue8ti«»n is on** of sur- 
prise, may be made by nno preceded by ////• 

Of course. (I am). Ay ano. 

Avo IS conjugable by vm, vunj, vtu, clc, as, more or less, every word 
in Tagalog can be, the sense being that which the verbal particle with 
which conjugated imparts to the action that is inquired after. 

What is your business here? /.Xagaan6 ca dito?. 

Well now, and what of that?, what ) . k u- i .> 
is to be done? ^ .Anhir. bagu>. 

What is he going to do there? Magaano siya doon.?. 

What are you being done upon? ^.Ynaaand ca?. 

Nothing can be done to you.. Hindi ca maaano. 

Ar.Of repeated means *'at random" ''unaccounted for" and is used in the 

This work is not accounted for. L^alang ano ano ang gauiing itd. 

He shipped me without the least / r^- 
reason. ' ^^^^ 

J TinatYipal ac6 niya ualangan6 an6. 


Idiom a and phraaes. 

Well then 6 Aiio baga?. 

What else? ^.An6 pa?. 

How can it be? ^.I)i ano pa?. 

What matterK? ^Di anhin?. 

For he says that Di anhin dao ua 

They say, it is said: Di umand. 


Where are your parents going? They are going to churcli. Do your bro- 
thers go to school? Tliey go to the sea. What i)ort is the ship bound for? 
She is bound for Manila. Does she not make for Cavit€? No, she makes for 
the Pasig river. Have you to go anywhere? Yes, I have to go somewhere. 
Which town is vour destination? The cilv of Manihi is mv destination. 
What do you go to Manila for? 1 am going tliere on account of my 
brother. Hast thou ordered mv servant to ctmie here? I have alreadv or- 
dered him to come here. If my friend comes, what shall I thell him? 
Tell him to go there. Has he craved assistance of me? He craved that you 
would assist him. What did you say to John ? I said to John to assist me. 
When will you say to him to assist you? I will tell him to-morrow to affsist me. 
Why do you not allow me to kiss your hand? I shall not allow yon to kiss 
it, for it is unclean. Why does she consent to be touched? She does not 
consent to it, she does not allow anv man to touch her. What did th<3 
priest say in his sermon? He said, do not allo^ yourselves to be overcome by 
temptation, ask the Holy Virgin for mercy. Did he not ask you for mercy? 
Yes, he asked me to take mercy on him. What did Peter ask you? He 
asked me to go with him, and I told him I was not willing. Why did you 
say ydu were not willing? Because he says I am a rogue. Did you consent 
to marry your lover? I said to him, no. Why did you say the deuce? I 
did not say the deuce!, I said my Jesus!. I:s it just to respect old age? We 
ought to respect old people. Whero are you making for? I am making for 
Manila. What does your father plant? H(» plants this rict». What did he 
show to his son? He shows him this book. Is she alone at home? Yes, slie 
is alone at home. Did vou see mv brother? I diil not. Has the master 
already arrived? He has not yet arrived. Did he take my shirt? He did 
not. What is his tale? It is said there was a king who was rebellious 
to (i(xl. Will you not go to meet your father? I will. When will you 
come back? Next week. Do you not wish to present yourself to the 
priest? No, for I am ashamed. What are you smelling? I am smelling these 
flowers. What is my uncle gathering there? He is gathering flowers. Why 
<lid she weep? Because her mother went away. When does she come back 
(return)? I don't now. Did the peppers your servant planted in the gar- 
den put forth? Not yet. Who will remain at home? Our father will stay. 
Did you leave him any food? I did not leave him anything. Have you 
put on (made use of) the dress yours mistress, gave you? I have not yet 
worn it. What are you chewing? I chew ])eteL 






MagrOj in the active; pngra, in the passive, as a verbal particle, ver- 
balizes intransitively, imparting a sense of plenty in what generally 
comes oat or is pro<luced naturally and drops off of itself without the 
designed interference of any active or conscious agent. It j)oints out 
a previous condition of lack or scarcity which is resolved into the op- 
posite denoted by vingrn. It differs from man in that the letter lays 
stress on the action, while magca denotes state, without reference to how 
it has been brought about, this being the reason for its intransitiveness 
and for its not admitting of in passive. Thus, mamoilgn, means the action 
of fructifying; while mngcahongn, means to l>e laden with fruit. S)>eaking 
properly, magca is but mag and the passive particle of iwa, m. Ca, the 
last syllable of the particle, should Ik* repealed in the proper tense? of 
the conjugation. 


There,then, at that time (future, ten.^*); ^ niM,n 
there is. (fA^jv /*/ ht\ Iftfre tn hare), \ 


To have projierty. to i>ossess, to own. Magcaroon. 

Cause. Ypagcaroon. 

If it is so how much will t iw^^„ , ^ 

be.... ;I)oonpa. 

If he does that, he being only a child, Bata |)a.i, gungmagaua nang ganito. 
how much he will do when a man. dorm pa cun lumaqui. 



In (iu it ire. 

To have, to fic»?sess, t«> abound with. MagcanNin. 

Pn:<4 lit in lie fin iff U'li.^f 

Aboandy est, -^ with. NagcacanVm. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Abounded, -dst; have, hast, ha? abounded with. Nagcar5on. 

Pluperfect te^iise. 

Had, -dst abounded with. Na^car6on na. (1). 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It abound with. Magcacar6on. 

Future perfect teyise. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have abounded with. Magcacar6on na. (1). 


Al)ound, let abound with. Magcar<Son. 


Tlie state of abounding with. Ang pagcacaroon. 



To abound with, on account of. Ypagcaroon. 

Present indefinite te^ue. 

Abound, -est, -s with, on account of. FpinagcacanSon. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Al>ounded, -dst; have, hast, has abound- ) YninaffoarA^n 
ed with, on account of. ^ \ P f^ 

Fluperfect teiise. 

Had, -dst abounded with, on account of. Naypagcar<$on, ypinagcar6on. 

Fntnre indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It abound with, on account of. YpagcacanSon. 

Fiiture perfect tense. 

(1). The plu|ierfect with naca cannot be used; the same is the i*ase with mora 
in tlie future perfect tense. 


Abound, let ... abound with, on account of. Ypagcar6on, 


The state of abounding with, on account of. Ang ypagcacar<5on. 



To abound with, at. Pagcardonan, 

Present indefinite tense. 

Abound, -est, -s with, at. Pinagcaroonan. 

Present j>erject and past indefinite lenses. 

Abounded, -d^t; have, hast, has abounded with, at. Pinagcar6onan. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst abounded with, at. Napagcar6onan, pinagcardouan na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It abound with, at. Pagcacaroonan. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have abounded with, at. Napagearoonan, pagcacaroonan na. 


Abound, let . . . abound with, at Pagcaroonan. 


The state of abounding with, at. Ang pagcacaroonan. 

Y passive, in this conjugation, ntands for the reason or cause; an, 
for the place or person, according to the nature of the action. 

What he inherited from his uncle is Ang ypinagcacardon niya ay ang 

the reason of his being wealthy. pamana sa caniya nang amain niya. 

I own a great deal of property in Cavite. Ang Cavite, ang pinagcacar6onan co. 

He owes a great deal to his father- Pinagcacautafigan myk ang caniying 

in-low. bianang lalaqui. 

The student should conjugate by magca in the active and passives 
the following verbs: 



To be of judgment, to arrive at the ) ^agcafsip, magcabait. 

age of reason. ^ o r^ © 

To bear fruit. Magcabufiga. 

To carry illness about one's self. Magcasaquit. 

To be lucky. Magcapalad. 

To abound in issue, offspring. Magcaanac. 

To be gray beaded. Magcauban. (1). 

To rage, (a plague.) Magcasalot. 

To rage (small-pox) Magcabol6tong. 

To forbid. Magcacasala. 

To sin. Magcasasala. 

Maifcaj also means plurality 'or universality in tbe working of emergen- 
cies by which many are affected, although this universal sense is better 
made by repeating ca and rendering the root acute in accentuation. 

To prevail, to spread about, (famine) Magcacagotom. 

To spread al)out. (fire) . • Magcacasonog. 

To be blowing a hurricane. Magcacabagui6. 

To be engaged in public rejoicings. Magcacatouii, magcacapiesta. 

To be engaged in revolution. Magcaeagol6. 

Fortuitous meeting or assemblage of many may be expressed ]>y magra. 

To meet (many, accidentally). Magoasaluhong. 

To assemble, to gather together* Magcatipon. 

To assemble in company. Magcasami. 

To coincide. Magcaayon. 

To be many engaged in quarrelling. Magcauuay. 

Sometimes uiagca and the repetition of the root imparfs a sense o 
comi)leteness in intransitive actions. 

To break off into very small bits. Magcalansag-lansag. 

To be torn away in rags. Magcauindang-uindang. 

To be in state of complete destruction. Magcasirasira. 

Mv son has alreadv entered the age ^ xt ' i 

,' ' ^ [ Nagcacaisip na ang anac co. 

of reason. j 

Had I money, I should not Ix* in ) Cun magcardon sana ac5 nang pilac, 

such condition as I am. ) ay hindi aco nagcacaganito. 

Many people gathered together. Nagcatipon ang mafiga taud. 

Resort, (place of resort) Pinagcati}K)nan. 

Assembly. Pinagcapisanan. 

University, academv. \ Pi°agcapi8anan nang manga maruru- 

•^ ' * ( nong. 



Bdgay, as a noun, means *^thing", "matter", "subject", "gait". 

Sometthing, some object. Yeing bagay. 

What is the matter, subject? ^.Ano baga ang bagfiy? 

What is hi^ appearance, American or ) ^An6ngbagay or anyduiyfyamericano 

native? i 6 tagalog?. 

(I) The pupil shouM not hx'^e siv^ht of the fact tliat the rt>ot is that part of the 
wonl whioh reniaiiiH after taking; away the particle or partfeles entering to compose 
it. Thus, ufnin means "gray-hair." 


Bdgay, as a verb^ means "to equal", *^to suit", *'to make ready". 

The penalty will be proportioned to Pagbabagayan nang hirap or parusi 
the offence. ang casalanan. 

I8 it becoming for a girl to walk about U^ababagay baga sa ising dalaga arig 
the streets' < paglacad (pagligao) sa manga lansa- 

f fSgan? 

Make the children readv for the ball. \ ^^^^gbagay nang raailga batang mag- 

( sasayao. 

Bdgay^ a8 an adverb, is followed by aa and means '*as to", '^as for"; and 
governs the dative case. 

As for me, him. Bagay sa aquin, sa caniyd. 

A« for my child. Bagay sa anao co. 

As to the death. Biigay sa ca mat ay an. 

Different things. Bagay bagay. 


Bai0, as an adjective, means "new". 

New clothes. Bagong daniit. 

New lord, new custom. Bagong panginoon, bagong ugali. 

Bago, as a verb, means **to renew", "to renovate", "to handsel". 


I renew the payment. Namamago aco nang bay ad. 

I will renovate my house. Pagbabagohin co ang aquing bahay. 

These trowsers will l>e handseled^ * ^ _ i u „ i.»„i 

j Aco angpamamagonan nitongsalaual. 

Bago, as an adverb of time, means *' before". 

Before you eat, wash your hands. Bago ca cumain, manhiniio ca mona. 

Bago, may be used as a conjunction, having the meaning of "never- 
theless", "still", "yet". 

It is he who is the culprit and never- Siyii, ang may sahi, bago aco ang pina- 

theless I am punished. rusahan. 

It is already twelve o'clock and still f rv u ^^ i i ' • - 

1 . . , -^ J fanghan na, l>ago,i, uala pa siya. 


Do those trees already bear fruit? Yes, they already bear fruit. Was 
there fire in this town? No, there was not fire in this town. Was there 
plague about these houses? Yes, there was plague about them. Are peo- 
ple flocked in the church? There is a crowd in the church. Was there 
war in these countries? Yes, war raged here. Are your friends well off? 
Yes, they are well off. Do their sons abound in offspring? No, but they 
are lucky. Does malady spread about among the inhabitants? Yes, they 
are afflicted w4th small-pox. Is famine raging in The Philippines? No, 
but they are afflicted with storms and conflagrations. Are natives engaged 
in Revolution Yes, and they are engaged in fighting and the farn"s are 
altogether in destruction. Where is their place of meeting? They gather 
together in the recesses of forests. Does it become a man to about naked? 
No, it does not become a man to go about naked. Why do you not equa- 


lize those two shirts? I have no scissors to equalize them. Did you make 
ready the tools for the making of the table? Not yet. Where are the 
new silk handkerchiefs? They are in the chest. Have you a new master? 
No, we have a new priest. Have you handseled the suit of clothes? I 
have. Are you not willing to appear before the priest? No, for I am afraid. 
Why does your cousin spit at his brother? Because he was first spitten 
upon. Who will remember me? Your mother will remember you. What 
has your father planted there? He has planted banana-trees. What is he 
going to put into the room? He is putting nothing into the room, he 
is putting water into my glass. Why do they not draw nearer that candle 
burning away? Because they have no stools to sit upon. Do you consider 
the priictice of virtue a heavy thing? I don't consider it heavy, I remem- 
ber the eternal fire. What will he do to me? He will do nothing to yen. 
What was done to you? Nothing was done to me. Who is saying mass? 
Our priest. Why does your femae-cousin put on an upper petticoat? She 
does not put on an upper petticoat, she wears an apron. Will you smoke? 
Thanks, I don't smoke. Why does your servant feign to be sick? He 
feigns to be ill to avoid punishment. What was the reason for your neigh- 
bours quarreling? Gambling. Where did they quarrel? This house was 
their quarreling place. 





Maguin or maguing, active; paguin or paguing, passive, as a verbal part- 
icle means conversion into the thing or quality denoted by the root it 
is applied to. The transformation of one quality into another by slow 
gradual process of assimilation is expressed by um; but maguin denotes 
conversion off' hand of one thing or quality into another, thus differring 
from um and ma or na. The last syllable, that is to say, gui (since 
gvin is three-lettered) (1) should be repeated in present and future tenses. 


Fair, just, deserving. 



To become worthy. 
With what. 
Merits, desert. 

Ycapaguindapat . 



To become worthy. 



Present indefinite tense. 

Become, -st, -s worthy. 


Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Became, -st; have, hast, has become worthy. Naguindapat. 

(Ij. Uj in this case, is not reckoned aa a letter. 


Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst become worthy. Nacapaguindapat, naguindapat na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It. will, -It become worthy. Maguiguindapat. 

hnture perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have become worthy. Macapaguindapat, maguiguindapat na. 


Become, let ... . l>ecome worthy. Maguindaimt. 


The action of liecoming worthy. Aug paguiguindapaL 


That verlis with nuiifuin may admit of in |»ast$ive, they should be 
recompounded with m/ir^/Ki which makes them active. The object being ver- 
balized which is justly what would require it, is the reason for this par- 
ticle lacking this jiassive. 


To be enableil to l>eiH>mo worthy. Papaguindapatin. 

Pre^nt imh- finite ten^. 

Am, art, is, art^ cnabKvl to Uvome worthy. Pina|»aguiguindapat. 

Prtsent iH'rfect and jHist indefinite tenses. 

Was,-st, wert*; have, hast, has l>een enabled to become worthy. PinapaguindM'}.iat 

Pluperfect tenst'. 

Had, dst Uvn enabUM to l^eix>me worthy. Pina|iaguindapat na. 

Futun^ indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It Iv enabltHl tolx^ome worthy. Papaguiguindapatin. 

Future perftct tense. 

Shall -It will. It hiivc U^n enabled to become worthy PapaguigQind^patin na, 


Bi Wl^blM, l*^t be enabled to become worthy. Pafafoindapatin. 



The state of being enabled to Income worthy. Ang papaguindapatin. 



To become worthy on account of. Ypaguindapat. 

Present indefinite tense. 

^ ■- ■III! 

Become, -Ht, -.«^ worthy on account of. Ypinaguiguindiipat. 

Present perfect mid past indefinite tenses. 

Became, -st; have, hast, has become worthy on account of. Ypinaguuidapat. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst become worthy on account of. Ypinaguindiipat na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It become worthy on account of. Ypaguiguindapat. 

Future j)erfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have }>ecome worthy on account of. Ypaguiguindapat na. 


Become, let. . . .Ijecome worthy on account of. Ypaguindapat. 


The action of becoming worthy on account of. Ang ypaguiguindapat. 


As maguin denotes a state, it admits of ca in the passive of y: thus, it 
may be said: yquinapaguiguinddpat^ yquinapaguinddpaty yeapaguiguinddpaty 
ycapagmnddpat, which emphasizes more the causative sense. 



To become worthy at or in. Paguindapatan. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Become, -st, -s worthy at or in. Pinaguiguindapatan. 


Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Became, -st; have, hast, has become worthy at or in. Pinaguindapatan. 

Pltiperfect tense. 

Had, -dst become worthy at or in. Pinaguindapatan na. 

Future indefinite teiise. 

Shall, -It, will, -It become worthy at or in. Paguiguindapatan. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have become worthy at or in. Paguiguindapatan na. 


Become, let become worthy at or in. Paguindapatan. 


The action of becoming worthy at or in. Ang paguiguindapatan. 

The student should conjugate by maguin in the active and passives, the 
following verbs. 

To be converted into wine, to convert ) w . . ci«^ 

. . . ' > Maguingaiac. 

into wme. ) ° ^ 

Do do do do vinegar. Maguingsuca. 

JJ >> » >» g^*'» 

„ „ ,, „ a beast. 
To turn out a virtuous fellow. 




ji ,y „ jj miser. 
To become deaf. 

Maguingmaramot , 

„ „ mute. 
„ „ blind. 


To be converted to manhood, to take ) ^ * t u6 
corporeal form or human attributes. ) ^ ^^^^^^ * • 

Y passive stands in this conjugation for the 'reason or cause; an, 
for the place; although they are little in use. Attention should be paid 
to the following illustrations showing the use of these passives. 

His wisdom and iudinnent made ^ ^^^ carunufigan,t, ang cabaitan ni- 
SS JirtS? to fill \he^^^^^^^ ^^'Mya.i, siy^ng ypinaguindipat niydng 
*^ ( magcaroon nang catungculan. 

My God, enable me to become worthy J Papagmngdapatin mo ac6. Pafigindong 
of attaining eternal life. j na uauSi "haS 

The Son of God assumed human attri- Ang pagsacop sa tauo, ang siyAng 

butes for the sake of redeeming yquinapaguintau6 nang anac nang 

mankind. Dios. 

Naxareth was the place where Jeeus Ang bayang Nazaret, ang aiyang pi- 
Christ grew into a man. naguintauohan ni Jesucristo. 

It was in Manila where he was ord- ) n at 'i • ^ •a 

ftined a priest, f AngMaymlaangpinagumparfanmyi. 

The sense of conversion denoted by magiiin may entftil 
the part of the subject wUh the poHsefisive pronouns. 

I will be jours, I will become your J 
Blave. j 

You will be mine. 

Maguiguing~iy6 acd. 
JSIiLguiguii)g:iquin ca. 

Maguin, impartH sometimes a 
adjectives . 

What will my fate be? 
Will it be true? 
After about six monllis. 
To be owing to. 
About how many will ihey he? 
They may be about ten. 

,"ense of doubt, especially with numeral 

;.An6 cayu ang maguiguinpalad eo? 

;.Maguiguingtt)tod bngu?. 

Cun maguing linim aa houan. 


^.Maguiguing-ilau sila?. 



Maguiii m also apt to express the copula on account of the close 
relation in signification existing between "to be" and "to Iiecome". Thus, 
it may proiierly W said; fSaguiguinfdiln ra na Pnref. "Are you the priest's 

Nagiiing anao ni Abraham, si Isaac; 

at naguing anac ni Isaac, si Jacob; 

ftt naguing anac ni Jacob, si Juda at 

ang caniyang manga capntid. 

It was Abraham's son, Isaac; ami it 
was Isaac's son, Jacob; and it was 
Jacob's son, Juda and bis brothers. 

■ayd, as noun, means any instrument used for hunting or fishing, 
id also stands for the game or for what has been caught, but in this 
sense it is becoming obsolete. 

TAng bdsog, ang pana pati nang ma- 
Bows, muskets, and night strollers J f^ga manliligao ay quinacaya nang 
are laid bands upon by constables. | mariga alguacil. [altjuarU, Sp. word 

l^for a "bumbailiff). 

Cayd, as a verb, means "'can", "t<i be able" in a material sense, hut 
it is however conjugated by marn. 

Has he strengtli enough for tlial? 
I cannot bring it hete. 

^.Macacaya hagu niya iyan? 
Dili CO macayanan dalhin ritd. 

Cayd, as an adverb, is used postponed in interrogation?, having, as 
hagd, an expletive sense and means *how"?, "how now"?, "by chance". 

Are you, by chance, the son of Peter? 
How!, is he the murderer?. 

£Yc(to caya baga ang anac ni Petlro? 
iSiya caysi ang nacamatiiy?. 

the verl) ami means "since". 

Cayd, as a conjunction, is UBcd liefoi 

You have been called fur, and since Tinauag ca, caya yamang magaling 

you are well go there. ca na, pariSon ca. 

He is sick, therefore I will pay him Siya,i, may saquit, caya dadalauin co 

a visit. (5iya. 

Cayd, is followed by the affirmative and completive particles. Cnyii 
Hon, means "wherefore", "just that", in the second sentence. 



Just because she is a woman she Caya nga, si3'a,i, babaye magpacahin- 

endevours to be chaste, hin siyii. 

Just for that reason I will not give Caya figa^i, di bibiguian cata nang 

you any money. salapf. 

Cayd ngani is more emphatic than rayd nga and is used in the ne- 

c.. , f 1 ^ Cava ngani uala cang buquid ma- 

Since vou have no farm, lease one. I "^ , ^ & ^ 

' ( moms ca. 

Cayd nga yata is also used for "therefore"; caya n^anitj for the adverbial 
phrase "no sooner," as soon as". 

I no sooner arrived than I arrested Caya l^ganit pagdating co,i, dinaquip 
him. CO siya. 

Notice must by taken of the common native habit (not one to be imitated 
by Europeans learning the language) of inserting in a sentence words which 
have no meaning to fill a temporary hiatus while the speaker is thinking 
of his next word. These prop-words are numerous in Tagalog and vary in 
different localities; but the most usual one is: 

perhaps the word most in use by natfves. It stands for what one does not 
remember or serves as a periphrasis or euphemism for anything which is al- 
readv understood between the interlocutors, for what will be shameful to ex- 
press or may hurt the feelings of others. 

Mr. Such a one. Si Coan, or, couan. 

What (is understood). Ang coan. 

The privy parts. Ang coan. 

Coan, in the same sense, can be made into a verb and he conjugated by 
all the verbal particles which the nature of the action it stands for may admit. 

She is growing so and so. Cungmocoan siyjl. 

She might, (consent). Macacoan siya. 

Order her so and so. Magpacodn ca sa caniya. 

She meddles in doing this and that. Naquiquicoiin siya. 


Who took man's attributes? The Son of God took man's attributes. 
Why did He take man's attributes? He took man's attributes for the sake 
of our redemption. Did your son become worthy to be ordained a priest? 
No, but he became worthy of obtaining an office. Did what I told you turn 
out true? Yes, it turned out true. Shall I be yours and you mine? No, 
thou shalt neither be mine nor I thine. What has been the reason? This has 
})een the reason. What will become of me (will be my fate)? What your 
fate will be, nobody knows. What shall I do to become worthy of others' 
consideration? Pay what you owe. Shall the servant do anything? Let him 
put water into this vat. Where has your wife been buried? Here in this 
spot she was buried. Why does not your tailor put down that clothing? 
He has no place to put it on. Why did he get in without bowing? Be- 
cause he is an uneducated man. Did she consent? She did without re- 
luctance. What does he puff up for? He does not remember his origin. 
Why do you use to find fault with everybody? I did not get accustomed 


to that. Will you accompany me? I will keep you company. Where are 
you going? I am going to fish with a rod. What is your father distributing? 
What he is distributing is known by my brothers to whom he is distribut- 
ing it. Who converted water into wine? Jesus Christ converted water into 
wine. Who was converted into a ])east? Luthbel was converted into a 
beast. Did the wine convert itself into vinegar? It did. What was your 
friend converted into? He was converted into a miser. What has your aunt 
become? She became deaf, mute and blind. Can you lift that? I cannot 
lift that. What have you laid hands upon? I laid hands upon the 
thief. Do you chance to be Mary's brother? I am. What do you intend to 
do? Whereas (since) he has not come, I will go for him. 





Magd, active; pagsi, passive, does not impart any peculiar modifying 
sense to the root it conjugates. It is but one of the manifold ways of 
expressing plurality in Tagalog and means that many or the whole people 
alluded to, do perform the action denoted bv the root. Thus, magsi is 
used but in the plural and may be conjugated in the passives the nature 
of the action may admit of. It being diss^labic, repeats m in present 
and future tenses. 


To behold, to gaze. Panoor, manoor. 


To behold, to gaze, (intensive). Magpan6or. 

Thing beheld at. Panoorin, pagpanoorin. 

Place. Panooran. 

Spectacle, show, a pageant. Panoorin or capa panooran. 

To behold, to gaze by many people. Magsi pa n6or. 

Thing. Pagsipanoorin. 

Place. Magsipanooran. 




To behold, (by many). Magsipanoor. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Behold, (by many). Nagsisipandor. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenser. 

Beheld, have beheld, (by many). Nagsipan<$or. 


Pluperfect teiise. 

Had beheld, (by many). Nacapagsipandor, nagsipandor na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, will behold, (by many) Magsisipanoor. 

Future perfect teiise, 

Shall, will have beheld, (by many.) Macapagsipanoor magsipanoor na. 


Behold (ye), let (us, them) l)ehold. Magnipanoor. 


The action of beholding, (by many). Ang pag^isipanoor. 



To be beheld, (by many.) Pagsipanoorin. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Am, art, it*, are beheld, (by many.) Pinagwsipan^or. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Was, -Bt, were; have, hant, has l)een ]»eheld. (by many). Pinagsipanoor. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dat been l)eheld. (by many.) Napagbipanoor, i)inag8ipan6or na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It l)e beheld, (by many.) Pagsisipanoorin. ' 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have been beheld. > mr . . ^ . 

(bv manv) \ Mapagsipanoor, pagsisipanoonn na. 


Be beheld, let. . . .be beheld, (by many.) Pagsipanoorin. 


The Btate of being beheld, (by many.) Ang pagsipandorin. 




To behold (by many) on account of. Ypagsipan6or. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Behold (we, ye, they) on acccount of. Ypinagsisipandor. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Beheld, have beheld (we, ye, they) on account of. Ypinagsipanoor. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had beheld (by many) on account of. Naypagsipanoor, ypinagsipanoor na. 

Future iivdefinitt tense. 

Shall, will behold (by many) on account of. Ypagsisipanoor. 

Future perfect teme. 

Shall, will have beheld (bv many) on ^ ^t • ' - x 

account of. S ^^^yP^K^^P^^^^^^yP^gsisipancSor na. 


Behold (ye), let (us, them) behold on account of. Ypagsipanoor. 


The action of beholding (by many) on account of. Ang ypagsipan()or. 



To behold (by many) in. Pagsipanooran. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Behold ^we, ye, they) in. Pinagsisipanooran. 

Present perfect and pa^t indefinite tenses. 

Beheld, have beheld (by many) in. Pinagsipanooran. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had beheld (by manyj ih; Napagsipanoorah, pinagsipanboiranha. 

Future indefinite tens^e. 

Shall, will behold (by many) in. PagsiBipanooran. 

Future perfect ten^e. 

Shall, will have beheld (by many) in. Mapagsipanooran, pagsisipanooran na. 

Behold (ye), let (us, them) behold in. Pagsipanooran. 


The action of beholding (by many) in. Ang pagsipanooran. 

The student should conjugate actively and passively the following 
verbs, some of which inchuh* combination with other verbalizing particles. 


Te teach, (many). Magsiaral. 

To learn. ("). Magsipagaral. 

To preach. ( " ). Magsipafigiiral. 

To confess, (by many penitents). Magsipagcumpisai. 

To confess (by many priests). Magsipagpacumpisal. 

To enter, to go in. (many). Magsipasoc. 

To get (something) into, (by many). Magsipagpasoc. 

To go out. (many). Magsilabas. 

To draw (something) out. (by many). Magsipalabas. 

To weep. (many). Magsitafigis. 

To laugh, (many). MagsitauS. 

Still the sense of plurality may be carried to a higher degree of 
numerousness by inserting in this, as in other conjugations, ?7(jfa, between 
the changeable and changeless portion of the particle. 

All XI- I'll r xi_- I. 1 1 \ Ang mafiga bata nitdng escuelahan 

All the children of thin school learn, j nafigagsisipagaral. 

.„ - ^, ^ .J . i Mafigagsipasoc cay6ng naririyan sa 

All of you there outside come m. \ \^^ 

„ ., ^ , . , \ Pagpitaganan mo ang mafiga umaiiral 

Honor the masters who teach you. ? ^^ maestro nailgagsisiaral sa iyo. 

All this crowd made a confession this Ytdng maraming mafiga tauo nafigag- 
morning and they all will behold sipagcumpisalcafiginangumagaatma- 
the procession to-niorrow. figagsisipannoor nang procesi^n bucas. 

Corner. Suloc. 

Log, lumber. Calap. 

The inside. Ang l6ob. 

Within. Sa 16ob. 

Within the church. Sa 16ob nang simbahari. 

The outside. Ang labtis. 

Outside, outwards. Sa labas. 

Outside the town. Sa labas nang bayan. 

To commemoiate. Magdiuang. 

Highwayman. Tulisan. 

Foot-pad. Manghaharang. 

Where is her house? ?Nasaan ang caniyang bahay? 


It is within the town. 

And yourp? 

It is outside the wood. 

Just what. 

Take just what you wish. 

Take just what suffices for a shirt. 

That is only for me. 

You (plur.) take for yourselves what 

is for me. 

As for my part. 

As for him. 

As for my part, I abandon her. 

Na sa loob nang bay an. 

^,At ang iy6? 

Na sa labas nang gubat. 


Muha ea nang ganan ibig mo. 

Muha ca nang ganan siicat bar6in, 

Ganan aquin iyan. 

Naggaganan iny6 cay 6 nang ganan sa 


8a ganan aquin. 

Sa ganan caniyd. 

Sa ganan aquin, pinababayaan co aiyd. 



Cant, as a noun, means, as already said, "intimate friend". 

They are intimate friends. Magcasi, magcacasi sila, 

and conjugated by nutg means to engage in close familiarity. 
He engages in intimacy. Nagcacasi siy^. 

Cad, as a verb, also means "to pervade", if conjugated by um. 

The Holv Ghost nervaded the souls { ^"^ ^^^ Estdntu SarUo, ang cung- 
ine uoiy unost pervaaea tne souis i ^g. ^^ caWloua nang mafiea Anos- 

of the Apostles. 

tdes. (Sp.) 

Still cast conjugated by um means "to accept of a secret or clandestine 
gift", as to be bribed, and by nmg, "to bribe". 

The judge accepted of my gift. Ang hdcom ay ang quinasihan co. 

Cast may be used as an impersonal verb meaning "it seems". 

It seems that he went there. 
It seems he does not know her. 

Napar6on casi siy^. 

Di niyd naquiquilala casi. 


Di, the contraction of dili an hindi, is always a prepositive parti' 
cle meaning "not", "in", (Latin prefix), "un". 


Di mabata. 
Di mauica. 

Di cannot be conjugated by pa on account of its monosyllabic struc- 
ture, thus, to "say no," is expressed by the full word hindi or dili, say- 
ing pahindi, padili, 

Di serves to affirm in an alternative or contrasting sense. 

Whom but Our Lord God, should I ^Di sino ang dadaifigan co cundf ang 
pray?. Dios ating paf)gin<$on ?. 

Di joins to. adverbs, imparting a negative sense. 


S*ot yftt. l)i pa. 

Although, although not. I>i man. 

Not only.... but even. J)i man naua. 

Greatly, exceedingly. Di hamac. 

Why not?. " ^Saan di gan»'»on?. 

Does he not wish to eat yet? ^.Di pa ibig niyalng cumain? 

Although you don't weep I will whip Di ca man tumangis hahampasin 

you. quita. 

Exceedingly wealthy. Mayaman di hamac. 

Why not so? ^Saan di gan6on?. 


Diliy besideR its proper signification as n negative adverb, is used at 
the end for an alternative negative conjunct ion. 

Will he pay or not? ;, Babuyad siya, dili?. 


Dfvn is another impersonal verb having a dubitative sense as (*axt\ 
fihtj ynin. It likewise stands or **it seems", **it np|)ears". 

It seems to lie he. DiuaJ, siya. 

It apix'ars as if you would despise l)iua,i, pinauaua^an mo na ac(Sng ha- 

me. laga. 

/)>iia, as a noun, m<*ans "spirit", '^genius", ''va}>or", although in this 
sense is verv little use<l. 

The spirit of martyrs. Aug diua nang mafiga vinrlir. (Sp.) 

DiiMy has also an adjectival force meaning "fresh thing"; but it is better 
to say sartva. 

The fresh leaves of tree... ) ^"»f "»"'»""« '^»''"" """? ""*^?'' 

f cahov. 



Doan, is, as the stu<lent knows, the adverb indicative of place far away 
from the interlocutors. It may also be used as an adverb of time mean- 
ing "then", "at that time", "in those days." 

When you eat, you shall know then Cun cumain ca, ddon maaalaman njo 

what kind of food is in store for you. cun ano ang hain. 

In those days the Patron Saint's D6on sa manga jirao na ya<5n ypina- 

feast was celebrated. didiuang ang Pintacasing Santo. 

Doon, if associated with pa has an admirative conjunctional sense as 
indicated by the following illustration. 

He, being so young, does that, what Bata pa,i, gungmagaua nang ganit6, 
shall he do when a man?. /,d6on pa cun lumaqui?. 

We have seen that (hhw mav )>e made a verb with maqcn; ma gen- 

Mi * 


/vJow, 'Ho liavo^', ''to own", "to he wortli"; still it may bo conjugated by 
man: inandnon, manroon, ''to take HOinethini^ out of a heap". 

Give them some fruit nut of the ) p- „• j„ ^^ ^m.c ^o*>^ «««^^,.x^« 
, , - } rJiguian rao sila nang nancioroon. 


What do those people do there?. They are beholding the image of 
the Holy Virgin. Was it beheld by many people? Yes, it was largely 
l)eheld. Where is it ])eheld? It is })eheld at the church. Do all the 
teachers teach? They all teach. Whom do they teach? They teach all the 
children in the towni. Were all the priests preaching? They were all 
])reaching. What did they preach? They all preached the observance of 
holy commandments. Where did they all preach? They all preached at 
the door of the church. Do all tliese children study? All of them study. 
What do thev studv? Thev all studv grammar. Are there manv who are 
making confession? Yes, indeed, they are very many who make a con- 
fession. Are there many priests receiving confessions? All the priests are 
receiving confesssions. Are there many people going into church? No, the 
mass is over, and many people come out of church at pre^ient. What are 
that crowd taking out from my uncle's? They all are taking out the hou- 
sehold furniture, as fire is spreading. Are all those boys laughing or 
wee]>ing? Thi^y all are laughing at a drunkard who staggers about. Who 
is at the corner? Peter is at the corner. Where does your house stand? 
It stands within town at the corner of the market. Are there many high- 
wayman about your city? Yes, indeed, there are a great many. Where 
is he going to? He is going outside the road. How much shall I spend? 
Spend just what you need. All that money is only for me? As for me, 
take it all. Are thev intimate friends? Thev are intimate friends: Whv 
does the American abandon that woman? It i^ because he is going to embark 
for his country. Are pious people pervaded by the spirit of God? Pious 
people are pervaded by the Holy Ghost. Do ,you know that' person coming 
here? It seems I don't know him. Have you not eaten the meat? I did 
not eat the meat but the boiled rice. Do you intend to engage in trade? 
What shall I do but to engage in trade? Why do you ask me that? Because 
I' want to. know whether you go there or not. Where do you go? I go to 
church. What are you going to do there? I am going there to attend mass. 
Had the letter been already read w.hen you were at home? The letter had 
alreadvbeen read. Had the hen been looked for? It had not vet l)een looked 
for. Were our anci^stors stronger than we? Our forefathers from whom we 
descend, were stronger. 





Magna, active*; pa<f>*', pansive; is another verbal [uirticle wliich if a])- 
pliwl to the root of a national adjective denotes imitation, following' of 
the manners or customs of tliat nation. This ]>article is little in fasliiou, 
as the same sense mav be conveyed bv mnnvi and other means of ex- 
pression. We give, however, an example of it in the sul^joined conjugation 
and it will be seen that sa, the hist syllable of the juirtide, is repeated 
in the proper tenses. 


Spaniard. Castila. 


To speak, to translate* into Spanish; to ) ». ,, .., 

di^io'i I i.»iatrcasMia . 

reHS like bpaniard. ) ^ 

Thing. Castilain. 

Person with whom one converses in > . ,.|. 

Cause, or the subject of a conversation ) ^r ,.i 

o • 1 : 1 ]>ai;castila. 

ui Spanish. \ * ^ 

Place where or meeting of manv ^ ., ..i, 
,, . 1 '^ ' , C aeastilaan. 

Spannirds. \ 

To a^lopt Spanish manners. Magsacastila. 

In what Spanish manners or customs ^ . .., 

- I, *^ , . Ang suiasacastiia. 

are followed. S ^ 

Cause or reason wherebv ado])ted. Ang yi)agsacastila. 



To behave as a ?:paniard, to follow } ^r .j 

rj ^. , ^^^. ■. ^ : Magsaciietna. 

hpanish custom.^. ) 

Present indef.nitc tense. 

FoWow, ^&t,- -6- Spanish ciist^Mns.'" ' '"Nagsasacai?tila/ 

Pnseni jnrff'H nml pud Ifulrfinilr lemffs. 
Followed, -ds(; have, hast, has followed Spanish customs. Nagsacastihi. 

Pluperfect toi^se. 

Had, -dst followed S^anibh cuHtonii*. NacapagsacHBtila, nagsaeastila iia. 

Future indefinite teme. 

Shall. -It, will, -It follow Spanish customs. Magsasacastila. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have f(*llowed Span- P »r ^ *i ^ .«,«^.,^.,*:i » . 

J, . . ' / Maoapagsacastila, magsasacastila na. 


Follow, let. . . follow Spanish cUbtoms. Magsacastila. 

Verbal . 

The action of following Spanish customs. Ang pagsasasacastila. 


hi passive in this }jiirticle drops }muj and is conjugated after the same 
]>assive of ina conjugation, only na ixTsisting. 


(Wliat) to he adopted of the Spanisli \ 

customs, in what Spanish rustoms to > Saeastilain .... ang. 

bo adopted, by. 1 

Prciivnt imle finite teniae. 

^??'tl^ If ''''"'"*'* "^ *'"' ^P'""'*Msin«8aca8tila....ang. 
customs, bv. S ° 

Present perfect and paM indefinite teuM^s. 


(What) was, has been adopted of ^ vj;, . .. c^f^i. 
c* * t A. \ ■ I ^inacastiia . . 

Spanisii customs, by. S 

PUtperfect ten:*:. 
(What) had been adopted of the Spanish customs, by. binacar.tila na. . . .ang. 

Future indefimte tense. 

(What) shall , will be adopted of the Spanish customs, by. SasaeaBtilaiii . . ang. 


Fffhtrc perfect tense, 

(What) shall, will have been udopttHl ) ^ .... 

« 4u^ a. :u ♦ . 1 ; 5>a.sacaHtiliun na anc. 

of the Spanmh ciwtoins, by. S ^ 


Let (what) be adopted of the Spanish customs, by. Sacastilain ang. 


The state of (what) being adopted of the Spanish customs. Ang sacastilain...nang. 



To follow Spanish custom? on account of. Yj)agsaciistila, 

Present Indefinite tense. 

Follow, -est, -s Spanish customs on account of. Ypinagsasacastila. 

Present perfect and jta^^l indefinite tenaes. 

Followed, -dst: have, hast, has follow- ) \7 - .i 

, tj . 1 ' ' . g I ipinagsacastila. 

ed Spanish customs on account of. S 

Pin per feet tense. 

Hail, -<lst followed Spanish customs ) xt. ^i *i 

on awMMint of. ( Naypagsacastila, ypniagsacastila na. 

I^ntnrc Indv finite trnse. 
Shall, -It, will, -It follow Spanish customs on account of. Vpa^sasacastila. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It. will. -It have followed ) vr *i *i 

Spanish customs on account of. < Maypagsacastila, ypagsasacastila na. 


Follow, let . follow Spanish cuislonit ^ x^- ., 

on acc<^unt of. \ ^ ^ 


The action of following Spanish cus- . . ., 

toma on account of. ■: ""S ypagsacastila. 




To follow the Spanish customs at. PagHauaj^tiliiaii. 

Present indefinite teitse. 

Follow, -est, -s the Spanish customs at. Pinagsasacastilaan. 

present perfect and paM iudefinite fences. 

Followed, -dst; have, hast, has fol- ) pinatrsac astilaau 
lowed the Spanish customs at. ^ ^ 

Phiperfect te)m\ 

Had -dst followed the Spanish cus- ) x- 41 - ^i' . ., , 

. , ^ j >ag])asacastila'An. pinagsacattilaan na. 

Ff'ture indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will. -It follow the Spanish customs at. Pagsasacastilaan. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall -It, will, -It have followed the ) ^r m * ^'i * 

<j.,', . v/v/vit ^ ( ^f^gpagjicastihuuKpiigsasacastilaanna. 

Spanish customs at. S ^* ' ^ 


Follow, let. . . .follow the Spanish customs at. Pagsacastilaan. 


The action of following the s])aTiish customs at. Ang ])agsacastiljian. 

Th<} student should conjugate actively and passively the following 
imitative actions. 

To follow Chinese customs. 


•? J? 

native „ 


>; r 

American ,, 

M agsaamerican 0. 




« ft « « 

English ., 


P •' 



Magea. i:^ fit to txpres» tbt; purposely-made exposure to the action of 
an atmospherical agent, the working on of which is expressed by magpa. 
Magsa, in thib ren-e^ i> but the adverb of place ^a, conjugated by mag. 

Sun yourself. Magsaarao ca. 

Put linen to sunshine. Magsaajrao ca .aang..damit.. .. ... •/: 

Put that shirt to the wind. Ysahangin mo iyang baro. *• ": — 



Keller's \vift» aclo))ts Ciornian oustimis. Aug astiua ni Keller ay nap:sasaaleinaiK 

Ameritahn customs are ail()i)te(l l)v Nap;sasaaiiierieaiin na anj^ inan^a Ta- 

Filipinoii, giilog. 

They adopt American customs in dres- Ang pagbibihis ang sinasaamericano 

sing. nili. 

Mr. Singer while in the Philippines Ang Pilipinas ang pinagsasatagalogan 

follows native customs. ni seiior Singer. 



Yhd is the indefinite adjective pronoun for "other"; '^another". 

Other man. Yl i ig taud. 

Another pen. Ybang paniilat. 

As a verb, ihd has different meanings accordinjr to the particle with 
which conjugated. 

To change. Mag-iba. 

To })e influenced bv, to feel the chang- / *f - -i * 

mg of. S 

To he different from what it was l)efore. Magcaibd. 

To sinsularize, to be i)eculiar, to have I ^f .., . 
, r - \. ' ' > Ma(iuiiba. 

a leaning for aliens. ) ^ 

Ylfd, as an adjective of quality, means 'Mifferenl*'. 

This is different from that. Yto.i, iba divan. 

Uncommon, unsatisfactory. Caiba. 

Yhd has an adverbial sense, as in: 

Jests aside, apart. Yba sa biro. 

Yhd is used as a noun in the sense of ''stranger", "not akin". 

He is not my relation. Yba sa aquin siya. 

Ho you know that his wif<' chances ^.Naaalaman mo na ang caniyang 

to l)e my kinswoman?. asaua ay hindi iba sa aquin?. 


' Ymo is the well known prepositive form of tlie second person pro- 
noun. It may be made a verb and conjugated by vvi or po. 

To thou. Umicao. 

Who thous you? ^.Sinong ungmiicao sa iy/)? 

Ask him to thou vou. /Paicao ca sa canivA. 


Ihin is the in<lefinite pronoun for "some". 

Some da vs. Iliin anio. 

Some, a few. Mafiga ilu'n. 


It is used in interrogations for "how many"?. It is plural. l»ut it 
may eome before a sinjjular noun of :i numeral)le thing. 

How much money?. ^Unng salapi?. 

How many men? ^.H^ng tau6?. ;.ilan catauo?. 


Indi is another form of the negative adverh di, dili, hindi^ meaning 
"no", ^*never", "not yet" and is somewhat emphatic. It is joined to the 
other particles its synonyms. 

Neither, nor either. Indi man, indi rin. 

Not only, solely. Indi lamang. 

Indi pa, denotes continuance; indi na, disi^ontinuance; with the pe- 
culiarity as to the former that it causes the first syllahle of the root to 
Ik» repeated. 

He has not yet finished. Indi pa niyi natatapus. 

He stays no longer there. Indi na siya d<K>n tungmitira. 


Lfih), is the comparative adverh "more". 

More than I, me. Lahi sa ac|uin. 

.More than a hundred men. Lahi sa sangdaang tau6. 

Lfihi may likewise stand for the adverh of excess "too", "tiK) much". 

He is too cruel, stern. Labing mahagsic siya. 

How much is the price of this trunk? ^,Magcan6 ang halagii nitong cahan?. 

Twenty dollars. Dalauang p<Suong piso. 

That is too much. Labi iyan. 

L(thi, as a verb, means "to exceed", "to add", if conjugated by vm, 

xj 1 i • I S Lungmalabi Hiysi sa dalauang puimt^ 

He exceeds two inches. J , ^.r^ v -^ » r j 

( da. (bp.) 

The water overflows. Lungmalabi ang tiibig. 

Add water to the broth. Labihan mo nang tiibig ang sabao. 

Lahi, if conjugated by 7«a(/, means "to leave behind as surplus". 

They left behind one bushel of vice. Linabi nilA isang cabain na bigtis. 

lAihi, as a noun, means "excess", "surplus". 
The excess is three reals. Ang labi, tatlong sicapat. 

Slowly, carefully, understandingly. Marahan. 

Quickly, briefly. Madalf. 

Often, hurriedly, repeatedly. Madalals. 

Rarely, slowly. Madalang. 

Would to Cod, may Cod permit. Loobin nana nang Dies. 

Would to (t(k1 they would die. Maanong mamatsiy sila. 

Cloud. Panganurin, alapsiap. 

Mist. Olap. 

Atmosphere, thick clouil. 

Thick, dense. 

Thick, dense mist. 

Modesty, civility. 

Chastity, honor. 

Bearing, port, carriage, demeanor. 

Honorable lady, gentlewoman. 

Circumepectioii, prudence. 


Mucapal na olap. 
Cahinhinaii, liiiihin. 
Cabinlan, bini. 


Why do you wonder at that woman following Chinese customs.? 1 
wonder at it, because it is not customary for natives of this country to 
adopt Chinese fashions and manners. But do you know who she is.? 
I don't. Do you not know that she ia the wife of a wealthy Chinese 
merchant,? I did not; but, if so. I no longer wonder at her having adopt- 
ed Chinese cuatoma. Would you adopt English customs if I should adopt- 
native ones? I should adopt English customs even if you would not adopt 
native ones, Whom are Moorish customs adopted by.? Moorish cus- 
toms are adopted by some natives living round the shores of Mindanao 
Island. Do ever Moors adopt Bisayan customs.? They adopt Bisayan 
customs partly. Is there no other cotton than this.? There is oth- 
er cotton and other iron. Has he another hammer.? He has anoth- 
er hammer and another plane. Does my aunt change hats.? She 
changes hats. Are you influenced by this climate.? Yes, I am hard 
influenced by this climate. Did your son change to a different man than 
before.? He did. Is iron different from steel? Iron is different from 
Bteel. What are they different in.? They are different in hardness. What 
IB done to you.? They do nothing to me, cheer up. Is your neighbor 
a relation of yours.? He la not my relation. Do you know that her 
husband is my relation.? I don't know. Why does that man thou 
your daughter.? He thoua her, because he ia suing to marry her. Why 
do you say thou to your father.? Because it is a native custom to 
do so. How manv weeks will you be absent.? Some weeks only. Have 
you my book? i have it not. How many men came.? A few only 
came. Why do you not reduce your expenses,? Because my money ia 
not growing less. Hag he not received his trunk yet.? He has not 
received it yet. Why do you write bo carefully.? Because I am not 
In a hurry. Are there any thick clouds in the atmosphere.? The at- 
moBphere is fraught with thick clouds. Who is that boy.? He is a 
taodeot fellow, What did the villagers meet together for,? They met 
to speak about the visit of the general. Whom did you bow to.? To 
Gardiner, ho ie a tiobieman. Why is he ashamed of his parents.? Ho 
te MhBmcd of liis parentu, because they are poor, 






Manhi, active; panKi, pa^^ire; is a compound of jnan='pan and the 
adverbial particle hi, the lutter having an ironical adversative sense, 
Homewhnt after the one denoted by the English prefix "for" in "forswear", 
"forbear". Thus, ^fmli, "reward"; (iiimnnd, "to reward"; mnnhiganii, "to 
revenge"; pilny. "husk-rice"; tnnmdlny, "to jtather in paddy"; mnn/tinuifay, 
"to glean"; pilail, "good luck", "forlune"; nmgeapdlad, "to be luckjf"; 
manhimdlad, "to predict by for. une- tellers". Man it^ in this conjugation 
the verb:il particle, hi being only complementary of the eense. Hence 
the roots conjugated by mnnhi undergo the same change of the initial letters 
which they would undergo if conjugated by mnn. 

The form o( conjugation, in other respects, follows the general rules; 
hi, the last syllable, being repeated in the proper tenses. 

Keward, prize. 


To reward. Uuiiianti, 

Person. Oantihfn. 

With what, Ygantl, 

The rewarding. Ang pag-canti, 

To correapond one another. Mag-gantihan. 

The action of rewarding each other. Ang pjig-gagantlhaiii 

To revenge, to avenge. Manhiganti. 

Person who avenged an offence, Pinanhigunti. 

Pereon wronged, or the Instrument or f Yt,„^i.iBanti vninanhisant^ 

means which served to inflict revenge. S ''PaUhigantl, jp'"''"hig«nt , 

To revenge upon, to requite, tu re- ) jianhiflaiitl. 

Iftliate. ! * 

e taken. Piinlngantiliitn. 

Vvuon on whom revenge is to t 

'i'o revougo. 


Present indefinite tense. 


Revenge, -^t, -b. Nanhihiganti. 

Present jycrfect and post indefinUe tenses. 

Revenged, -dfit; have, hast, has revenged, Nanhigantl. 

Plnperfect tense. 

Had, -dst revenged. Nacapanhiganti, nanhiganti na. 

Future indefinite tense. 
Shall, -It, will, -It revenge, Manhihiganti. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have revenged. Maoapanhigantx, manhihiganti na. 


Revenge, let ... . revenge, Manhigantf. 

The action of revenging, Ang panhihiganti. 




To be avenged of. Panhigantihin. 

Present indejinite tense. 

Am, art, is, are avenged of. Pinanhihiganti. 

Present perfect and j^^^^t indejinite tenses. 

Was, -at, were; have, hast, has been avenged of. Pinanhiganti. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst been revenged of. Xapanhiganti, pinanhiganti na. 

Future indejinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It be avenged of. Panhihigantihin. 

Future perfect tense, 

Shan, -It, will, -It havcl>een aveng- j Maimnhiganti, panhihigantihin na. 



Be avenged, let be avenged of. Panhigantihin. 

The state of being avenged of. Ang panhigantihin. 



To revenge with or by. Ypanhiganti. 

Present indefinite tense. 


Revenge, -st, -s with or by. Ypinanhihiganti. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Revenged, -dst; have, hast, has revenged with or by. Ypinanhiganti, 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst revenged with or by. Naypanhiganti, ypinanhiganti na. 

future indefinite tetise. 

Shall, -It, will, -It revenge with or by. Ypanhihiganti. 

Futitre perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have revenged with ) n^r ^i . ,» , ., . .• 

^! * ' I Maypanhigand, ypanhihiganti na. 



Revenge, let..,, revenge with or by. Ypanhiganti. 


The action of revenging with or by. Ang ypanhiganti. 



To take revong<» ui>on. Panhigantihiin. 

Present ivdefiuite ten^se. 

Take, -st, -s revenge upon. Pinaahihigautihan. 


Present perfect and past indefinite iemes. 
Took, -est; have, hast, haa taken revenge upon, Pinaiihigantihan. 

pluperfect tense. 

Hiid, -(.lit taken revenge upon. Napanliigantihiin, pinanhigantihan na. 

Future Indefhiite tense. 

f-huU, -it, will, -It take revenge upon. Panhihjgantihdn, 
huturc perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have taken je- I 

Mapanhigantihan, panhihigantihan Da< 

Take, let. ..take revengt 

upon. Panhigantihdn. 


The fiction of taking revenge upon, Ang panhihlgantlhiln 

The student should conjugate by manhi actively and passively the 
following roots, 


spoiled child. 




Scarf, Ekin. 

To glean. Palay, 

To waeh one's face, Lambs. 

To act fickly.^ Mobiu69, 

f To Bell by retail or about 1 
Trifle, small commo- J the streets. I j 

1 To sell bad, but apparent- f ^'^'^"■ 
(ly good things. J 

To rebel. £agitic. 

i. To affect doing something, 1 
\ to fidget about for no > Panday. 
( purpose. 1 

To flay. Piinit. 

\ To be stricken witli be- ) „ , , 
( reavement. \ " 

To swoon away. Matay. 

i To comb the mustaehe * .,. 
J smooth and even. \ '"*"-^' 

Swelling of the fye- To wash the sore eyes with / p ,, 
lids or the eyi'S. lukewarm water. \ 










They avenge<I me, Pitianhiganti iic6 nila, 

He avenged himself by not jiaying YEjinanhiganti niyd ang di maglni- 

him. yad se. eaniya. 

I will take reveufrc on him. Siyii ang panhihigantihan co, 

M'inhi is propLT to cxprcae acta of corporal cleauaing of filth or pa- 
rasitary expurgation. 



M'ax of the ear. Toclean the ear from wax. TutuU. Manhtnul). 

Foulness of the To dean one's teeth from j ^j^j^^^ Manhinifigi. 

Crab^louse. \ J^^/'^^" °"*^'^ ^«" ^'""^ [ Tumi Manhinom*. 

( lice. ) 

Nail of the fingers ^^ ^j^^ ^^ ^^^.^ ,^^. j^ (j^^.^ Manhiflgoctf. 

or voes* ) 

Lippitude. T^J/;;;'- '^^t ""«'« '^P- \ Moti Manhimoi. 

vu S 1"^ clean one^H self from ^ r. . \r«^\.;i:oA 

W ! ■■ ' ■ I 


L.. ' ..-J 


loob, ae a noun, meanp **the inside", **the Inner part of some closed 
ppace'*, not the contents, which is expressed by lam4n, Metaphorically, 
m means "will", "good-will'S "heart". 

The inside of the room, Ang Idob nang silld. 

Merov, crant, Caldob, 

Gratitude, Utang na \6oh. 

Coward, gpirliless, ungrateful fellow, Tau^^ng uaWng Wob. 

As a verb, ISoh means **to enter", *'to allow", **to permit", ''to do 
Pomething willingly", according to the particle, 

To enter, to tall upon, to break open. Lumdob, manWob, 

To allow something in, to give admi- ) \f^„,.„ix^K 

tance, to allow pillage going on. \ MagpaiooD. 

To bestow graces, mercies. Magcal6ob, 

To allow, to do something willingly. Magl6ob. 

Do it heartily. Magldob cang gumaua. 

What do you desire? iAn6ng Idob mo?. 

If you are not willing, don't go there, Cundl mo 16ob, di cang pardon. 

Looh, as an adverb, stands for "inside", "in", "within", and must be 
complemented by the proposition sa. 

Within, in, inside. Sa Idob. 

Heartily, willingly. | bJoiS Wob."*^ ^^^' '"^ ^^"^ ^^^' "''"^ 


Ocolj as a noun, is fit to express "good fortune", "fitness". 

I lack good luck. Tau6 acdng ualang dcol. 

You are both of the same temi)er. Magcadcol caydng dalaui^. 

OroL as a verb, U used in t«cveral wavs. 

Soul is for (belongs t<>) God. Ang caloldua ay naodcol sa Dii^. 

Measure on him this stuff to sec Ydcol mo sa caniya itong cayo na 
whether if is enough for his shirt. babaroin niya. 

^^^^^^^^^ £»9 ^^^^H 


W It suits Peter to be juilge. 

Ocol cav Pedro ang maghocow 


L I yield to the will ol God. 

Yiioocolan or inaayonan co v 
nang Dios, 

□g \6o\) ^^^ 

^■^ PONO. 

Pono, u8 ft noun, ineane ''nource", "orJKin", "trunk of a tree' 

"tore- ^^M 

man", "leader". 


God is the source of truth. 

Ang Dioa ay ang pono nang cj 

totoba- ^^M 

How many banana-trees are there in 

;.Yliin bngiiang mafigapono 

ang ^^H 

your farm? 

gulug na nasa iyong biiquid? 


He ia the chief of the fleet. 

Sivii.i, ang pono nang hocb<5 s 

a ddgat. ^^M 

Generative organs. 

Ponong cataouiin. 


r Head i»lace or town, president of tlie 
town, mayor. 

Ponong bayaii. 


1 Pono, ns a verb, meana "to fill' 

, ^-nnd also "to make up". 


j Pill tho vat, 

P' Uiiu mo ang tapaj'ftn. 


L Malie up one hundred. 

M:igpon<J ea nnng anogd^an. 




H^ These two pronouiu when used 

in the nominative express tho plural ^^H 

B in a way even more restricted than mr 

i/, ns they mean "thou and I alone", ^^H 

W but they have a eomewhat interjeetional exhortative »ense. 


1 Well then, let ua go to niasw. 

^uitti.i, magaimhA. 


1 Well, let ua set about it. 

Catii, quita nn. 

1 Let U9 eat. 

tiuitil,i, cumilin', 


1 But, moat commonly, qvitd'catd, Htand tor the poBiiiesaive caue with ^^| 

■ regard to the tpeaker or agent, and (or the nominative of the 

patient, ^^M 

r both of them being used in the passive an a contraction of co icd 


by me". 


, Lli'^JSTmr''' ''™ ■■"" '" ! «"-'>." ■i"'"' " -'^' 


I will wuke thee. 

Ouiguisiflgin cattt or quiti. 

You are whipped by me, 

Hinnhampitii quitii or cata, 


Allway!>, Colietaiitly, 

Touf, toul nung touf, toui-tc 




Whenever you read a book (something) 

Touf cang masd nang siilat. 

Whenever you write. 

Toulng BUiiilat ca. 


Whenever I study he plttya. 

Touliig acd,i, iiugnural, sij'iM, iin 

Klnlaf4. H 

Brightneea, lumiuousnesH, bliue, 

Cabanaugan, buiulag. 


IlluetriuUB niBU. 

Tau6ng mabunyl. 

Famous „ 

„ mabantog, 


CouBpicUuUn ttiuni 

,1 tnaraflguh 


Crippled, maimed mail, 

i. ]uinp6, 


Muie ,1 

: ta. 

Deaf „ 


Bimu-ntr „ 

., oMi 



L&me man. 

Cross-eyed „ 

One hnnded, awkward lianded r 


To awell, to expand. 

Tttiinng pflay. 
,, duling 
„ quimao. 
„_ bulag. 



Why does the soldier take revenge on that dog.? He takes revenge • 
on it, because it bit him. Will the blind man be avenged of the offence,? 
He will be avenged by hie son. On whom will he take revenge. He will 
take revenge on the buy who led him astray. Why does that poor man 
glean.7 He gleans because he is hungry. Do you wash your face every 
morning.? I always wash my face after rising from bed. Why does he 
think BO childishly.? He thinks childishly, for he is still a spoiled child. Did 
Chinese undersell merchants.? They undersell them, because they sell bad 
things for good ones. Against whom did natives rebel.? They rebelled against 
Spaniards and Americans. What does the carpenter do.? He does nothing, 
he affects doing something (fidgets). Why does your brother flay the deer.? 
He Says it to sell the meat. What ia the matter with the crippled man.? 
He swooned away yesterday. Is your male—coiiBin combing his mustache 
smooth.? No, he is washing his swollen eye— lida with lukewarm water. 
Does the beggar clean himself from lice? No he is cleaning hia ear from 
wax and his teeth from fonlnesB. Does he use to clean his naiis.? He, 
not only cleans his nails, but also he clears out his lippitudes and his 
nita. Where is his grandson.? He ia within the room. Why do you com- 
pare those two gantas.? I conapare them to see whether they are e(\ual. 
Will they conform to the will of their father.? They will. Who is the 
leader of" the army,? The' leader of the army is the king, What 
is the servant filling up.? He is filling your glass. Will you keep me 
company.? I will keep you company if you go to Manila. Will you 
punish me whenever I don't obey you.? I will punish you whenever 
you don't obey me, Who la the moat famous, most celebrated and itius* 
trious man of North America.? Washington ia the most famous. What 
are you eating,? I eat the fruit sought by my mother. Why do you ■ 
not drink that wine.? Because I never drink.' 







Magpaca, active; pagpaca==^paca, passive; may be considered as an enlar- 
gement of magpa, (which it somewhat resembles in sense in some respects) 
with the intransitive particle suffixed thereto. Hence it does not generally 
admit of the in passive and pn and not ca is repeated in the present and 
future tenses. Its principal signification is, like magpa, to allow, to suffer 
willingly what the root it joins to means. The discrimination between the 
])as8ive and the self-acting upon sense should be made by adequate expres- 
sions for verbs admitting of both. Nagpacamatdy »i Jeftucrisso cusa niyd, 
** Jesus Christ gave up His life"; nagpacamatdy Si Caton sa canird.ig sarili, 
'*Cato committed suicide". 


Dead. Patay 


To kill. Patay, pumatay. 

To sentence to death or to have some- ) \f«,„,„x.' , «.««,^o.^afo',» 

body killed bv other's hands. i ^^I^^P^^^y^ magpapata3. 

To kill one by one, by many blows, ) Magpapatav. (1). 
or by one who kills many. ) ^t t- . \ / 

To^kill many by many, or one by | Mafigagpapatay, magsipatay. 

Killed person or animal. Patayin. 

Instrument, weapon. Ypatay. 

Mourning p)er8on, the relatives of the ) pg^^^van (1) 

victim. i y • V ^ 

Place. Patayan, pagpatayan. (1). 

To go about killing. Mamatay. (1). 

To swoon away, to become drowsy. Manhimatay. 

To allow one's wjlf to be killed, to ) Magpacamatdy. 

commit suicide. ) '^^ "^ 

(1) Notice the accentuation. 






To give up one's life, to conimit suicide. Magpacamatiy. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Commit, -est, -s suicide. Nagpapacamatay. 

Present perfect and -past indefinite tenses. 

Committed, -dst; have, hast, has committed suicide. Nagpacamatay. 

Plnperfect tense. 

Had, -dst committed suicide. Nacapagcamatay, nagpacamatay na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It commit suicide. Magpapacamatay. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will -It have committed Macapagpacamatay magpapacamatay 
suicide. na. 


Commit, let ... .commit suicide. Magpacamatay. 


The action of committing .suicide. Ang pagpapacamatay 



To commit suicide with or on account of. Ypagpacamatay 

Present indefinite teiise. 

Commit, -est, -s suicide with or on account of. Ypinagpapacamatiiy. 

PreseiU perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Commited,-dst: have, hast, has commit- ^ vr • ^ ^ 

ted suicide witl. or on acoount of. \ ^ Pinagpacamatay. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst, committed suicide with or j Naypagpacamataiy, ypinagpacama- 
on account of. \ tay na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It commit suicide ( ^ x ' 

with or on account of. \ Ypagpapacamatay. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have committed sui- Maypagpacamatay. ypagpapacama- 
cide with or on account of. tav na. 


Commit, let. . . .commit suicide with \ ^r _ ♦ ' 

or on account of. | ^ pagpacamatay. 


or on 

action of committing suicide with ypagpacamatav. 

m account of. & . r &r 



To commit suicide in or at. Pagpacamatayan. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Commit, -est, -s suicide in or at. Pinagpapacamatayaii. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Committed, -KlHt; have, hairt, has com- j pinagpacamatayan. 
mitted suicide in or at. f *^^ *^ . 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst committed suicide in Napagpacamatayan, pinagpacamata- 
or at. yan na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall -It, will, -It commit suicide in j p^gpapacamatayan. 
or ati. ( 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It will, -It have committed Mapagpacamatayan, pagpapacamata- 
suicide in or at. van na. 



Commit, let. .. commit suicide in or at. Pagpaeamatayan. 


The action of committing suicide in j ^^^ pagpaeamatayan. 
or ai* 1 

The student should conjugate actively and passively by magpaca, the 
following verbs: 

To humble one's self. Magpacababa. 

To give up fortune. Magpacaduc-ha. 

To become mean spirited. Mjigpacaliit. 

To embellish one's s'.df, to allow one's ^ t*, , ,. 

self to be led into the right path. ) Magpacabuti. 

To allow one's self to be insulted. Magpacaapi. 
To repent. Magpacasisi. 

To value one's self highly. Magpacamahal. 

1^ passive stands generally in this conjugation for the instrument or 
cause of the action; that of an, for the place or the object, according to 
whether the verb admits or not un passive for the direct object. 

Jesus Christ gave up His life for the Ang ypinagpacamatsly ni Je8Ucri8to,i, 

redemption of mankind. ang pagsacop sa catauohan. 

It was on the cross that Jesus Christ Ang cms ay ang pinagpacamatayan 

gave up His life. ni Jesucristo. 

VT«- g u u^r^ii \ Pacatandaan mo ang sinasabi co sa 

>otice carefullv what 1 tell vou. I - x 

( lyo. 

It should be taken into account that pagpaca in the passive is for 
those actions which require to be conjugated by mag in some special dis- 
criminative sense; para, for the others. 

Endeavour to teach your children Pacaaralan mo ang iy6ng manga anac 
good habits. nang mabuting asal. 

Endeavour to loam the English lang- Pagpacapagaralan mo ang ingles na 
uage. uica. 

Hitherto magpaca has been applied either to intransitive actions or to 
those which do not go beyond the subject. When viagpaca conjugates 
verbs the action of which is voluntary or capable of admitting a direct 
complement other than the subject, it indicates a purposed earnest desire, a 
s|>ecial care of executing the action in the highest possible degree of ef- 
ficiency, and in this sense it admits of the in passive. 

To do something carefully. Magpacarahan. 

To think deeply. Magpacaisip. 

To observe carefully. Magpacatanda. 

To be upon one's guard. V Magpacaifigat. 
To behave one's self very mindfully. Magpacabaet. 

To put in order, to settle things > ^r , . 

heedfullv. ^ Magpacahusay. 

To study in earnest. Magpacapagaral. 

To esteem 1: g ily. Magpacamahal. 

Modesty enhances woman's beauty, j ^°« cahinhiua,i, nagpapabuti sa ba- 


The reaBon for my female-cousin Ang ypinagpapacabuti nang aquing 

embellishing herself is that she may pinsang babaye,i, ang nang 8iya,i, 

be praised. mapuri. 

Meek people allow themselves to be Ang ypinagpapacaapi nang manga 

abused to aequire merits towards banal na tauo, ang nang magcaroon 

God. nang carapatan sa harap nang Dios. 

Repent earnestly of all your wrongs. \ Pacapagsisihan mo ang lahat raong 
^ J J & f masamang gaua. 

Think carefully of that. Pacaisipin mo iyan. 

I do esteem you. ) Pinagpapacamahal quita or pinaca- 

•^ f mamahal. 

Reciprocal actions with mag and an are greatly intensified by magpaca. 

They harm each other bitterly. Nagi)ap{icasamaan sila. 

You aided each other earnestly. Nagpacatolongan cayo. 

Magpaca drops the g and remains mapaca when a fortuitous and not 
a purposely executed action is meant. 

To allow one's self to be led into } j^w v 

the right path. I Magpacagahng. 

To be saved, to attain salvation. Mapacagaling. 

To be condemned, to incur eternal ) Mapacasama. 
punishment. ) ^ 

In the passive, when paca is used, the first syllable of the root should 
be repeated. 

TT J X -r u- u u* \ Pinacalilinis niyi ang caniyang ma- 

He endeavours to purify his habits. ] . , , •^ ^ j e> 

^ -^ ( nga asal. 

He will be purified of all his sins. P'^<!?1"""«'^" "^'^ ang lahat nivAng 

^ I manga casalanan. 

Thou shalt be saved if thou keepest ) Mapapacagaling ca cun sinusunod mo 

my holy commandments. \ ang aquing manga santong utos. 



Sdaii, as its structure, sa-an indicates, is, most commonly, the adverb 
oi place "where", "whereto". 

AVhere is the quilt? ^,Saan naroon ang c6mot?. 

Whereto do you go? ^,Saan ca pjiroroon.? 

Sdan may be made a verb if conjugated by pa, in which case it stands 
for the verb of motion which it replaces, meaning, "to make for, or, towards". 

Where is she going to? ^Napasasiian bagii siya?. 

Sdan is joined to other particles imparting various senses thereto. 

Anywhere, wherever, everywhere. Saan man. 

Everywhere, anywhere in the Earth. Saan man sa lupa. 
Anywhere you go. Saan man pumaroon ca. 

Sdan, sdan pa is negative in regard to the action, but affirmative 
in regard to the reason. 


You shall be punished. Hahampasin ca. 

Of course, it is obvious that I shall ) o^^^ „^x i.«v, ««,*.„..;». 
. , ' . 1 , f baan aco nahampasin. 

not be punished. ) ^ 

You shall go there. Paror6on ca. 

Where else shall I go? ^,Saan pa ac6 parordon? 

Saan di pa is affirmative in a contrary sense to that of »atfn, «aan pa. 

How can it be true? ^.Saan pa di totoo? 

How can he be whipped? ^,Saan pa di siya hahampasin? 

We know already that bdan, haan preceded by ma or na, expresses 
**to be" as a neuter and not as a copulative verb. 

Where Frank will l)e? ^.Masasaan bagti si Isco? 

Where is the book? ^Nasaan ang libro? 


Sanuj as has been said, is a particle fit to express the conditional 
or future consequent tense. 

John would have arrived had he not 81 Juan sana,i, dungmating dafiga,t, 

been sick. nagcasaquit. 

Had they cured him he would not Cun guinamot siya nila ay hindi 

have died. sana namatav. 

Sana preceded by run has a peculiar sense better to be learned by 
the following illustrations. 

It is harder than stone, and let pass ) xf^^-' ,, . ,„ i ^^a ^,„» o«».« c« k«+a 
. . r • ^ Matieas pa sa bate, cun sana sa bate, 

stone as a term of comparison. S 

The spoliation, the theft as it were. \ ,^"K P^^S' „^"« pagnanacao cun 
^ ' ( Sana pananacao. 

Sana is sometimes contracted into sa. 

I should go. Naparoon sa aco. 

Young cock. Tandang. 

Fighting cock. Sasabungin. 

I fighthlgTot-k'" '"*'"'*''' ^"^ ^'°^ '"*"* ! Sasabufiginin co it6ng tandang. 

Blast of wind. Hihip nang hafigin. 

Zephyir. Simoy, 

To embrace. Yumacap. 

To shine, to glow. Magningning. 

To wait for. Maghintay. 

Wait a moment. Hintay ca mona. 

In the allurements of this woman, Nagniningning ang cahinhinan sa 

modesty shines. quilos nit6ng binibini. 

To spring, to flow from. Bumucal. 

To put into. Magsilir. 

Where does thi. river flow from?. | idling ang binubucalan nitong ilog 

\ na itor. 

The butterfly. Ang paroparo. 

Gnat. Lamoc. 

Ant. Langam. 

Cock-roach. Ipis. 

Glow-worm. Alitaptap. 



Who will be saved.? Only the virtuous will be saved. What saves 
man.? It is fair works that save man. What did the priest say 
in his sermon.? He said, shun wickedness lest you be damned. What 
did Jesus Christ give up His life for.? He gave up His life for the re- 
demption of man. Where did He give up His life.? He gave up His 
life on Mount Calvary. What does the pious man do.? He humbles 
himsef before God and he rises before men. What did the Son of God do.? 
He made, himself poor and meek, and allowed himself to be insulted, lashed 
and crowned with thorns. Why did that girl embellish herself.? She embel- 
lished herself that she may be praised. Do you repent of all your sins.? Yes, 
I do repent of all my sins. Why does your sister value herself so highly.? She 
values herself so highly because she is proud. Why does the servant do that 
carefully.? Because he is afraid of punishment. Did you meditate on 
what I told you.? I did. What do you order me.? Observe carefully 
the dog and take great care not to be bitten by it, act very judiciously 
and keep your accounts accurately. Does that youngman study earn- 
estly.? He studies earnestly that he may be esteemed highly. What shall 
I do to be saved.? Endeavour to correct your habits, if you desire »to be 
saved, for only those keeping the Holy Commandments of God will be saved. 
Where are you going.? I am going to school. Where is your father.? My 
father is at home. Where shall 1 go.? Wherever you go you must work 
and suffer. What did the father and his son do.? As soon as they met 
they embraced each other. Is your cock a fighting cock already? No, 
it is still a young cock. What winds prevail outside at sea.? Mild 
breezes, the zephyirs swelled the sails of our ship. Do gnats hurt you by 
night.? Yes, gnats and cock-roaches hurt me. Are there many butterflies 
in your garden.? There are many of them, and also ants and glow-worms. 





Magpati, active; pagpaii, passive; is a very little used verbal particle. 
It may be considered as a compound of mag or magpa and ti, contraction 
of tig; iigtig meaning "to shudder with sudden terror". It is only applied 
to those roots which if conjugated by tnn or ma express motion or cor- 
poral position, to which magpati adds a sense of voluntary suddenness, or, 
if the g is dropped, of unconscious hurry. In magpati^pagpati, pa is re- 
peated in present and future tenses, and admits only of y {yea) and an 


Knee. Lohor. 


To kneel. Lumohod. 

To crouch, to kneel down before. Maniclohod. 

To remain in a kneeling posture out / xt i i j a-i u j 

of stumbling. \ Napaluhod, napatilohod. 

Place, person or thing in honor of \ 

whom, or the cushion for kneeling > Linolohoran, lohorjln. 

\X\iOX\. ) 

To kneel down having something ) ^r , , , 

with or hanging as a rosary. \ ^ 

Thing held during kneeling. Ylohod. 

To fall on one's knees. Magpatilohod. 

Cause. Ypagpatik)hod. 

Place, or person before whom. Pagpatilohoran. 




To fall on one's knees. Magpatilohod. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Fall, -est, -s on. . . .knees. Nagpapatilohod. 


Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 
Pell, -est; have, hast, has fallen on. . . .knees. Nagpatilohod. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst fallen on knees. Nacapagpatilohod, nagpatilohod na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It fall on.... knees. Magpapatilohod. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have fallen on ) w ... , , x-i u j 

I* ' ' \ Macapagpatilohod, magpapatilohod na. 


Fall, let fall on ... . knees. Magpatilohod. 


The action of falling on... knees. Ang pagpapatilohod. 



To fall on one's knees on account of. Ycapagpatilohod. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Fall, -est, -s on.... knees on account of. Yquinapagpapatilohod. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Fell, -est; have, hast, has fallen on.. .knees on account of. Yquinapagpatilohod. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst fallen on . . .knees on ) xt x«i u i • xm u i 

' ° . ? Naypagpatilohod, yquinapagpatilohod na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It fall on. . . .knees on account of. Ycapagpapatilohod. 

Future perfect tense. 




Pall, let.... fall on.... knees on account q!. Ycapagpatilohod. 


The action of fallinj; on....knee5 on account of. Ang ycapagpatilohod. 



To fall on one's knees at or before. Pagpatilohoran. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Pall, -st, -s on.... knees at or before. Pinagpapatilohoran. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenMS. 

Pell, -est; have, hast, has fallen on. . . .knees at or l>efore. Pinagpatilohoran. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst fallen on knees at or ) Napagpatilohor^n, pinagpatilohoran 

before. ) na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It fall on.... knees afjot before. Pagpapatilohor^n. 

Future perfect teme. 

Shall, -It, will, -it have fallen on^ Mapagpatilohoran, pagpapatilohoran 
.... knees at or l>efore. \ na. 


Pall, let. . . .fall on. . . . knees at or before. Pagpatilohoran. 


The action of falling on. . . .knees at or before, Ang pagpatilohoran. 

The student should conjugate actively and passively by wugpati, the 
following verbs: 

To spring to one's feet. Magpatitindig. 

To prostrate one's self. Magpatirapd. 

To throw one's self down, to stretch { t^t xm • ' 
one's self at full length. j Magpatihiga. 

To sit down of a sudden. Magpatiop<5. 

To turn one*8 back suddenly. Magpatitalicod. 

To place one's self quickly side on. Magpataguilid. 


Y passive, in this conjugation, stands generally for the cause, an 
passive, for the place or person. 

His distracted love made him bend Ang calacasan nang caniyang sint4,i, 

his knee. ang ypinagpatiluhod niya. 

He prostrated himself before the Ang altar ^Sp.) ang pinagpatirapaan 

altar. niya. 

I prostrate myself before my king. { ^"^ Pinagpapatirapaan co.i, ang a- 
*^ "^ .^ © ^ quing Han. 

The g of viagpati=^pagpati is dropped according as the action is volunt- 
ary ( r involuntary, the latter also being expressed by mapa. 

To spring into. Magpatiholog. 

To tumble downwards. j Mapatiholog, mapatihapay, mapati- 

) bouang. 
To toss. . Magpatihapay, magpatibouang. 

To totter down subitaneously. Mapatihapay, mapatibouang. 

To remain involuntarv in a lying i tm ^.m • ^ 
down posture. " ^ ( 

Spring into the sea. Magpatiholog ca sa diigat. 

I rose unconsciously to my feet. Napatitindig aco. 



Slid is the well known third person pronoun in the plural, meaning 

They, always they, are given. Sila nan* sila ang binibiguian. 

SUd, and Md po are used in addressing a single person and by so doing 
the . sense is carried to the utmost degree of respect. 

You, thou, (simplest seme.) Ycao, ca. 

Kou. (sing.) (polite) • Ycao po, cayo, cayo \)o. 

You, thou. (Your Excellency, Y^^^^^g., . ,.w 

Majesty, Your Highness). ^ a, si • p . 

This, however, does not exclude the use of the address in the pro- 
per way. 

Your Excellency. Yyo, iny6 ponji camahalan. 

Sila is made a verb in the ways already explained for the other 
personal pronouns. 

The child says sila. Napapasila ang bata. 

Sila, thus accented, as a verb, means "to cat meat or fish". 

The servant is eating the meat or fish. Sinisilahin nang alila ang cati. 


Siyd, besides standing for "^he", 'vhe'\ *'it", also stands for the com- 
pound relative pronoun, *'what". or "that which", or ))etter to say, it is 


a kind of demonstrative pronoun or a somewhat emphatic means of re- 
calling to memory the subject of a sentence. 

Joseph, it is he who fttole. Si Jos^, siya aiig nagmicao. 

My mother, it is she who wept. Ang aquing ina, siyd ang nagtafigis. 

Drunknness is what killed him. \ ;^°8 c?lafigoh*n siyi ang ypinatay sa 

( caniya. 

YoH yourself!, is what I said. Ycao figa, siya ang ysinabi co. 

It may be said that in this sense aiyd stands for every gender of 
the reflective pronoun in reference to a noun. 

The blacksmith himself made it. Angpandaybacal, siydanggungmaua. 
The aunt herself returned it back. Ang all siydng nagsaoli. 

Wealth itself caused his ruin. j Ang eayamana,i, siya ang yquinasama 

( niya. 

Siya, conjugated by pa] means "to assent", "to abide by other's op- 

He assents. Napasisiya. 

Do not agree to that, don't assent to. Houag mo ypasiya. 

Siya, conjugated by magca, means "to suit", "to become", "and also" 
to be enough, sufficient". 

That dress suits her. Yy^ng damit nagcasisiyi sa caniya. 

That stick is not enough for a pil- Hindi nagcacasiya iyang cahoy sa 
lar. i^^^g haligue. 

Conjugated by um, siya means to reach the point of full development. 

Her body has already reached its full ) c. . » . . 

development. ^ 1 Sungmiya na ang catouang niya. 

Siya, if conjugated by man, means "to fill up the whole room", "to go 
on growing". 

His sore is coming up in flesh, (is J vr • • * ^ • * * x 

hea4ing.) Nam niya na^ang caniyang sugat. 

Adjustment, agreement, suitableness. Casiyahan. (notice the accentuation.) 
Enough, average, common, ordinary ^ p • y^ 
thing. \ ^asiyanan. 

Siya may also stand for the person addressed in a politely respectful 

Your mercy. Siya po. 

Siya may be used as an adverb or interjection. 

So, just so, just it. Siya. 

Bravol. Siva. 

But, most generally, it is associated with some other particle. 

Enough!. ^ Si} a na. 

It is he himself!, it is just that, just it. Siya iiga. 

Although he be. Siya man. 

Would to God, amen, happiness to you. Siya nana. 

It is he then. . . . Siya pala 




Sueatf as a noun, means ^^measure", that is to say, some standard ap- 
paratus proper to ascertain quantity. As a veib, it has the following sig- 

To measure, (simple sense.) 
To measure a great deal. 

Sumiicat, maniicat. 

Mag8ucat. (notice the accentuation.) 

The meaning of pattern, standard, which, 8iicat has is applied in many 
ways. It is used in a iK)tential sense as mangyari, maca. 

She can work. 

They maj be given it. 

Sucat siyang gumaua. 
Bucat silang biguian. 

But if the sense is a passive one or the action does not admit of 
potentiality, it means "duty or moral obligation," the same as ddpat. 

You deserve to be punished. Sucat cang hampasin. 

He is worthy to be appointed captain. Siicat siya maguingcapitan. 

It is beneath their nobleness. Dili sdcat sa canilang camahalan. 

Sucat na means the same as aiyd na, "enough". Siicat ?i«, followed by 
an infinitive means the hourly occasion of doing something. 

It M 







u u 



go out. 




u u 







it u 







a « 







To pray, to say prayers. 

To attend church service, to worship. 

In my opinion. 

Till, until, as far as. 

Till evening. 

Till to-morrow. 

As far as the bridge. 

Till I die. 

To, towards. 

Towards the forest. 








On, upon. 

Above, over. 

Under, underneath. 


Magsimbi, magsamba. 

Sa aquing acala, aa isip co. 


Hangang gabi, hangan sa gabi. 

Hangan g bucas. 

Hangan sa tulay. 

Hangan sa camatayan co. 

Daco, sa daco, dapit. 

8a dacong giibat. 

„ „ dagat. 

„ „ lupa. 
Dacong itaas. 
Dapit ibaba. 
Dacong silafiganan. 
„ calunuran. 
Sa ibabao. 
Sa itaas. 
Sa ihilim. 


Where did I fall on mv kneeii*.? You fell on vour knees before the 
Archbishop. Did you not prostrate yourself before the image of the Holy 
Virgin?. I prostrated myself before the altar. What caused your grand- 
father to throw himself down.? Old age and weakness caused him to 
throw himself down. AVhat are the children doing.? They are always 


sitting down and rising up. What did the patient do when he saw the 
physician.? He placed himself side on of a sudden. Why did the sailor 
spring into the water.? He did not spring into the water, the mast 
tumbled down suddenly and he fell downwards. Did the wind toss down 
the tree.? It was not the wind, it was a thunderbolt that tossed it down. 
Why does he call out for them constantly.? He has no others to call 
out foi. What are the dog and the cat eating.? The dog eats meat, the 
cat is eating fish. Does money suffice to bring about happiness.? Money 
does not suffice to bring about hapi)ines8. Did he drink too much.? He 
drank only in the ordinary way. Do I go on speaking.? Enough!, don't 
speak any more about that. Was it he who said it.r He himself said 
it. Do you fear him.? Although he be a leader I don't fear him. Did 
your measure the stuff I sent you.? I did not measure it, the Chinese 
merchant did it. Did you yourself take the measure for the trousers.? 
I took the measure myself. Can he pay.? He cannot pay. Why do 
you not go on working.? It is already time to sleep. Till when will Mary 
be in town.? She will be here until to-morrow. How far did you accomp- 
any him.? I accompanied him as far as the river. Where does this 
river flow towards.? This river flows towards the North. AVhere is the 
ship bound for.? She steers towards the land. Where did you put the 
pin.? I put it on the table. Is your sister above.? She is below. 





Magcapay active; pageapa, passive; is a verbal particle used only with 
roots of suh corporal motions as may be affected by terror or sudden 
fright to indicate the involuntary panic-stricken posture, effect of any such 
cause. Pa is repeated in the proper tenses and, on account of the in- 
voluntariness of the action, this conjugation lacks the imperative and only 
admits of y and an passives. 


Gesture grimace, showing of the teeth ^ hp^ • .* 
at. i ^^^®^* 


To gesticulate. fl'gumisi. 

Do, a great deal. Mafigisi. 

Cause and also the mouth or the ) vao,:^,^ „^«^^- ,* 
teeth. ^ j Yngisi, ypafigisi. 

To go about gesticulating that way. Mafigisi. 
Person, place at. Pangisihan. 

terror"'''" ^^**'"^ '*"^'' ^^^ ""* ''^ ( Magcapafigisi. 
Cause. Ycapagcapafiisi. 

Place. Pagcapafigisihan. 





To remain showing one's teeth out of terror. Magcapafigisi. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Remain, -est, -s etc. Nagcapapangisi. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 
Remained, -dst; have, hast, has remained etc. Nacapafigisi. 


Had, -<lst remained etc. Nacapagcapangisi, nagcaparigisi na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It remain etc. Magcapapafigiai. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have remained etc. Macapagcapafigitfi, magcapapaHgisi na. 


The state of remaining etc. Ang pagcapapaflgisi. 



To remain showing one's teeth out of terror on account of. Ypagcapafigisi. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Remain, -est, -s, etc. on account of. Ypinagcapapaiigisi. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Remained, -dst; have, hast, has remained etc on account of. YpinagcapaAgisi. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -d?;t; remained etc. on account j Naypagcapafigisi, ypinagcapafigisJ na. 

future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It remain etc. on account of. Ypagcapapafigisi. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have remained etc. ^ ^f e- - ^ « • ,* 

on account of. \ Maypagcapafigisi, ypagcapapafigiBi na. 


The state of remaining etc. on account of. Ang ypagcapafigisi. 



To remain showing one's teeth out of terror, in or at. Pagcapaftgisihan. 

• 257 
Present indefinite teiise. 

Remain, -est, -s, etc. in or at. PinagcapapaAgisihan. 

Present jyerfect and paM indefinite tenses. 

Remained, -dst; have, hast, has remained etc. in or at. Pinagcapafigisihan. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, dst, remained etc. in or at. Napagcapailgisihan, pinagcapailgisihan na. 

. .futme indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will. -It remain etc. in or at. Pagcapapafigisihan. 

Future perfect tense. 

fte"\Vo;li"'" ^* *"*'" '"""'""'^ I Mapagcapangisihan, pagcapapafigisihan na. 


The state of remaining etc. in or at. Ang pagcapaAgisihan. 

The student should conjugate actively and passively the following roots 
to which almost exclusively the particle magcapti is applied. 

Opening of J ^^ „„^,^ ^.^.^^ ,^,^,^ ^ ..^^ Dumflat, mamdlat. 

me eyes, j 

To remain with one's eyes oi^n out | Magcapadilat, magcapamdlat. 

penmg o | r^Q open one's mouth. Stgangi. Sfgumangd. 

To remain with one's mouth oi>en etc. Magcapangang^. 
Placing of one's legs wide, to place ) Magbisaclat 
one's self with the legs wide. ) 

To remain with one's legs wide etc. Magcapabisaclat. 



Tahi, as a noun, meaps "border", "bank", "shore", "extremity". 

The river bank. Ang tabi nang (log. 

The sea-shore. Ang tabi nang dagat. 

As a verb or a verbal noun, taht has the following significations: 

To be on the border. Matabi. 

To go about bordering. Mapatabi. 

To place one's self at the border, edge. Tumabi. 

Let him not place himself at the edge. Houag siya tumabi. 

Place that at the extremitv. Ytabi mo iyan. 



Place yourself at the very edge. Patatahi ca. 

The extremity, the foremost point of ^ * i i m 

something. ; Ang catah.han. 

Laystall, the dirtiest place. Ta))ihan. 

Tabi is very much made use of as a polite warning for somebody to 
get out of the way when persons, generally inferiors, want room for them- 
selves to pass oh, by or through. 

By your leave. Tabi po. 

Please, make room for me to i)ass. iTah)i! ac6 daraan. 

It is also a respectful expression to ask permission for something to^ 
be done. 

Pardon, Sir, lam going to make water. Tabi po, ac6,i, iihi. 


Tnga, as has been said, denotes nativity, pertaining to the place of birth. 

Where are vou from?, what count- J .m ' o 

^ / .> ' [ ATaga saan ca ? 

rv are vou from.'^ ) *' ^ 

I am a Tondoman. Taga Tondo ac6. 

Taga, as a noun, also means "fishing-hook" of any size, binuit being 
a small one. 

Bait your hook. Painan mo ang iyong taga. 

Taffa, as a verb, signifies "to hew" in a longitudinal way. 

To hew downwards. Tumaga. 

To hew a great deal. Magtaga. 

To go about hewing. Managa. 

Tumaga means also to lay hold of, some holdfast thing, as the anchor. 

The anchor laid hold on land. Tungmaga sa lupa ang sinipit. 

Metaphorically it may be said: 

His words pierce deeply into my Tungmataga mandin sa 16ob co ang 
heart. caniyang uica. 

Taga, as a prepositive particle of frequentative nouns, will be treated 
of in proper place. 


Talagd, is, like oco/, either a telling or an attributive word denot- 
ing an idea of bias, predestination, fitness, better to be known by the 
following examples. 

Naturally, in a natural, innate way. Talaga 

The lemon is sour by nature. Talagang maasim ang dayap. 

This misfortune was destined to me Talaga nang Dios sa aquin itong 

by God. aqning fi^iiirapan. 

To keep something to be devoted to. Magtabigi. 

I keep this candle to be offered to the PinagtataUgahan co ang casantosan 

Most Holy Virgin. Virgen nit6ng candila. 


To yield, to be resolved. Tumalaga 

T „:«ij *« , *ui. . J ^ Tuiiffmatalaga aco sa anoman vo- 

1 yield to anything vou may order me. , . " ^ . 

•^ J ^ -^ J ^ otos mosa aquin. 

He 16 resolved to do that. Tungmatalaga siya gaoin iyan. 


Tavibing^ adverb of time, means "inmediately,'' "forthwith". 

Do it inmediately. Tambing inong gaoin. 

Tambiiigy as a verb, is conjugated by mag and means *Ho do some- 
thing quickly," '*to dispatch," "to prepare." 

Make haste. Magtambing ca. 

In the passive, it follows that required by the verb it is joined to. 

Take it forthwith. Tambingin mo cuniri. 

Give it at once. Ytambing mo ybigay. 

If used independently, it follows the general rules of the passive; 
g, for the thing; an, for the person or place. 


Make haste as to' the money for Peter. Tambingan mo si Pedro nang salapi. 

The money for Peter, made haste) * i r * i- u i«. 

.., -, ^ ' ; Ang salapi ytambnig mo cay Pedro. 

To betray. Maglilo. 

To get rid of. Lumigtiis. 

To be in flames. Magnifigas. 

Were it not for. Dafigan, cundawgan. 

Were it not for me he would have ) n ^ -^ ^ , i ,'.i ; ' 

. ,, J Cundangan aco ay nahulog siya. 

It is to bo noticed that dangan and rv 7} da ft gnu govern the nominative case 

Draw nigh. Hali ca. 

('Ome on, please. Hali na. 

Come over here. Hali ca na, hali na cayo. 

Are you acquainted witli it?, <lo ^ ij , ' i «•' 

J * JO i Ha, ham, hanni. 

vou understand? S ' 

To wonder at, to be astonished. Manguilalas, magtacd. 

Wonderful, admirable. Caguilaguilalas. 

It is not to be wondered at. Di nga sncat pagtac-han. 

Big words, abusive language. Manga iiicang hindi (bipat. 

Regarding .... with regard to, Tungcol sa, bagay -a. 

With regard to his behaviour, 1 have Bagay ba caniyang paghi( ad may sasa- 

to say to you bihin aco sa iyo 

Formerly, anciently. Sa onang panahon, sa onan;^: jirao. 

On that day. Niy6ng onang arao. 

At, by those times. Sa daco roong arao. 

To hit the mark, to conjecture rightly. Matoto. 

To praise. Magpuri. 

To steer, to be bound for, to make for. Tumong6, mapatoiigo, 

Where are you going towards.? j.Saan ang patotongohan mo.? 

Occupation, business. Abala. 

I have business now. Ac6,i, may abala ngay6n. 


Whom is Ihat child showing his teeth at.? Hp makes gesture at 
old man that is drunk. What does he show hie teeth for.? He maki 
grimaces at his being inebriated. Had he already remained beating hiaji 
teeth when yow went home.? Yes, lie had. Why did he remain showioj 
his teeth.? He remained showing hie teeth on account of fright. Wh< 
did he remain shivering his teeth in convuleion.? He remained beatinj 
his teeth on the ground of the church. Why did your water remaii 
with her eyes open.? She remained with her eyes open at the newB of.' 
her mother's death. Why is that man's mouth kept open.? He remained' 
with his mouth open on account of a fit. Did the thief remain with 
his legs wide apart on leaping over the fence.? He remained with his 
legs wide apart when he leapt over the fence. Does the fisher walk along 
the river bank.? He walks along the river hank to cateh fidh. Would 
it not be better for him to sail along the sea shore.? It would he easier 
for him; but he would not catch so much, for fish is t^> be found a( 
the bank of the river. Why do you place yourself at the fwrder of the sea.? 
It is to see the ships. Do you not remember your father said to you 
don't place yourself at the ver^ edge.? Well, I rememlier that. Where 
did Saint Job pass the greater part of his life? At a laystall. Why. 
did you not say Mhi on your passing on.? I said Sir, by your leave!. What' 
is your country.? My country is North America. Whom do you hold that' 
flower for.? I hold it for my sweetheart. Did you bait your fishing' 
hook.? It has been baited with worms. What are you doing.? I am 
hewing this log lengthwise. What is your uncle's trade.? He earns h». 
living by hewing wood. What is the Americans, innate disposition.? They 
are industrious by temperament, but natives, on the contrary, are incli- 
ned to laziness. Are you resolved to keep the commandments of God.? I 
am resolved to it. What do you say.? Sew my shirt immediately. Who 
betrayed Jesus:? One of His disciples betrayed Him. What produces that, 
blaze.? It is a wood which is in flames. Was Peter saved.? Were 
not for me, he would have perished. What did the priest say to 
child and to the servant.? He said to the child, come on my child, and to 
Hervant, come over here. What do you wonder at.? I wonder at the gr« 
works of God. Why did you use big vords Upwards Ann.? I used bff 
words towards her on account of her behaviour. 






Magran, active; pagcan, passive; is the last verbal particle we shall 
treat of, although perhaps some others of a narrow local range may be 
in use. It is an intransitive particle rarely used, and generally applied 
to roots of such fluids as flow or are expelled form the human body, 
to indicate that the shedding or flowing is involuntary and out of some 
cause which renders the excretion either unconscious or uncontrollable. 
Magcan is dissyllabic; ra, the last syllable, consists of three letters of 
which only the two first, ca, are taken for repetition according to the 
general rule. Now, if this is done, confusedness might arise with the 
particle magca, to avoid which both ca and the first syllable of the root 
are repeated, the latter in all and can in the present and future tenses. 
On account of the involuntariness of the action this particle only admits 
of y and an passives, and cannot be used in the imperative. 





To weep. 

To shed tears. 

Cause, reason. 

Person over whom tears are shed. 




Linohaan, quinalolohaan. 




To shed tears without one's being ) Magcanluluhe. 
conscions thereof. S ^ 

Shed, -st, -s tears etc. 

Present indefinite tense. 


Present j)erfect and jju^t indefinite lenses, 


Shed, -est; have, hast, has shed tears etc. Nagcaululuha. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst shed tears etc. Nacapagcanluluha, nagcaululuha na. 

Futnre indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It shed tears etc. Magcacanluluha. 

Future perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have shed tears etc. Macapagcanluluha, magcacanluluha na. 

The shedding of tears etc. Ang pagcacanluluha. 



To shed tears etc. on account of. Ypagcanluluha. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Shed, -est -s tears etc. on account of. Ypinagcacanluluha. 

Present perfect and past indefinite tenses. 

Shod, -dst; have, hast, has shed tears etc. on account of. Ypinagcanluluha. 

Pluperfect tense. 

Had, -dst shed tears etc. on account of. NaypagcanUiluha, ypinagcanluluha na. 

Future indefinite tense, 

Sh^ll, -It, will, -It shed tears etc. on account of. Ypagcacanluluha. 

Future perfect tense, 
eKn"l:uittf.'^" '""^ ^'"^ i Maypagcanluluha. ypagcaeanluluhana. 


The shedding 6f tears etc. on account of. Ang ypagcanluluha. 



To shed tears etc. at. Pagcanluluhaan. 

Present indefinite tense. 

Shed, -st, -s tears etc. at. Pinagcacanluluhaan. 

Present perfect aiad past indefinite tenses. 

Shed, -dst; have, hast, has shed tears etc. at. Pinagcanluluhian. 

Pluperfect tense, 

Hadf -dst shed tears etc. at. Napagcanluluhaau, piQagcanlulvih4An na. 

Future indefinite tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It shed tears etc. at. Pagcacanluluhaan. 

huture perfect tense. 

Shall, -It, will, -It have shed ) ^^ i i u ' i i u ^ 

tears etc at '\ ^i^P^g^^"^^!^^'^*^^^? pageacanluhihaan na. 

The shedding of tearfcs etc. at. Ang pagcanluluhaan. 

The student should conjugate actively and passively by magean the 
following roots. 

Urine. To suffer from incontinence of urine. Yhi. Magcaniihi. 

Blood. To bleed, (unconsciously) Dug6. Magcandudug6. 

Perspiration. To sweat out of fright, ague, etc. Piuis. Magcanpapauis. 

Saliva. To slaver. Lauay. Magcanlalauay. 

Figuratively the sense of viagcati is extended to other roots of phisi- 
cal or moral acts performed hy the rational being and even to those outside 
the conscious subject. 

To blush. Magcanhihiya. 

To pour over, to overflow. Magean lalabis. 

To drop off. Magcanlalaglag. 

My heart overflows with joy. j pu"!,**""*''' "«^g<'»''«'"l'^l''»'i'' ^« ••^^"^"g 

I cannot refrain from laughing. j Nagcacanlalabin ang tai.a sa catuouan 

: r 




Tapat, as an adjective, means "just", "right", "upright". 

Right action. Tapat or matatapat na gaua. 

To give alms to the poor is a right Ang paglilim6s sa manga duc-hdj, 

action. tapat na gaua. 

Tapat^ as a verb, has several meanings according to the particle with 
which it is conjugated. 

To stand opposite, to place one's self ) m ^ 

in front. \ ^^^^^P^^- 

Two things placed opposite each other. Pinagtapat. 

of^eLh^other *^'"^' *'''''^'* '" ^™"* i Pagtatapatapatfn. 
To go directly to, to go the shortest ) i.j„„^„,^„^ 
way, to act rightfully. <> *iag*apa'- 

Cut bv whicli a road or path is short- ) m * 
ened. * \ Tapatan. 

othel)!* ^^'^'^ *'''"^' ''^*'""*'' ''"*' ''"' I ^^^^''I'^t' nagtatapat. 
To belong to, to In? incumbent on. Matapat. 

Mass is onlv incumbent on priests, j ^''. "**"'g^ ^'"^ ^'^'°*"« natatapat ang 

^ ( misa. 


Tiln is, as r/rt/n, casi and other expressions, a kind of impersonal verb 
standing for "it seems", "it api)ears". 

It seems to be a i^erson. Tila tau6. 

It api)ears that he went there. Tila naparoon. 

Tila, as a verb, is Conjugated by wm, vuigpa or pa and means "to cease 
raining", "to wait till rain is over." 

Rain is subsiding. Tungmitila na. 

Let us wait until rain is over. Patilain ta mona ang \x\&n. 


Toloy, adverb, means "as well as", "at the same time", "jointly", con- 

(five my son thi« and fetch my book Ybigay mo it6 sa anac co, tol6y ac6,i, 

on the way. ycoha mo nang aquing libro. 

Let him sell the bushel of rice along Ypagbilf niyi ang cabttn na bigas, 

with the bag. (cover). tol6y nang bayong. 

Toloy in the past tense of the passive still retains its adverbial sense, 
meaning "wholly", "completely", or the perfective sense imparted to some 
verbs by the English particle "up". 

It was killed at once, upright. Pinatay din tinol6y. 

Tinolny cong tiiluisin aiig Simla 

Tohy i 


witli variouK signitications. 

To make up, to conclude. Tum(51oy, magt<iloy. 

To ao on with, to eo further, to pro- / .« _i u , ,■ .i_ , .- , 

? " i Magtoldy. (notice the accentuation). , 

Go on with puninhing. Ypatol6y ang paruB^. 

To lodge at. to take shelter in. TumoWy. (not. the rcc.) 

To afford shelter. Magpatolfiy, 

Inn, lodging house. Toloyan. 

He affords ehclter to by-piiBsers, I 


I Nagpapatol6y siyi sa taga ibdiig hayan. 

Topfirol 13, like ornl and tiihi^ii, a word having atliilniti* 
a noun it mean.s "propHi-ly", ■'adequateness". 

Whom doi'i' fhin corrfsimnd I 
It cfirretii>nndn li> mc 
Duty, ohligtttinn, iiulhorily, o 
ThiH is mv dulv. 

;.Sinong may tiiiigod 
Nftlotongcol TO. aijiiin. 
(.'iitongcolan CO \\<>. 

U(*e o( timijrnl as 


To iliatrihutc to each party w 
due to him. 

(iod designed this for me. 
To apjKirtinn one'.-^ ta^'k, to tnki 
jiart of the task. 

TonyrnI may Iw u^r^ed o 

As for me. 


I Magtongcol, magput..ngcol. 

Aco,i, pinatotongcolan iiaiig Dio 
; Tumongcol. 

II adverb in the sense of yaimny, 
Tongcol sa aquin. 

To be ulone. 

She is there all by herself. 

Do it all by yourj^lf. 

It in not proper, just. 

Nor it is just to infiult other people. 

(our fellow beings.) 

Pity, tendeniKJ<. 

Tender, merciftd. 



To desire, to \>e fond of. 

Amateur, fond. 


Nag-iit-ft siya doon. 

Gaoin mong mag-isa, 

Hindi earampatan. catampatan. 

Hindi naman catampatan ang pag- 

momor^ sa ciipoua taud. 

Aua, caauaan. 

Maauain, mahabaguin. 

Maam<5, niaam6ng li^b. 

M aba bang l6ob, 


Mauilihfn. maibiguin. inatoatn. 


Why do you not mind that baby over there weeping? I don't 
mind him, for bahieR weep without being conscious thereof. Why does that 
girl ahow learn in her eyeit? It is cm account of Mickness that she sIimIh 
tears uitronKcioiisly. Does the curate of your parish preach well? He 
preaches effectively and he cheds tears in the pulpit. How ia your husbaml? 
My husband is* aggravated in his complaint, lie suffers from incontinence 



of urino and lie bleods unconsciously; ho covers himself with perspiration 
and slavers; sometimes he swoons away and bursts out into laughter. Did 
the maid hlush? She blushed at the sight of her lover. Why is there so 
much fruit strewn on the ground? Because it is too ripe and (Iroi)S off from 
the trees. Do the children romp? Thy are overjoyed with their toys. 
What do you laugh at? Laughter tickles all over me. Is to afford shelter 
to people, good? To afford shelter to other i)eople is an upright action. 
Why did you not shun him? He placed himself right in front of me. 
How are the trees in your garden, arranged? They are placed opposite 
each other. Did you go the shortest way to Mariquina? I lelf the high 
j-oad and ventured on the cross-path. Do I release the prisoner? That 
is not incumbent on you. Is not that sail on the sea, white? It seems 
to be yellow. Does it not appear to be a steamer? No, it seems to be 
a sailing vessel. Are you going out at once? No, I shall wait until 
the rain is over. Wliat? Fetch my spectacles and at the same time 
take awav this chair. Did the servant drink anv milk? He drank up 
the whole. What shall I then do? Go on with whipping him. Where 
does your friend lodge? He lodges at my house. What is your duty? 
My duty is to judge. What office does he fill? His office is that of 
a collector. Did you distribute the salary to the journeymen? I did. 
What part of the task did the soldier take for himself? He took \\\>on 
himself to keep guard at the outpost. Why are the couple alone? They 
are all bv themselves, because thev are married to each other. Do vou 
wish me to accompany you? No, I will go alone. Is it proper to owe 
and not to pay? No, it is not proper to owe and not to pay, nor it 
is just to run into debt. Is his master cruel or merciful? He is meek 
and merciful. Are you fond of riding? I am not fond of riding. 




The gerund is, in English, a verbal noun preserving the same govern- 
ment as the verb it is derived from, as in '*I like eating apples". The 
termination "ing" of fhe English verbs is, outside of the above mentioned 
case, parsed properly or improperly, as verbal noun, present or predicative 
participle, participial adjective^ etc., according to its being used in one way 
or another. It is also a peculiarity of the English language to use the 
gerund, instead of the infinitive which most other languages require, after 
some preposition either expressed or understood, as in, *'after playing", *'he 
continues growing up". But in other languages the gerund is also that 
form of the verb expressing the action in an adverbial manner, as illustrated 
by the following exi)ressions: "He reads standing", '*he learns by teaching". 
Tagalog has no proper inflexion for the English verl)al forms of *'ing" ter- 
mination, thus, all of them will l)e included in the explanations hereafter. 

The present jiarticijile, as has l)een said in a foregoing chapter, is ex- 
pressed by the active form of the verb, preceded by the article, and adapts 
itself to every tense and case. 

The loving girl. (maid). Ang sungmisintang dalaga. 

Of the obeying child. Nang sungmusunod na bata. 

To, for the working man. Sa gungmagauang tauo. 

I gave a dollar for the fighting (he Ybinigiiy co sa naquipagbacang sun - 

who fought) soldier. dalo ang piso. 

I will buy a book for the studying Ybibili co ang magaaral na alagad 

pupil, (he who will study) nang i?ang libro. 

When the "ing'^ termination makes a verbal noun, this, is expressed 
]}y the Tagalog verbal noun. 

Heading is verj amusing. Ang pagl)asa,i, nagbibigtiy aliu 

u ' 1 . '*' 11 • -I'lx' w S Antf pangafigiiral na mabuti av ma- 

rreaching well is very ditiicult. t * ^ - 

^ ^ ( liuag na totoo. 

Eating too much is dangerous Ang pagcacai,i, nacapafigafigahib. 

When the termination "ing" make^: the gerund, as considered in English, 
it is translated bv the infinitive. 

I like shooting fowl. Nauiuili acong mamaril nang ibon. 

I would like eating fish. Ybig co sana cumain nang isda. 

He tries buying this house. Nagbabantti siyii bilhin it6ng bahay. 

If the English present participle is used attributively, that is to say, 
adjectivally,, connected with a noun or pronoun, it is generally translated 
in Tagal6g by the infinitive. 

I saw hfer playing the harp. j ^^^f^^ <^° ^'^^ tumogtog nang arpa. 


Til g .1 u- • u- ) Narifigig co ang ama cong humam- 

1 heard my father whipping him. / , ^ ° . , ^ ^ 

•^ rr e ^ p^^g g^ caniya. 

The present tense may also be used if the determining verb obtains 
in the present or the action is considered as going on. 

T u u ij u 1 A • \ Nanon6or ac6 sa aquing caban na 

I behold my herd pasturing. | nananabsab. (from«afc«a6r"pasture"). 

I notice ray servant rowing, (oaring.) | ra^7™*J^7^!;r:'° ''"^ «^"'"« ^"- 

The English present participle used predicatively to form a compound 
tense is generally translated in Tagalog by the corresponding tense. 

TT • X • 1 * *u 1 -A i Pinagtatauag niya ang manga tauo 

He 18 mustering people for the cockpit. J ®i • & j & o 

I was writing when he called me. \ S"n«™"?'ilat ac<5 nang ac6,i, tina- 

^ ( uag my a 

They will be gambling when you arrive Magsusugal silii cun dumating ca 
there. doon. 

There is in Tagalog no proper progressive conjugation; if, however 
btress is laid on the going on of an action, sa and the root with its 
first syllable and then the whole root repeated, is sometimes used in the 
present tense in a sense of displeasure or reprimand. 

He is looking at there as a fool. Sa titifigintif^gin siya. 

He is standing purposeless. Sa tatayotayo siya. 

Thev are present without saving a ^ rj , , , i - 

N ^ • ° J ha haharapharap sila. 

The present participle used adverbially is generally translated by the 
Tagalog verbal noun preceded, by sa. 

Bottles are made by blowing. j Anj mafigabote.i.guinagauasapaghi- 

Cold is expelled by walking. | {^^^^f ''"''' *^ "apalalabfe sa pag- 

Teachers learn by teaching. \ Ang mafiga ungmairal ay nagaAral sa 

•^ ^ ( pagaral. 

Bv practicing virtue, Glorv is attained. \^^ pag-ga«a nang cabanala.i, quina- 
• * & > . ^ camtam ang caloualhatian. 

But if condition is implied, the imperative or infinitive preceded b\' 
run is used. 

He will arrange the matter by paying Maghuhiisay siya nang bdgay cun ba- 
the debt. yaran niyi ang 6tang. 

Mary singing, he refuses to play. | ^^J^^^ ^aria^ tumogtog cun nag- 

If an idea of time is prominent in the expression, cun, before the 
present or future tenses is used. 

Old people speaking, children should Cun nagsasalitaangmatatanda, dapat 

be silent. tumahimic ang mafiga bata. 

The sermon commencing, I will go Cun pinupunuan ang pkf^giral, ay 

away. aalis aeo. 

The idea of a past time with the gerund is generally expreseed by 
the past tense preceded by nang. 

e dviii';, lilt; doclor arrivej. ' * .■■■ ^ i & f 

^ t ang meuKU). 

They sailing. mother wenl Wek. \ ^""f, "«K.l»,l".vae na »iU.i. "oul al.g 

The English gerund ci>iiiin)i:- after ftome preposition or ndverli iinrl 
replaeing the infinitive ia traneliited in several ways ttcrording to the 
sense imparted to the action by the adverb or prepofiition. 

"On" with the gerund, denoting simiiltaneity or contmuanee is trans- 
lated by pag prefixed (o the root, witli the possespive ease of the ngent 
and the accnsative of the object (if any) following. • 

On my finiphing this work I phall read. Pagtapus en nitong gaiiii, aci5,i, bahnsa. 
On Btriking twelve o'cloek we shall Pagtogtog nang a laxdorr (Sp.), mag- 
go to rest, pjipahifigd tayo. 

On my father going npetairs, he fell Pagpanhio nang snia co,i, naliolog 

down. aiyu. 

On hie preaching, rain came down. Pugpafigiiral niya nagmtiU ang oliin. 

If the action is past or complete, iiiuini-. instciid of jiikj. is prefixed tu the 
root, with the name cont'truction. 

After having finished my 1 Pagcatapus nang aquing pamiihao. 

;;hall go church. magsiBirobd aci5, 

Onhavinppaiil for therthoes, Ibotight Capagcabiiyad en nang papin, bung- 
abed, mill acrt nang isa^ig hihigtian. 

"After" with the ppnind i> Irannlated by /i(i;;c«. 

After dining. Pugcapananhali, 

After eaying thii^. he emhrat-ed hin Pageasabi niya nito yungnuicap siyji 

uni^ltt. so. caniyang amain. 

The m». over, the priwl look ehoco- j p„g„,„|^ nag.icokle .og |»rc. 

If other prepositions are nwed before the gerund, tbe infinitive or ver- 
bal noun may be used in Tagalog with the projter partiule preceding. 

In making use of gun]>owder great Sii pug-gamit nang pnlruni (Sp.) .1, 

eare should be taken. magpapacaingat ang taii6. 

This (kind of) herb is goiwl for curing Ytong camantigui ay mabuli sa ]>ag- 

^ tonthnche, guiniit Ha unijuil nang ngipin. 

Tout is an adverl) niennini 
tional senwe of "whenever". 

Always, constanlly. 
You are constantly Inisy. 
Whenever you read pomething. 
Whenever he writes. 

Tovi may aj.-o otaiid for 

Every day, every ye;ir. 

It mav alhO he u.^tH «« a fon 

alwiiyi^" and !ui>; tomelinies Ihe eonjunc- 

Toin'ng toui. toui nang toui. 
Toufng toui niayrdon caiig ahata. 
Tsnn'ng bumasil ca nang anomun. 
Tijufng pivii.i.f-unnilat orsungmiisulat. 

Touing lirao. toning taon. 
jimilion for "whik-", "Bf^ far as", "a* long 


While, a? far as, as long a? manhood TouiHg di niapauf ang pagcatauo sa 
is not erased from the world. sanglibutan. 


raid, is sometimes used as a substantive for "gulf", "sea", "main", and 
may also l>e made a verb in this signification. 

Put to the o])en sea. Mauala ca. 

He carried his rapine into the sea. \ Nagpauala siya nang caniyang sam- 

^ ( samin. 

Uald besides the well known signification of *'lack", "want", has many 
others as a verb. 

To flee, to pardon, to exonerate. 

To disappear. 

It is not possible to flee now. 

It disap]>eared from my hands. 

Absolutely nothing. 

I have absolutely everything. 



Hindi macauauala ngay6n. 

Nauala sa camay co. 

Ualang uala. 

Ualang di uala sa aquin. 

He did not put in an appearance ves- / ^^ i * • ' u 
terdav. " ^ I ala siya cahapon. 

Free me from my debt. Ualin mo na ang otang co sa iyo. 

\ Xagpapauala ang Dios nang manga 
f casalanan natin. 

God pardons our sins. 

raid is joined to many words forming adversative or negative expressions 
Ivtter to be learned by practice. 

Endless, eternal. 
Easy, ]K>ssible. 
Inni>cent, blameless. 
Sound, healthy. 

Ualang hangan. 
Ualang liuag. 
Ualang sala. 
Uahing saquit. 

I ngrateful. (there are no words to if t- i - * ' / • 'x 
. I- : 1 1 X ; I alang tunng (si\'a). 

express his wickedness) • ^ ^ & v j / 


Yari is one i>f the forms of the demonstrative pronoun, *'this", "this 
lien»'\ which is more c«mimonly expressetl by ito. 


riiis heart of mine. 

Yaring aquing puso. 

Vari is used as an al»solute verb for bringing to an end some busi- 
ness or talk. 



What did vour business come to? 

Yari na. 


^, Anong pagcayayari nangoBap ninyo? 

To be on the lix»kout for. Sumoboc. 

It would be bettej. rather. Mahanga. 

It would be better not to have been t 

born a man. 

And thanks be given. 

Ang thanks l>e given he did not fall. 

Soak... (horny plateV 

Fins of fishes. 


Mahangaj, houag naguinglalaqui. 

Salamat at. 

Salamat at di .-iya naholog. 




drying imn. 

Karthen cookiiiK-p'>t, 


Any thing to bo eaten v 

or boiled rice. 

To hiis; to wbistle. 


I 'nil all. 

buniotsot; magpasouit. 
S Puniiista, majiposta (from Sp. word 
/ aj>ne»tii, "l>et".) 


Do you like to lieur the singing birds in the morning.? I like to 
see the singing liirds and the fighting ccckw in the pit. Whose book is 
that.? It ie the learning boy's. Does the Chinaman lend any money 
lo the gambling parties.? He lends a hundred dollars to the gambling 
[lartii-a. Is that needle for my fister.? No, it is for the reading girl. 
Is tiehing an art.? No, fishing is a pfii^time, but writing is an art. In 
sluioting ttiilxome in the Philippinen.? It ir toilsome on account of thf 
hushes; but it in easy on aecnunl nf the plenty of game. Is yachting 
dangerous,? Yatching is sometimes dangerous. What did you catch the 
servant iloing.? I caught him stealing my watch and putting on my 
shirt. What did she try playing.? She tried to plav the piano, but 
she did not succeed. Ic he betting on your cock.? he is betting on 
ray cock. What was the priest doing when you entered church.? He was 
preaching and crying. Will they he supping if we go now.? No, they will 
not be supping, they will be playing at cards. How do tailors sew,? They 
sew while hissing. How are monkeys caught.? They are sometimes caught 
(while) eating bivalves at the beach. How is your father being cured.? He is 
being cured by bathing him in ice water. Do servants sleep, their masters 
working.? Servants do not sleep their masters working. Was he planting the 
trees while he was digging the earth.? He was planting the trees while he was 
rttuying in the farm. \Vlien did he go to the farm.? He went there on your 
>roing out. What did he eat after having Jearn this lesson.? After having learnt 
his lesHon he ate some bananas. When did the stranger intend to start.? He 
will start the sup|>er being over. Is he engaged in handling the plough.? 
No, he Ih engaged in driving carts. What is that fish good for.? It 
is good for bait. Should I wear spectaidea when I write.? You should 
wear spectacles for rending and writing. Shalt I visit him every day.? 
Xo, you should visit him every week. Where is the chicken that disappear- 
ed.? It did not disappear, here it is. Is God eternal.? He is eternal 
and Almighty. May we attain the eternal life.? We may attain eternal 
life by keeping the commandments. Is he blameless.? He is culpable 
and wicked beyond measure. What shall we do after having finished 
this work.? After having finished it, we shall go for a walk. Is his 
liody covered with scales.? His body is covered with scales. Did the 
cook take away the fins of the fish.? He did. Where is he going to fry 
it.? He is going to fry it in the frying pan. What- is he going to fry 
it with,? He is going to fry it in the frying pan. What is be going to fry it 
with.? He is going to frv it with beans and that will U- our eourfc 





The Tagalog language is in the use of tenses, as in everything else, very 
lax. It has already been said that the root alone may be used with some 
adverb or word importing time to express every tense. The following di- 
rections about the use of tenses are however given to assist the learner to 
some understanding of the subject. 

The present indefinite is used for any actual action whether it is rejire- 
sented as habitual, true, or as going on at the time it is being spoken of. 

He visits her every other dav. \ pi^^^'^l*" '">* «>>'» *» to"^"g ^^«- 

•^ ' ( lauang arao. 

{ Ang caniyang paniangquing babaA'o 
Her niece goes to mass every holyday. I nagsisimba touing arao nang piettta, 

( (corr. from Sp. word fiesta, "feast") 
He bows to, salutes her. Bungmabati siya sa caniya. 

The bird is pecking. Nanunuca ang ibon. 

The leader is writing. Sungmusiilat, nasiilat ang pono. 

This same tense serves fot the past indefinite of the progressive conjugat- 
ion with some adverb denoting past time, or without it*if the epoch is other- 
wise expressed or understood. 

The children were yesterday playing Naglalar6 cahapon ang manga bata sa 

in the garden. halamanan. 

I was dressing myself when she en- Nagdadamit ac6 nang pungmasoc siya 

tered my room. sa aquing silid. 

You were running. Tungmatacbo cay6 cangina. 

The same sense of continuance mav l>e expressed by the adverb pa, 


Stars are shining. Nagniningning pa ang maAga bituin. 

The past indefinite (when the action is not simultaneous with any 
other) and present perfect tenses are expressed alike. 

Jesus Christ resuscitated on the third Nabiihay oli si Jesucristo sa ycatl6ng 

day after his death. arao nang caniyang pagcamatay. 

I have finished the work. Nagtapus ac6 nang gaua. 

T *i ^ * -J „^ I ^u \ Ybinigay co na sa canila cahapon ang 

1 gave them yesterdav vour books. J x- i-u i » 

^ J ., * ^ mafiga libro mo. 

The pluperfect exists in Tagalog only a8 a remote degree of the past and 
hence the completive particle na, *' already"; after the simple past serves as a 
means of expressing what is called the past perfect tense, esixjcially when two 

part actions, 01)8 of whicli is anterior to the oilier, are conpareil. Thf form 
of the pluperfect with mtcri and iia is merely supplemental. 

I had already eaten yeHterday when Nacac^in na acrf oahapon nang dung- 
you arrived. mating ca. 

The sen'ant had already looked for) p(.o»hi[ 
the cat that disappeared when Frank > _ ' 
found her. (it) 

The future indefinite is used in the projier way for any action to be 
executed at some future time. 

The Son of Cod will come down again Ang Anac nang Dios ay mananaog oli 
on Earth to judge the living and sa lupa, hohocomanniy&ang nagngag- 
ihe dead. babuhay pa at ang nafigamatay na. 

na nang alila ang pu- 
iaug naualii, nang naquita ni Quicoy. 

which comes 

But it is also employed to express the English infinitive 
aiUr a verb importing initiative, start, 

1 am going to study. Ac6,i, magaaral. 

The priest is going to read. Aug pare ay babapi. 

He is going to eat. i^iy*i|i| cac^iin. 

We are going to get out. Cami, aalis na. 

You are going to write. Cay(S,i, susiilat. 

They are going to sleep. Matutiilog na sila. 
My mother is going to say her prayer?, Mttgdarasal si ina. 

What haa been said above about the pnst )>erfeGt applies also to the future 
|>erfect; n«, for (lie same reason, postponed to the simple future, forms the 


I shall have cfioked the fish you charged 

ine with when you come back. 

The house will have been destroyed \ 

by moths when you are ready to j 

tenant it. , 

l>olotoin eo na ang iwia na lying ypi- 
nagbilin sa atjuincun icilo.i, bumalic. 
Sisirain na nang anay ang btlbay 
cun matoldy cang mamahay. 

The imi>erative, liesidea itc own proper use, also serves for the present , 
fiubjnntive with stvme conjunction of doubt or purirose. 

If I write. 

Although he go there. 
Endeavour to be virtuous that 
may attain eternal life. 

(Jun Humulat aoS. 

Paroon man siyi. 

Magpacabanal ca nang icao,i, maca- 

pagcamit nang biihay uahtng hangiin. 

We know already that the tenBes of tlie subjunctive mood are expressed 

by the'corresponding ones of thi- 
preceding or following. 

I mhould pay fot it if I had any moi 
Provided you do not do it. 
Would to (ioil he would come. 

Should that be true I would kill h' 

Obey your father, lest you be punished. J \„^^\^ 

ndicative with the proi^r particles either 
\ Bahayaran co sana cun aco.i, may 

Houag mu lamang gaoin. 

Pumarito naua siya. 

Cun iyiin sana,i, toto6 papatayin co 


Sumonod ca sa iyong ama maca pa- 


It IB very frequent in Tagalog \x\ use one ten? 
of tense being but somewhat accesory. 

' for another, the idea 


Prosont in(lotiiiit<* is somotimt's us<mI for the* jmst tens<^ 

Has th(^ cari)cnter arriv('(l. /.Dun^mating na aog anlouague.? 

,-. , . X • 1 \ Hindi pa diingniarating. (for dung- 

He has not vut arnviMl. ..._4:..,-\ 

( mating.) 

Future indefinite mav l)e used: 
For the i)resent indefinite. 

Does he hiugh still.? ^.Tataua pa siya.? (for tungmatiiua.) 

I am going away. Ao6,i, aalis. (for nanalis). 

For the imperative. 

T» - XI. X XI. 1 S Baco ca cumiiin, manhihiniflga (for 

Before vou eat wash your teeth clean. ^„^u- ;r;«„\ «„ w»^«o 

•^ f manhininga) ca mona. 

T. . 1 1 X 1 \ Dadalhan (for dalhiin) mo aco nang 

Bring me a Ixx.k to r.-a.!. ^ .^^^^ j;,^^;^, Imbusahin. 

T^ ,^ - ^ ^ \ Houag mong ealilimotan (for calimo- 

I)(.n't forgot your parents. J ^,^^^^ ^^^^ j^.^^^ ^,^^^^^ magulang. 

Future* perfect may l)e used for pluperfect. 

When I had already gone out my Nang macaalis (for nacaalis) na aco, 

enemy a})peared. hungmarap ang a([uing caauay. 

I r«»ceive<l th<» money when I had Tinangap co ang salapi, nang ae(S,i, 

already i)aid. macabayad (for nacahayad) na. 

The imperative may 1k> used: 
For ])resent indefinite. 

TT 1 xi 1 XX s Magpadali(fornagpapada]a) siva nang 

He Pends the letter. ' m r 

t sulat. 

In potential negativt* sentences. 

,, 4 1 .J N ;.Hindi ca macai)arigopap. (for naca- 

Can vou not speak.? -, - «. \ 

' ( capangosap). 

r , , 1 .. s Hindi co mavi)aliavag. (for navpa- 

I cannot declare it. u' \ 

( pahayag). 

For the })ast. 

He saw the dog and killed it. i 'M^^l"!*'^ (f"": "^^1"'*") "^y* '^"g a«>''' 

^ ( pinatay niya 

When I lieard thundering I was Nang marifigig (for narif^gig) cong 

frightened. cungmuciilog ay natdcot ac6. 

The imi)erative may also ]>e used for the complete present participle. 

He hivintr siid thi- died ^ ^^''"^ sabihin (for pagcasaH) niyd 

nt, iKiMiig saia uiu, auti. ^ ^^^ ^j^,^. ^^ namatiy. 

Having finished the work, they went Nang matapus (for pagcatapus) nili 
to the theatre. ang gaua, napasateatro sila. 

The infinitive mav stand for all the tenses, as alreadv said. 

When the master gets ungrv, he ( ^^^ nagagalit ang maestro caniying 
punishes all the s.holars. parusahan (for pinarurusahan) ang 

^ ' lahat na alagad. 

When I bought the house, I did not Nang bilhia (for binili) co angbtihay, 
say anything to them. uala acong sinabing anomto sa canild. 

Who shall not laugh.? ^.Sinong di tumdua? (for tatatiiua). 

Don't carry about yo' 
cr in your arms. 

infitnt Imith- Hoimg mo calviiingin ami rapatW 

mung bungso. 

To declnre, to lay before. 

To cloak, to conoive at. 

Hiddenly, deceitfully. 

Here, here it is. 

There it is. 

Before doing, bcfcire ln-ing dmic'. 

Before doing ttiis. 

Before your writing thie* h;tter, 

Beginniog, commencement. 

Edge, point, extremity. 


God IB increate. 

He is eternal. 

Even BO, even being eo. 

Even your sin being s-o. 

Besides, (preposition). 

Besides this. 

Besides that. 

Wherever, (conjunction). 

Wherever you go. 

However, whatever, (conjunctions) 

However, whatever you think nf it. 

Whereas, wherefore, therefore, since, 

fur that reason, tliiit i» (he reiison 


That is the reason why he is here. 

To prepare one's eelf. 

Sa Ifhim. 

Xandiyjiii, nandoon. 

Bag6 gumauii, hago gaoin. 

Bagu gaoin iti>. 

Bag6 mo sulatin itd. 

Pono, mola, 


r'atapusan, hnngun, cahanganan. 

Ang Dios ay ualang puno,t, dul*. 

Ualu Siyang hangan. 

(}ay6n man, 

Gaydn man ang easalanan mo, 

Bucod pa, bucod namin. 

Bucod pa rito, bucod pa sa ritS 

Bucod naman sa rdon. 

Baan man. 

Sunn man parnon ca. 

Matay man. 

Matiiy moug isipin. 


ay a, cay a ngii. 


Have you seen my brother.? I have not seen him. Has the serv- 
ant already arrived.? He has not yet arrived. Have you taken my 
book.? 1 ha''e not taken it. Has he met his siater-in-biw.? Yes, 
when he was going out fihc arrived. Who gave you that ring.? My 
aunt gave it nie when my father was still here at home. Plil your 
daughter catch the butterfly.? No, when she was almut to catch it, it 
disappeared from her sight. Oid her mother call her.? Yes, when she 
was iibont to come downstairs, her mother called her. Do you forget 
me.? I don't fi.rjret yon, Hn you pay attention tn what I am saying 
to you.? I pay chisi- nllentii)n In what yi)n say. Wliat do yoU order 
nie to do,? Don't aliandim your frieiiil>. What did he enjoin nie tie- 
fore.? Before you gu lii bt-d, pray, (first) What did you say to me.? 
Before you write, think of what you are going to aay. Why does she 
not eat.? She does not eat, because she is not hungry. WTiy do you 
make the sign of the cross,? Because my mother told me, before your 
doing something, make the sign of the cross. Why does [not your father 
allow Mary to read this l>ook.? Because before she reads it he wants 
to examine it. Where shall we gn after dining.? We shall go to tlie 
beach after dinner. What shall 1 do after reading. After you read, 
write (also). What shall I do after reading the letter.? After your 
reading the letter, give it to me. When did you receive my letter.? 
I received your letter after I had already written. What did his broth- 
er do.? When he saw hi.i master he concealed himself. What has 
happened.? On my doing what you ordered me, he forbade me to do 


it. What did you say to him.? On my trying to speak to him he 
refuged to listen and went away; hut when the mass was over he call- 
ed out to me. Why do you not study.? I cannot study. Can your 
son not write.? He can write, but he cannot speak. Can he pronoun- 
ce.? He cannot pronounce. Can they not declare it.? They cannot 
declare it. Can they not fail to go.? They cannot fail to go. How 
can that be.? It is ordered so by law. Was not that made publicly.? No, it 
was made secretly. Where is my watch.? Here it is. Where is your 
father.? There he is. Where does this road begin.? It begins at the 
beach. How was your female-cousin wounded.? She was wounded with 
the point of a pin. Who created God.? God is increate and eternal. 
Is He merciful.? His mercy is endless, however great your sins may be 
He will pardon them; besides that, He helps man through virtue. 
Where is He.? He is everywhere, wherever you may go there He is 
and whatever you do. He sees it. Since it is *o , prepare yourself to 1x5 
one day in His presence. 




Proper auxiliary verbs, os they are conceived in other languages, tlo 
no exiat in Tagalog; but, in a certain ^ense, it may be said that mild. 
in the negative, tnayroon and viay. but especially the latter, in the aff- 
irmative, are used somewhat after the manner in which "not to have", 
"have not", et*-.; ''to have", "have", etc., are used in English, only that 
they adapt themiwlves to every tense. The English imperBonals "there 
to have", "there not to have"; "there not to he", "there to be", "there 
ia", "there is not", etc., followed by a noun in a partitive sense or a 
past -participle, may lie translated, reMi»i«tivcly, by iitfiy iind utdd, with 
the proper tense in Tugnlog after them. 

Has he not eaten any bread.? 

He has eaten some bread. 

Is there no one eating.? 

There is noliotly eating. 

Was there no one who t-jld il to him.' 

Nobody told it to liim. 

Will there not be anybody who will go ) 
I here, ■ 

iUabi siyilng liag:i tjuinaing tinapay.? 
Siyji,i, may qiiinaing tinapay. 
(.Ualii bagang cungmacain.? 
Uailang uiingmaciiin. 
., \ ^Ualang nacapagsabi or macapagfiabi 
( sa, caniyi.? 
Ualiing nagsabi diyiin an caniyu. 
iUala bagiing jmronSon.? 

There will not Ik; anybody to go there. Uuliing parordon. 

iUala bagiing miibiguian nang ciimol 


Hailing mabiguian nang canilang uii- 


;,Mav binibili bagii rfiyjL? 

M:.y' binibili Mvi!, 

^.May iniiiiini ca bitgang litae.? 

May ininoin acSng alac? 

^, May pipiliin bag:i ang iyfing capatid 

na babaye dit6 sa mafiga biilac-lac? 
( May pipiliin siyd dito sa mailga bulac- 
\ lac. 

\ May pinagcaisahan silang hindi iiilii 
/ bayaran. 

\ May ypinagotOr. na miiglinjuod ^a 
/ hocbd. 

Mtyroon is used for "to have to" with the agent in the nominative 
caoe and the verb which i-tands for its direct complement following in 
the correnpoilding tenaft or that peculiar to Tagalog, in the pa6J=ive. 

Will there not be any one whom to 

give their quilt.? 

There will be nobody whom to give 

their tjuilt to. 

Does he buy?, is he buying.? 

Hn Iniys, he in buying. 

Havf you ilrunk any wine.? 

I have drunk wonie winf. 

Will yonr Hsler .ndl otil of th.'^-e 

yhe will cull i^iime of these flower--*. 

It is agreed between them not lopay it. 

II was enacted to serve In Ibe armv. 


^^hat have they to say.? ^.MayrcSon bagji nilang sasabihin.? 

They have to say that .... Mavroon silang sinasabi na . . . . 

Had you to buy somethinfr.? ) i.^hr6on baga cay<5ng binibiling ano- 

•^ * ^ f man. f 

We had to pay the debt. Mayroon earning binayarang otang. 

•Shall I have anytliing to do.? ^Mayrdon baga ac6ng gagaoin.? 

You shall have to sweep the door-sill. Yca6ay mayroong naualisang pintoan. 

May is also used before a common noun in a sense of ownership, 
l)arentage or appertenance. 

The owner, the proprietor. Ang may ari. 

the father, one of the parents. Ang may anac. 

The maker. * Ang may gaua. 

Author, inventor, fabricator, designer. May catha. 

Who composed these verses.? ^Sino ang may cathii nit6ng tula.? 

The Creator. Ang may lalang, may capal. 

The powerful man. Ang may capangyarihang tau6. 

The Almighty. Ang may capangyarihan sa labat. 

The lover. Ang may sinta. 

Who is the owner of this farm.? ^Sino ang may ari nitong biiquid.? 

Our neighbour is the owner. Ang aming caapirbahay ang may ari. 

Who is the father of this maid.? ^Sinong may anac ditd sa dalaga.? 

The Chinaman at the corner is the ) , . . , ' « 

e .^ j Ang msic sa suloc ang may anac. 

Who are the inventors of tliis kind ^Sino sino ang manga may catha 

of pillow.? nitong ganitong olonan.? 

The Jai)anese are the inventors. AngmangatagaJapon ang may catha. 

Who is the Creator of evervthing.? ^,Sino ang mav capal sa lahat ? 

God, our Lord is the Creator ^and the ^ ^"^ Dios Panginoon natin, siya 
Almightv ) ^"^. ^"^^ lalang at ang may capang- 

° ' ' f varihan sa lahat. 

May^mey is i)ut Iwfore substantive roots having a passive force, and 
converts them into adjectives. 

Sick. May saquit. 
Guilty, culprit. ,, sala. 

Wise, learned. ,, donong. 

Denticulated, toothed. „ figipin. 

Golden, gold-yielding. „ guinto. 

May=infy is still used i>reced(»d by S(i for the j)rejH)sition "near". 

Near the tree. Sa may esihoy. 

„ ,, hous<\ ,, „ biihay. 

,, ,, churrh. ,, ,, simbahan. 

What is that near the border of the ^.Ano cava yaong na sa may taVa 

sea.? nang dagat. 

Ti 4r 4u^ ,^ • • S Yaong na sa mav dagat ay isang 

Ihat near the sea is a pirogue. « i ^ .» & j s 

* ^ / bangca. 

Another peculiarity of Tagalog is the using of some roots in an absolute 
impersonal verbal manner for every tense. The roots most commonly 
made use of in such wav, are: 

Coming from, deriving. Galing. 

Concluded, made-up. Yari. ! 

Finished, ended. Tapiis. 

Condign, (punishment) Sucat. , .. 

Deserving; worthy, just, right, proper. Dapat. 

Wisning; willing:. Ybig. 

...... . • » *. 


Not knowitiji. Ay 

Refusing, not willing:. Av 

It is, wftK, will lie Piiici; lie, she, tliev. I ,y^ 
says, eay, eaid; will lie eaiJ. \ ^' 

Diio and rono aro alwaya postponeil to tlic ■ 

It is said you are very rich. 

It was aftid you were dead. 

It will Ite said he will l>ecome mini. 

Hb Bays let him go out. 

They say they are not wilHiig. 

Hesaye he will study. 

Mayamang niayt 

Xamatay ca dao. 
Maoulol dya diio. 
Lumabas sly a dao. 
Nanayao cono sila, 
Magaaral dao siya. 

ido heing tar move 
lan ca dflo. 

Aydo governs the nc 
ease, according to whothi-i 

m or pronoun in the nominative 
the wentencp is active or pacsivf. 

■ possessive 

Are you not willing to enter.? 

I refused to marry. 

Will you refuse to t;!ve niv mone\ 


^.Ayiio cang pumasoc,? 
N'ayao acdng magasjiua, 

;. Ayao mong ysaolf ang 

, nyao acnng 
lapf CO,? 
a grudging manner for "i dnn'l 

Do you know what your nir 
I don't know, I don't care. 

Although tlii'g is fiomotimi'S u«ed 

Do you wiyh to read,? 
I wish to lead the hook. 
Did he wiisli to work.? 

He wished to pay his delit. 

Will your friend be willing to come 


He will he willing to come here to see 


.] , ) ;. Naaalaman mo run ano ang s^al i 
' " ( nang iy6ng panginrton.? 

u«ed actively, it adaptw it,=elt hi^tter to the 

;, Yhig roong (ca) humasa.? 

Yhig eong hasahin ang libro. 

^;Yni'hig niyang magtrabajo? (1). 
, Ynfbig niving bayaran ang caniyiing 
' otang. 

^Yibiguin bagii nang caibigaa mo pa- 


■ Yibiguin niying paritohan ca niya, 

JMpat and sAcat, as absolute impersonal verbs, are vsed in passive 
sentences; lidpnl, generally for reward, and sucat for penalty. 

It is just to punish him. Sucat siyiing hampasfn or parusahan. 

It will be right to hang them. Hiicat siUng bitayin. 

He deserves to be granted the prize. Dapat siyang pagcalooban nangganti. 

They deserved to obtam the ottice. Dapat nildngcamtiln ang ratongcolan. 

Tapm and ynri are used with the particle na after them; lnp)i», may 
indifferently refer to time or work, ynri, only to the work. 

The rain in over. Tapiis na ang olan. 

In the month of November southern Sa bouan nang Noviembre tapus na or 

winds will cease, matatapus ang taghabagat. 

Have you completetl your work.? iYarf na ang gaua mo.? 

It 18 already completed, (finished). Yarf na. 

(l) The letter J, which ie exotic, ia BtiU retained in BOiue Sp. wonla aH irahajv, etc. 


(rdliiifi, a? many other roots, may bo used without the proper comj)- 
osition for the sake of briefness when stress on the action can be disi>en8- 
ed with and the tense is determined otherwise or is tacitly understood. 

Where do you come from.? ^Saan ca galing.? 

I come from Tayabas. Galing aco sa Tayabas. 

Yesterday, when we met your servant, Cahapon, nang nasalobong namin ang 

where was he coming from.? alila mo, ^saan siy^ galing.? 

He was coming from the well. Galing siy^ sa bucal. 

In the same way, many other verbal roots can be used absolutely in 
the imperative for briefness' sake, especially when the verb is used without 
any direct or indirect complement. This manner of using the verb is 
greatly in use among natives and is somewhat interjectional. 

Walk.! Lacad. 

Take!. Cuba. 

Run!. Taebo. 

Run for it!, overtake!. Tacbohin. 

Drag along. Hila. 

Eat!. Cain. 

Come on. Hali ca, t61oy. 

Sometimes the imperative is used with the verbal ligament for a 
greater emphasis if the verb ends in a consonant. 

Kill it. Patayi. 

Receive it. Tangapi. 

Wrap it. Baloti. 

Drink. Ynomi. 

It is not only in the imperative that the root alone, can be use<l without 
the verbal particle. Some verbal roots when they are not carried away 
from their original sense by some modifying verbal particle, are used for 
every tense if the latter is otherwise determined by some other words. (1). 

What do you bring.? iAno ang dal4 mo.? 

I bring nothing to-day. Uala acong dalft figayon. 

Yesterday I brought some fruit. Ang dalA co cahapo,i, bunga. 

What will he be willing to have ^ . a a 'u* • ^ u ' o 
to-morrow.? j Mnong .Dig niyA bucas.? 

What does he say.? ^Anong sabi niyi.? 
He says that Sabi niy4,i, 

Some compound words either nouns or adjectives, are fit to be used 
absolutely as verbs. 

Wise, learned. Mariinong. 

Does he know.? ^.Mariinong siya.? 

Do you know how to read.? ^Marunong cang bumasa? 

No, sir, I cannot read. Hindf po, di aco marunong bumasa. 

Do they know how to speak English.? ^.Mariinong silang maguicang ingles.? 

They do not know how to speak Engl- Hindi sila mariinong magiiicang in- 

ish; but they know hdW to speak Ta- gles; ftguni,t, mariinong sila maglii- 

galog. cang tagdlog. 

Need, want; it is necessary. Cailafigan. 

What do I need.? ^Anong cailafigan co.? 

(1) We insist that thi.s iniixirtunt ix)int be not lost sight of by the student. 


You need to he clirwl. 

'"'hey need to woik. 

The orphan. 

To leave off. 

Leave off reading. 

The poor follow, tlie unfortunate. 

Have you no parents.? 

No, Sir, we are parentlees. 

Pure, genuine. 

This ring is of genuine golfl. 

That image ia pure ivory. 

CuBtomary, habityal. 

Customary dreps. 

Inveterate habit. 

Enough, sufficient. 

That is sufficient . 

To pass, to elapse. 

The time has pnsi^ed wlien ... 

To excee<t, to excel, to overdo. 

He exeeb in wifrltiin. 

Ciiitnfigan rang gamoti'n. 

(.'ailangan t^ila'ng niagtrabajo. 

Aug olild. 


luan mo ang pagbasd. 

Ang mahfrap. 

(.Uala caySng magugulang.? 

Hindi po, cam!, po, niafiga olili. 

Taganas, puldi^. 
i Yt^ng singling na itA,i, tagaoas na 
) ^uint6. 

Yyang larauang iyi,i, pol6,« na garing. 

Caraniuaog, caratihan. 

C.iranfuang damtin. 

Caratihan asal. 

Caeiyahan, caiguihan. 

Yya,i, caiguihan na. 


Lungmipati na ang pannh^n na. . . . 


Lungmalalo ang pagcariiiion^ ni 


Had you anything to eat.? I had nothing to eat. Has he not seen my 
brother? He hnw not yet seen him. Has he not slept yet.? He has not yet 
slept. What was there included in the buainest*.? There was included in the 
husinesB the paying of his salary. What will there Iw looked upon.? There 
will be her marriage considered. Have you anything to tell me.? Yen, I have 
something to tell you. Have you anything to do.? Yes, I have something to do. 
Has he anything to desire.? He has nothing to desire. Have yuu said any- 
thing.? I have said nothing. Hai he killed a man.? He has killed a man. 
Who \f the father of this child.? Peter iw the father of this child. Who is 
the maker of the world.? God, our Lord, ia the maker. Are you perchance 
the owner of this land.? I am not the owner, but my brother-in-law. Who 
are the owners of this forest.? The landlords of the town are the owners 
of the forest. What is that near the church.? That near the church is a 
very beautiful tree. Who is sick.? My father is sick. Are they the 
culprits.? No, they are not the culprits. Is the master learned.? He 
IB very learned. Where is your servant coming from.? He is coming 
from the river. Is this book concluded.? It is not yet concluded, la the 
month ended.? It is ended. Ought he to be punished.? He ought not 
to be punished. Are your cousins worthy of reward.? They deserve a 
reward. Is he willing to write.? He ia willing to write. What does 
he say.? He says he is a stranger. Ask him whether he knows how lo 
play the harp.? He says he knows. Do you. want this flower.? Yts, 
Sir, if you want. it. take it. Do yon know my friend loves you.? I 
don't care. Don't they wish to go to school.? They don't wish to. 
Why.? Because they say Ihey are not willing. What do you nay.? I say it 
18 not possible. Does he know how to sew.? He does not know how lo 
sew. Can you speak Tagalog.? I can speak Tagaiog, Are you a judge 
of writing.? I am not a judge of writing. Are you acquainted with 
cooking.? I am not acquainted with it. Is it necessary to take a bath,? 
It is not necessary to take a bath. Is it necessary.? It is necessary. 
1b it necessary to say it.? It is necessary that I should declare it. 
Where is your father.? Our father is dead, we are orphans. Did John 
leave off gambling.? He has not yet left it off. Who is that man.? 
He is an unfortunate. What is that crown of,? It is of pure silver. Is it his 



customary manner of speaking.? It is his inveterate habit. Is that su- 
fficient.? It is not sufficient, Why do you not dance.? When the age 
of forty years is readied youth has already passed. What does your 
father excel in.? He excels in preaching. 



The use of ntutii or wi. before a caiiimoD uoim, direct object of an act- 
iTfi sentence, is generally decided by the nature of the action. Nang, 
which is, by far, better adapted to the direct object, if it is represented by 
a'coiiimon liouh. is used: 

With verbs denoting assimilation on the part of the agent. 

To obtain glory. 

To eat cherries. 

I found money. 

He borrowed ten dollars. 

We take the book. 

They will reueivc fifteen doilarts. 

Buy a farm. 

Magcamit nang calualhatian. 
Cumjiin nang lombdy. 
Nacapolotor nacaquita aco nang salapi. 
Ungmtitang siya nang sangptfuong pisn. 
Cungmocohft cami nang libro, 
Tatangap sila nang labing limaug piso. 
Bumili ca nang biiquid. 

With verbs the action of which necessarily requires two complements 
(accusative and dative) either exprewsfd or understood, although they may 
mean expulsive acts on the part of the subject. In such cases the direct 
object (generally a thing) goes with nang and the indirect (generally a 
person), with m. 

He writes two letters to your father. 
I cold my estate to the natives. 
We ahall give the eggs to the baker. 

^ Nagsiisiilat siya nang dalau&ng siilat 

( sa ama mo. 

^ Nagbili acd nang ari en sa manga 

( tagiilog. 

I Magbibigiiy tayo nnng m.'iMgn Ul<\\i s.i 

I magtitinapay. 

Magpadala ca nang cahan sa anloague. 

Ang amai.i, nagpa6tang nang salapi. 
ila nang lahat sa 

Send the trunk to the carpenter. 

The uncle lent the money. 

They had waid everything to tlie ) Nacapagsabi 

master. \ liangindon. 

You will have returned the book to } NacapagsaoU na maralul cayd nang 

the priest. i liliro sa ])are. 

\ Nugcal6ob ac6 sa caniyd nang pahin- 

/ l6!ot. (1). 

I granted him pi.'rmission. 

Before any common noun, the direct object of Ihe sentence, if it is 
used in a partitive or indefinite sense. 

Put some rice {the boiled rice which 
constitutes natives' principal food), 
on the fire. 

Magsaapiiy ca nang canin or moris- 

fl). The student shouM not loae sight of the tact that these sentences are better 
coDHtructect in the po^eWe.. Ifj^bef.are here expre;«sed actively, it is oniy to. make mare 
noticeable the m^ 6i nans and 'en. 


He counts money. Biiitgniibflang tiya nang Kalapf. 

We ask for something. Hiinpiiiihiftgi vami nang anoman. 

Ask some vinegar on [mssing by. Matjuiraan va. nang eiicu. 

They have sown paddy. Naghaeic sila nanp palay. 

They shall gather (cut off with the \ ,, . -, .... ■.. _ „■ 

J ■' . * 1 . 1 1 ■, Mangingitil sua nang mumiii. 

hngers) some lietel leaves. ^ o e e 

Gather some flowers. MJtiis or mamitas ca nang hulac-lac. 

Don't pick up iiny quarrels. Hauag cang humanap nang osaxi. 

Will you have some bread.? ^-Ybig mo nang tin^pay,? 

I want a little. Vhi(r co nang caunti. 

Nang is generally used in all i 

joined paragraphs for the use of s". 

He eimnot lift the vat. 
We build our house of stone. 
Peter reduced the price. 
Drive away the poultry. 
They will undo (untie) the agree- 

It is a ein to listen to (hearing) obs- 

Paint ihe board. 

Why did not the servant transfuse 
the water into the wat. 
i^nuff the candle. 
Correct (rectify) your bad habits. 

ses not olherwicc specified in the sub- 

Hindi siyu macabuhat nang tapayan. 

Naghiibato cami nang hahay namin. 

Nagba}iii Si Pedro nang halaga. 

fiunidgao eayo nang manoc. 

Cacalag ^iU nang tipun or pin&gcai- 


Sain ang dumlfigig nang uicang ma- 

ha lay. 

Humibo ca nang tiibla. (Sp.). 

^Biiquit hindi nagsalin ang alita nang ' 

tilbig sa tapayan. 

J Pumdtol ca nang pabilo (Sp., "wick") | 
t nang 
Tum^uir ca nang mnsamung ilsal mo. 

S'-i is used before the direct object in the active: 
In sentences the verb of which obtains in the 
irwra conjugation. 

Modesty enhances woman't^ lieauty. 

my children. 
It is the remedies that cure the sick. 
Ilis hrngs cause fright to the Imyp 
The tears of David washed his coui:h. 

nacagaganda sa 

\ Ang cahinhinan 

( manga babaye. 

His arrival caused pleasure to his Ang pagdating niya.i, nacat^Sua sa ca- 
mother. uiyang iua. 

Why does war cause sorrow to your ,. Baquit caya ang paghabacitj, naca- 
i^ister.? lulumbay sa capatid mong babaye.? 

This fruit is green and will hiirm Yli'mg bongang ilo.i, Mliio pa,t, ma- 
casasama ea, manga aniic co. 

\ Ang mafiga gamot ay eiyang naca- 

t cagaling sa manga may saquit. 

\ Ang mafiga c&yabaiigan niiii, na- 
' '( catatacot sa mafiga bata. 

\ Ang mafiga luba ni David nacadi- 

I lig se caniyang hihigaan. 

With verbs which more or le^s require a person for thcjr direct object. 

To salute, 
fSalutc the 
To betrav. 

to liow at. to greet, 

Saint Peter betrayed his master. 

To cure. 

Jesus Christ cured the sick. 

To whip, to cudgel. 

Shall we whip our ser\'ant.? 

Magbati, Immati. 

Btiniati ca sa pare. 

\ 8i San Pedro. i, nagcanold sa caniying J 
/ maestro. 


\ Si Jesucrislo.i, gungmamot ea BMfigal 
f n.ay saquit. 


^Hahampas tayosaalila natio? 

To incite, to cajole, lo spur on. 
She cajoles the tnnn. (male). 
To Hlap. 
I will slap the scoundrel. 


Natnomoncuhi niyl sa talaqui. 


Tatampal ac6 bh tumpalasan or tacsil. 

In certain verbs which may take a thing < 
complement, iiaji^, comes before the thing; m, 

T a person for their direct 
before the (jersun. 

Magbayad nang yquinabubiihay. 
I Nagbayad siya sa medico or mangaga- 
( mot. 

To pay the (for the) maintenance. 

He paid the physician. 

To obey (to keep) the commandments ) ,. i - , n- 

of God i bumonoil nang manga otoe nang Uiow. 

Ymir friend do., i.ol obey his molher. * ■*"? °?"''?'':' "'°''' '""■" """B"""""-' 
•' t SB. ina niya. 

A.k (inquire) the rea,on of Ih.t. | M.gtanong ca ,»„g cad.hil.nang „i- 

Ask the i^ervant whether he swejit the Tumanong ca ea alila cun niualisan 
bath-room. na niya ang palig^an. 

So 18 also generally used with indici 
signifying pomting or aiming at, if the a 

.tive verbs, that is to say, thnse 
;tion, not the effect, is meant. 

To look at the sky. 

I aimed at the general. 

They point to the thief. 

We will ahoot (fire) at the birds. 

To throw arrows at. 

Tuniifigin ea lafigit. 
Tumurla acd sa yrneml. (Sp.) 
Tungmotoro sila sa magnanacao. 
Babaril cami ga maf^ga ihon. 
Magpana sa 

To wring, to twist. 
Tb turn, to retract, to fall hack. 
Ttorn your heart to tiod. 
To join, to approach. 
to turn one's hack to. 
To carry about along with, lo beua 
To be in a family way. 
To \>ear nngor, envv. 
To have feai-. 
To carry ahame along. 

Mihit, magpfhit. 

Maghalic, humahc, malic. 

Wagbalic cang Idob ea Diop. 




Dal4ng bata, tau6. 

Haling pilot. 

Dalang lacot. 

Dalang hiya. 

Ihtid is used in the sense of having over one, with words 
to Otiose in the examples and it may be conjugated by tnatf. 

This boy carries shame about him. 
To swtwn away, to be giddy. 
I 8wooIied away at the shock, stroke. 
To stop. 

To calm, to compose one's self, to 
grow calm. 

The wind grows calm. 
Noise, clamor, bustle. 
Be silent. 

To go to Manila, to go down the river. 
I shall go to Manila. 
I hold it to be good. 
At times, sometimes- 
Other times, at other times. 

Sometimes above, sometimes helow. 

To chew, 

Nagdadaling hiya it6ng batang ito. 


Yquinahilo co ang pocpoc. 

Huminto, maghintd. 
r Tumiguil, magtiguil, magtiguil. 

Titiguiltfgutl ang hailgin. 


Houag mag-ifigay. 


LniiJUiis aco. 

Ynaari cong mahut'. 

Cun minsan. 

Cun minsdn naman. 
\ Cun minstin sa itsa^, cun minsan 
f nama,i, sa ibaba. 


To chew 1>ftel nul.. 

To nibble. 

To gnaw. 

To K^sticiilHU', to maki* grimucti 

To smile baMhfully. 

To go l)CVonil, to tniiif-jiiercf. 


To be overcome, iiftii<.:ted with. 

I am overawed. 

To be present. 

The present time. 


Tlie past time. 


Futurity, the time to come. 

Ill the future. 

Finally, in a. word. 

In a few wordi^. 

According, according to. 

According to the censuE. 

According Lo this. 


N gumalot , figiimatii. 






Tabltin. (contraction.) 

Tinatablan aco nang tacot. 


Ang panahdng hinahorap. 

Sapaoahdng hinaharap. 

Ang panah6ng tiuuliediln. 

Sa paiiah<5ng tinalicdan. 

Ang panah<5ng haharapfii. 
) Sa panaboiig haharapin,6a panahdagfl 
( da rating. 

Sa catagang uica. 

Sa madaliiig nabi. 

Ayon sa, alinsunod ha... 

Ayon sa bilang nang manga tauo. 

Sa biigay na ilo, 


What must I do to obtain the pardou of my tret-passes.? If y 
to obtain the pardou of your sins, make a good confession. Do you write:B 
wheu you study? When I study I do not write. What does Joi^eph'a father* 
say to him.? He is saying to him, don't eat when writing, Did you eujoiaj 
the children not to sleep when iu prayer,? I did. Why do they stopfl 
there.? They stop there to see a ship under sail. Do you hold it tol 
|je bad to listen to obscenities.? I do hold it lo be very bad. 
your master repute it as a good thinj^ serve God,? Yes, indeed. Wherei^ 
do you go.? I go to Manila. When will you come back.? I shall come 
hack in the evening. Docs your son refuse to appear before his master.? 
Ho refused to present himself, for he fears pnni.shrnent. When will he 
I'ead Ibe bonk 1 gave him.? He will read it ne.\t Sunday. Do Americans 
think of going away.? They don't think going away. Why did yo 
reply to the priest.? I was overcome with shame. Will he make 
raction of bis insults,? He will retract his foul words. Why do yo 
turn the back to your wrongs.? Because 1 still bear anger towards my> 
enemies. Whom does that school-boy fear.? He fears his master. ViS 
the old woman swoon away.? She swooned away, hut she soon recoverec' 
from her fit and now is growing calmer. What bustle is that.? It ii 
the children that are romping about in the street. Did you tell them 1 
to be silent.? I told them to he silent. Do natives plot.? They plot i 
sometimes openly (publicly) sometimes hiddenly. Who use to chew tob-j 
iieeo.? Americans use to chew tobacco. Do natives chew betel nnL?J 
The majority do. Do mice nibble at the cheese.? Mice nibbled at tlil_ 
cheese. What is the dog gnawing.? It is gnawing a bone. At whond 
does that boy make grimaces.? He does not make grimaces at any bodyfl 
he smiles. Did the sailor go beyond The Cape.? He did uut go beyond, as 
he was overawed. What miracles did Jesus Christ work in former times.? 
He wrought many miracles. Are mirncles wrought at present,? No, tiiere 
are no miracles wrought nowadays nor probably will there be any in the 
future. What did he say,? I will tell you in a few words what he said. 
How many inhabitants are there in this town.? According to the censjis j 
taken last year, there arc ab'6ui "seven thousand inhabitants. 




Adverbs in Tagalog are not distinguished by any prevailing term- 
inafion corresponding to the English "ly", Those expressed by a single 
root are few when compared with those including composition with a 
prefix or some other separate self-signifying particle or word. Many of 
them have the adjectival composition of ma, others have the particle sn 
before them, there being also a number of adverbial clauses consisting of 
roots with particles or words either preceding or following them. The 
majority of adverbs if not all (monosyllables excepted) admit of declension 
and conjugation as is the case in Tagalog with most roots and even 
particles. Many adjectives and some prepositions and conjunctions are 
used adverbiallv. 


Of these, the following are simple: 

As, so, like. 

Purposely, knowingly, intentionally, 



Hardly, scarcely. 


Conjointly, as well as. 


As if selling. 

This lizard is like a caiman (is 


He did it on purpose. 

You are like me. 

It is hardlv sufficient. 

He has been especially summoned. 

Man as well as woman, the man and 

the woman too. 

Gaya, ga, para, paris. 

Ti(iuis, pacsa. 



Bucod, tafigi. 


Ay on, alinsonod. 


Gaboaya itong tocong ito. 

Tiniquis niya, pinagsa niyd. 
YcaOji, paris co. 
Bahaguia na magcasiya. 
Bucor siyang natauag. 

Ang lalaqui casabay nang babaye. 

The following are compound adver})s of manner. 

So, thus, that way. 
So, thus, in this manner. 
So, thus, as that. 
Finally, at last. 

Gan6on, gayon. 



Catapustapusan, cauacasuacasan. 

English adverbs of manner ending in *7?/" are generally expressed hy 
the corresponding adjectives. 





Mabuti, magaling. 


, Mahusay. 


Gaoin mong madalf. 

Balotin mong mahiisay. 
{ Ytinolac niya nang malacas ang 
( bangca. 

It is well to say, however, that not all the adjectives can be used 
as adverbs. In the latter, those, for instance, which are simple as lupit, 
olol, etc., are included. Of the ones formed with may those only denot- 
ing manner or degree are used adverbially; but not the others as maru- 
nong, mahaet, etc.. 

Some substantive roots are made adverbs of manner by preceding them 
with the particle sa. 

Slowly, iinderstandingly. 

Well, goodly. 





Do it quickly. 

Wrap it up carefully. 

He pushed the boat strongly. 

Openly, publicly. 
Hiddenly, secretly. 
Commonly, customarily. 

Sa hayag. 

Sa lihim. 

Sa ogali, sa eaogalian. 

Sa bait. 

Adverbs admit of a superlative degree in the same way as adjectives. 

Very carefully. 
Very well. 
Very badly. 
Very slowly. 

Mahusay na mahusay. 
Mabuting mabuti. 
Masamang masama. 
Ynot inot, marahan dahan. 


Many of these are verbal roots preceded by sa. 


Hera, hither. 

There, (near you) 

There, (at that place) 

Near, close. 

Far, far off, away. 

Within, inside. 

Out, outside. 

Before, opposite. 




On, upon. 


In the middle, midway. 

In the middle, halfway. 

By, by the side of. 

Sideways, on that side. 

Both sides. 

On all sides. 

Anywhere, everywhere. 

At midnight. 

We are halfway in the journey. 

My mother was close by me. 

He went abroad, on the other side 

of the sea. 

On both sides of the ship. 


Dito, dini. 



Malapit, sa may, sa sfping, sa tabi. 

Malayo, sa malayo. 

Sa l(Sob. 

Sa labas. 

Sa harap, sa tapat. 

Sa lieod. 

Sa itaas. 

Sa ibaba. 

Sa ibabao. 

Sa il^lim. 

Sa guitna. 

Sa paguitan. 

Sa piling. 

Sa cabila. 

Sa magcabila. 

Sa magcabicabila. 

Saan man. 

>Sa hating gabi. 

Na sa paguitan tayo sa paglacar. 

Napasasiping co si ind. 

[ NaparcSon siy^ sa cabili nang dagat. 

Sa magcabild nang sasaquian. 


The demonstrative adverbs of place may be made verbs also by vni, 
to indicate the voluntary standing of the agent at the place expressed 
by the adverb. fHingmidini aco, "I place myself here". The activ<^ 
sense is made by mag, magdiydn ca nang tinapdy, "put some bread there". 









Last night. 

The day before yesterday. 

Some days ago. 

Five days ago. 

Before, a while ago, just now. 

By and by, presently. 



Still, yet. 

Not yet. 


Constantly, continually. 

Suddenly, off hand. 



For ever, everlastingly. 

Never, no more, no longer. 

Often, frequently. 


Till, until. 

Formerly, anciently. 

Sometime, sometimes. 

Now and then, occasionally. 










Ngayon arao na it6. 

^ Oa, camaca. (particles indicating past 
( time.) 




Camacailang arao. 

Camacalimang arao. 

Cafigina, cafigina pa, bago pa. 

Mamea, mamaya, mameamea. 




Di pa. 

Toui, touitoui, cailan man. 

Palagui, parati. 

Caalam-alam, caracaraca. 

Bigla, sa bigla. 

Agad, tambing. 
S Magparati man saan, hangan cailan 
i^ man. 

Cailan pa man, caicaila,i, hindi. 

Malimit, di mamacailan. 

Mula, mula sa, biihat. 


Sa un4, sa dati, sa uning arao. 

Cun minsan. 

Manacanaca, maminsan-minsan. 

Bihira, madalang. 

Tanghali na, gabi na, hull. 







As soon as, no sooner than, on. 

Then, at the end, afterwards. 

Then, (at that past time). 

When, at the time of. (future). 


When, at the time of. (past). 

When, at that past time. 


After having. 

Sa, pagca, pag. 


Noon, nivon. 


Cun toui. 



Pagca, capag. 

Pagca, capagca. 



First, fir-^tly. 

Before, previous to. previously. 


Caihiii is niainly interrotiMtivc. 

When did he come.? 
Before, in the morning. 
Before, in the afternoon. 
He WHS here just :i "while ago. 

^.Cailan siya napari 6.? 
(■anginang omaga. 
('anginang tanghali. 
Canicangina,i, naririt6 siya. 

M(n)iea=mam(iy(U is mi(klle between (amhing and Hard. 

I shall write hy and by. 

We shall alwavs love each other. 

He died instantly. 

He prostrateil himself immediately. 

Eat immediatelv. 

God exists nb filter no. 

I never drink liquors, 
r often take baths. 

Susiilat ae6 mamea. 
j Magsisintahan catang dalaua oailan 
( man. 

Namatay siyjing bigla. 

Xagpatirapa siyang agad. 
) Cumain cang tamhing, tiimbiflgin mo 
i* (unnain. 

\ Ang Dios, ay Dios din magpaparating 
f man saan. 

S Cailan man aeo,i, hindi ungmiinom 
/ nang alac. 

Malimit aeong naliligo. 
They frequently committed sin against J)i mamacailan nagcasala sila laban sa 


From this dav on. 

From Thursday till Saturday. 

In former times. 

Tins child cries but rarely. 

My sister arrived late at mass. 

It is late, (in the morning). 
It is late, (in the evening). 


Mula ngay<5n, biihat ngayon. 

Mula sa Jueves hangan sa Sabado. 
. Sa onang panah6n. 
\ Bihirang tungmatangis itong batang 
f ito. 

s Ang a(iuing eapatid na babaye nahuli 
/ sa misa. 

Tanghali na. 

(la hi na. 

For the proper use of the conjunctive adverbs the following rules 
should be taken into account. 

Sa refers to a principal action immediately following the secondary 
one to which it is applied. It indicates rather punctuality than simult- 

.^ , . . ^i 1 u 1- r S ^a pagsabi niva nitong manga uica av 

On his say nig these words, he diecf. i ?' " & «? 

^ ' ( namatay. 

On their noticing the earthquake, they Sa pagcamalay ni d nang lindol, 

ran away. sila,i, tungmacb6. 

Pag refers to the subordinate action which it represents as accomplished 
or in progress with some other simultam»ous action. It goes with the 
possessive case of the agent and the accusative of the object. 

As soon as I told it to him. Pagsabi co sa cani\a. 

No sooner he went in. Pagpasoc niya. 

As soon as you greet him, come back. Pagbati mo sa caniyi moui ca. 

As my father went away, he arrived. Pagalis nang ama co, dungmating siya. 

On my arriving at the house, I Pagdating co sa bahay naquita co ang 

saw an innumera})le erowd. isang catiponan di mabflang na tauo. 

Pagca is used if the same sense and with the same construction. It 
points out the action as past and does not indicate simultaneity. 

No sooner he had finished the work Pagcatapus niya nang gaua, dinalao 
than he came to pay me a visit. aco niya capagdaca. 


After studying we shall go for ii Pagcapagaaral ^naniin, niagpapaoiai 

walk. cami. 

After striking nine o'clock, we shall Pagcatvigtog nang a las nueve, magpa- 

go for rest. pahinga tayo. 

Pagca is sometimes used for ''from", "since". 

From my infancy down. Pagcabata co. 

Capag, capagca refer to an action altogether past and perfect. 

After his having finished speaking, Capagcapangosap niya, nagyacapan 

they embraced each other. sila. 

rpr . . . V . T , T ^ Capagcatapus nang piesta, napasa- 

The function being over, 1 went home. ) u 'jT , ' 

After having concluded that, they Capagyari nila niyon nagmula sihing 
began to dance. magsayao. 

Capag and capagca are very important particles both of them referring 
to an action altogether past; capag ^ represents the action at the start; 
capagca, as aoomplished and perfected, and they may be rendered, respect 
ively, "on starting", "on having finished"...; but if the action is such as 
not to admit of duration, both partii*les may be used in the perfective sense. 

They should be considered in two ways: as present participles and as 
adverbs. As participles, they adhere to the verbal particle which the nature 
of the action requires, with the possessive case of the agent following. 

After his commencing to teach. Capagaral niya. 

After I began to study. Capagpagtiral co. 

After the priest starting to preach. Capagpangaral nang pare. 

After your having finished saying that. Capagcasabihin mo iyan. 

After mv having finished learning. Capagcapagiiral co. 

After his having finished preaching. Capagcapangaral niya. 

After his arriving. Capagcadating or capagdating niya. 

»f. I. • i.1. • \ Capagcay tapon or capagvtapon CO ang 

After my having thrown awavmv ring, s ^. ^ •'. *^. i e. r ^ 

•^ ^ . . & ^ aquing singsing. 

Capag, capagca and even payra and pag, as adverbs, are written separately 
in the sense of "when", "on," and may govern the nominative case of the 
agent, with the verb in the active, if the a cation is represented as present, 
simultaneous or probable. 

As soon as I receive a letter, I give Capag ac6,i, tungmatangap nang sii- 

an answer. lat, ac6,i, sungmasagot. 

No sooner do I get up than I take ) t> . . , . i-i- 

, ,, e r ' Pagca aco,i, nabangon ay naliligo aco. 

. • * 1 ( Pag ang aquing anac ay may labing 

As soon as my son is twelve vears ) i T * * ^ ° -r.- "^ • ' . 

old, I .hall make him Tvork. ' f'^^"".* "-' t*^""' V^^'^'^'^' «=" ^•y'i"g '"^g" 

' { trabajo. 

Pag is used with the negative in a a sense of menace. 

You shall see how I beat you. ' Pag hindi quita paloin. 

If fee' does ncTt- come I shall hot pay Pag hiridi siya pum'arini ay hindi co 

him. . • siyi babayaran. . 

Pag is used for actiye y^rbal nouns; pagca, for intransitive ones. . • 

The throwing down of bombs. * Ang pagh61og nang bomba. (Sp.) 

The falling down of the fruit. Ang pagoaholog nang bonga. 

• .♦ • • . .. i . • • • ,^ . • L^ 

Pag, applied to actions admiffing of time for their development, ex»» 
presses the action as going on; pagca, as completed. 


The growing light. Ang pagliuanag. 

The clearness of day. Ang pagcaliuanag. 

With regard to the government of pag and pagca in verbal nounr^, 
great care should be taken in distinguishing whether the person is active 
or passive as to the action. Any disregard of this rule may lead to many 
striking mistakes. 

The beheading of Saint John, (that > » , . ax 

is to say, inflicted on him) \ ^"8 PagPOgo* «»>• •">»" J"«"- 

The beheading by the executioner of ) Ang pagpogot nang mamumiigot cay 

Mary Stuart. ) Maria Estuardo. 

The birth of The Holy Virgin. Ang pafigaiiganac cay Maria Santisima 

The bringing forth of The Holy Vir- ) Ang pangafiganac nang Santisima 

gin. i Virgen. 

Sacd, as an adverb, indicates more futurity than mamayd, 

God made the skies first, and man ) Guinaua nang Dios ang lafigit, saca 

long afterwards. \ ang tau6. 

He laughed, and then? hataua siya ^at saca? 

C?//i, nang\ noon, niyon or niydon, as adverbs, cannot be used indiscri- 
minately. Own should be used in reference to the present or future tense. 

When I go to Maqila I shall buy a } Cun pumar6on ac6 sa Maynila ybi- 

hat for you. ^ bili quita nan^ .sambalelo. 

When Peter comes let me know of it. Cun darating Si Pedro alamin mo aco. 

Cun may be used with the past indefinite tense if the action appears 
as performed customarily. 

When I was in London, I went fre- ) Cun ac6,i, narordon sa Londres, na- 
(luently to play. ) pasasateatro ac6ng malfmit. 

Nang is used with all degrees of the past tense. 

When he came yesterday to visit me ) Nang ac6,i, dinalao niy4 cahapon, 
I was sick. i nagcacasaquit ac>. 

When my sister arrived we had al- \ Nang dumating ang capatid cong ba- 
ready eaten. S baye nacacslfn na camf. 

N6o7i, niyon, niydon, come at the l)eginning of a past narration. They 
lay stress en the epoch and not on the action. 

On that day the battle was fought. j ^^^^t.^"*^ "'^ "-^ "^"^•''''' " *"« ^*^' 

stili'^oTEiSh' ''*'"' ^''"' ^^"'* """^ \ ^^''' "*""*^ P* ^* ^"P* ^* J«sucri8to. 
BagS, as an adverb, always comes bef6re the verb. 

Before you marry think on it care- Bago ca magasaua pacaisipisipin mo 

fully. mona. 

Before you read, sweep the room. Bag^ bumasi. ualisan mo angsilid. 

Mona always comes after the verb and is largely used expletively. 

Do it first. Gaoin mo mona. 

Wait. Hintay ca mona. 

Eadleasly, ihcessantly, without inter- V^Hfig humpay, ual^g tahin, ualaa 
mission. licat. 

Firatly, in Grtit place. 
Forthwith, in the hvipiklinp «f an 

H'hile, in the meiin tinie. 
H'hile he 16 Htill alive, 
At nightfall. 

Oiia-oni, caonaonahan. 

\ Su sandah', siimandali. na U ng qiii.-^np 
/ niatii. 

S.I nmiitHla. haiigaii. 

HHiigan iiabubiihay tiiya. 

Tnqtiiji silim. 


How far 16 Manila.? "From here to Manila there is six mileB' dist- 
ance. Did ?he do it voluntarily.? She did. What shall I do.? Do as 
i( you were angry. Who made the table.? The table as well as the 
(.'hair were made by the carpenter. Will he do it in this manner,? He 
must do it in that manner. Which runs more swiftly; a sailing vessel 
or a steamer.? A steamer runs more swiftly. Do I write well.? You 
write badly. Why do you whip your servant so hard.? Because he 
purposely broke the pot. Are there anv people within.? There are no 
people within, all of them are outside. 1^ his house opposite the church.? 
No, it is behind the church. Id my brother above or below.? He is 
under the bed. Where do I put the trunk.? Put it in the middle of 
the road. Where are we in our journey.? We are halfway iu our 
journey. Where is the child.? The child is by his mother'w aide. Where 
is his farm.? It is at the other side of the road. Where is your?.? On 
both sides of the river. When do you intend to pay the tailor.? I intend 
to pay him to-morrew. Did you nut see the ship the day before yester- 
day.? No, I saw her some days ago. Were you last night at the theatre.? 
I was there a week ago. Are my friends here.? Just now they werr 
here, but I ihink they will come hack by and by. At what time shall 
I get up to-morrow.? Rise early. Have the servants already come.? 
Not yet. Are you always reading.? I have not the time, I am constantly 
working. When shall I eend for the physician.? Send for liim imme- 
diately. IXi you intend to remain here for ever.? I do. What did the 
priest sav in his sermon.? He said, sin no more. How many days are 
there from to-diiy till the eml of the year.? There are ."iitty five days 
till the end of the year. Did thic tree tiear fruit formerly.? It did and 
even now it fructifies occasionally. Does he often go lo school.? He goet^ 
to school rarely. How often does my sister go to Manila.? She goe.- 
tliere yearly. When will he write.? After having read this ]ett«r he will 
WTite. When did they become frightened.? They became frightened when 
they saw the snake. When will you go to bed.? I will go to sleep 
utter supping. When will your son study his lesson.? After hearing niiiss 
he will go to study. Did you see the cathedral.? Whenever ! go to 
Manila I visit (see) the cathedral. When does your mother drink.? When 
she eats she drinks. Why do you not read.? When I write I don't read. 
When did your brother-in-law arrive.? When I was writing he arrived. 
Why did not my cousin write.? Because your uncle had already written 
when your brother arrived. When did he go away.? As soon as bin 
father went away, he also went away. What did the count do when he 
approached the king.? On the count'a arriving before the king, he prostrated 
himself immediatiBly. Wljat did the king do after the count spoke.? Nii 
[iooner the count had finished speaking, he was embraced by the king. 
When did Tny T>rfitlier arrive.? He a.rrived after you went away. 'Whcrn 
fihajl I go.? Go to your yncle's and after your greeting him come back. 
When fehall we take a bath.? The mass O'^-er we shall take a bath. How 
did that come off.? On my friend's begujuning to speaks I swooned ;iway. 
What will the servant do before eating.? Before he eats he must g.T 
for water. \\'hich of this, bock; shal'. I read first.? Read that first. 



THE ADVERB, (continued). 

Notice should be taken of tlie adverbial verbs, that is to say, of 
adverbs which are made verbs and conjugated in various ways. The 
adverbs most commonly used for this purpose are those of manner, time, 
and degree. 

Gumaniyan, gumayaon or gumayon. 
G^itohin mo. 
8amantalahin natin. 

To act thus, (in that wav). 

Make it in this wav. 

Let us profit of this opportunity. 

I composed this book bv working at ) ^xa lu • • 

short intervals. " ^ \ tong hbro,i, minamaya maya co. 

Throw it away at once. Tangbiiigin mo ytapon. 

His fever increases. Lungmalalo ang caniyang lagnat. 

„ money is running short. Cungmuculang ang caniyang salapi. 



Little, somewhat. 



Too, too much. 




Almost, nearly. 

Except, but. 

Exceedingly, very. 


Do you write much.? 

I write but little. 

This is more than that. 

It rained too miich. 

That te sufficient. 

He neArly died. 

He is almost in destitution. 

Very rich, exeeedih^lv rich. 

Marami, hiblm. 


Lalo, higuit, mahiguit. 



Casiyahan, caiguihan. 


Catatagan, siya na, siicat na. 



Lubha, di sapala. 

Masaquit, mainam. 

^Sungmusulat ca baga nang marami.? 

Sungmusulat ac6 nang caunti lamang. 

Mahiguit ito ddon. 

Ungmolan nang labis. 

Caiguihan na ya6n. 

Halos siya namatay. 

Halos na sa cahirapan siya. 

Mayalnang lubha/xnayaman di sapiBila. 



Yes indeed. - . 

Of cours^e, no doubt. 


Co. ... . ... - 

_-Oo figa.naiiga. Bgani.- ■ . 

Siya nga, mandin, figani, mang}'ari. 


Most certainly. 



Will you go to the theatre.? 

Of course, why should I not go.? 

Totoong tot o. 


;. Paroroon ca haga sa teatro.? 

<:.Mangyari, an6,t, di ac<i paroroon? 




No, don,t. 

Not even one. 

Neither he not I. 

Hindi, di,. dili, uala. 

Hindi rin. 


Di isa man. 

8iya,i, hindi, ac(5 man, ay hindi rin. 





Then, perchance. 

Don't run lest vou fall. 

Perhaps to-morrow. 

Perhaps he will arrive. 

Perhaps it may be so. 

If you, perchance, see him. 

If, perchance, ho comes. 

If, then, he finds money. 

Say, -est, -s; said, -dett. 

Says, said he. 

Says, said Jesus Ohrist. 

You say, said. 

Saint Peter savs, said. 

Maca, baca, maca sacali. 


Cun sacali, cun bagii sacali. 

Baga, cava, sana, disin, diua. 

Houag cang tumacbo, maca maholog ca 

Marahil bucas. 

Marahil darating siya. 

Marahil ganoon. 

Sacaling maquita mo siyii. 

Cun bagii sacali pumarito siya. 
^ Cun siya sanaj, macaquita nang sa- 
( la pi. 

Ang uica. 

Ang uica* niya. 

Ang uica ni Jesucristo. 

Ang uica mo, ninyo. 

Ang uica ni San Pedro. 

Uica, "word;" is another root proper to be used verbally in an im- 
personal and absolute manner, It is generally applied to (luotations and 
requires the postpositive forms of the personal pronouns in the possessive 
case after it. 

Money, old people say, is the best Ang salapi, ang uica nang matatandd, 
friend. siyang lalong mabuting caibigan. 

J Ang otang, ang uica nivai, munti- 

( lamang. 

The debt, he says, is small. 


At some time, day. 

I truly saw it. 

Some day I will do it. 

In that very manner, way. 


Some way or other. 

Care, attention. 

Do as you like. 

Leave that to my care. 

To care for, to look after. 

To tend, to care for animate beings. 

To live, to possess means of living. 

To instil life. 

T9 pull off. 

Tanto mandin. 

Sa balang arao. 

TantcS mandfng naquita co. 

Sa balang arao gagaoin co. 

Casing gay6n, casing ganiyiin. 

Paano man. 

Saan mang paraan. 


Ycao na ang bahala. 

Aco na ang bahala niyan. 

Mamahala, magcalifiga. 



Magbiihay, magpabiihay, bumiihay. 

Miinot, mamiinot. (from biinot.) 


To commence, to start. 

Then, therefore. 

You alone were liere, then vou are 
the thief. 
Is it possihle.? 
Is it possible he died.? 
Some wav or other. 
Either for being tight or for l)eing loose 
the dress was thrown awav. 
Accomplished, perfect. 
The pith of wisdom. 
Most learned. 
The pith of purity. 
The purest. 
The hardest. 
Little by little. 
To stop, to halt. 
To halt here and there. 
Don't stop there. 
Well and good. 
Welcome!, welcome to you. 
Lucky, to be lucky. 
Unfortunate, to l>e unluckv. 
If I have good luck. 
He was unlucky. 
To think it just. 







Does she think the practice of virtue 


She thinks it sweet to bear grievances 

tor the sake of Jesus Christ. 

The north. 

The south. 

The east. 

The west. 

The wind blows from the north. 

The wind blows from the south. 

North-east wind. 

North-west wind. 

This road leads to the west. 

To take off one's hat in reverence. 

Why do you not take off your hat in 

reverence to the priest.? 

To invite, entertain. 

To take leave of. 

To dress, to put on clothes. 

To chaiis^e clothes. 

) Mamuno. (from pono, "commence- 
1 ment.") 

Diyata, caya figa. 

Vcao lamang ang naririto, cava figa 

icao ang magnanacao. 


^, Diyata baga,i, namatay siya.? 

Sa higpit at sa louag. 

Sa higpit at sa louag ang damit ay 



Sacdal carunungan. 

Sacdal nang diinong. 

Sacdal calinisan. 

Ang sacdal nang linis. 

Ang sacdal nang tigas. 

Sacdal dilag. 

Onti onti, inot inot. 

Maghinto, humintd. 


Houag cang humintd diyan. 


Di siyang sahimat. 

Salamat at dumating ca. 


Sam-ing palad(from noma) 

Cun ac6, i, pinapalad. 

Siya, i, sinama. 

Matapatin marapatin. 

Mahirapin mabigatin. 



^Minamahirap baga niyi ang paggaua 

nang cabanalan.? 

Minamatamis niyu ang pagtitiis nang 

hirap alang-alang cay Jesucristo. 

Ang hilagaan. 

Ang timugan. 

Ang silafiganan, sihifigan. 

Ang calonoran. 

Hungmihilaga ang hafigin. 

Tungmitfmog ang hafigin. 

Sabalas, nordeste, (Sp.) 

( Ytdng daan it6,i, tungrautufig6 sa da- 
( cong calonoran. 


^,Baquit hindi mo pinagpugayan ang 


Mamiguing, magpiguing, magy^pae. 





Has the tailor much money.? He has but little. Why do you not go 
to-night to the meeting.? I cannot go, I am somewhat ill.? Has the car- 


p«nt«r more iiaile than hammer?.? He Im^ less hammers than nails. Have 
you too much hiitter.V I have not enough. What time i? it,? It is nearly 
noon. Did Ihey all go.? All of them went, but him. Does it thunder 
hard.? It does not thunder, but it rains hard. Are you the Mend of ray 
Mend.? Yes, Is it true he paid,? It is, indeed. Are you a merchant.? 
No. Shall we go mass.? Neither you nor your brother must go. Why ahoulil 
I not do this.? IJou't do thut, lest yoQ hurt yourself. Will he come.? Let 
him come. Dit you t'hanco to have some money about you.? I don't know, 
if, perchance, I have some I will give it you. What is Faith.? Faith, Bay the 
holy fathers, is to believe what we have not seen. What is the amount of 
Peter's debt.? Petor'a debt, says my son, amount to thirty dollars. Did yon 
speak with the soldier about that business.? An agreement, he says, has been 
arrived at. Did you, then, speak to binn.? Truly, I did siwak to him. When 
will he write to n^.'l He will write to you, eaid he, some day. Will you marry 
her.? I will raarry her anyhow. But have you money enough to do Ihul.? 
\o, but some way or other I will do it. How.? I^eave that to me. What 
does the ."tervant do.? He looks after Hwine. Is your grandfather still alive.? 
No, he is dead. What miracles did Jesus Christ work.? He gave life to 
many. Does your sister pull oH her hair.? She does. Is it possible.? She 
is mad, so she does many foolish things. Is bis mother virtuous.? She 
ia the very pith of virtue. Is your servant dirty.? He is the dirtiest. 
How shall I write the letter.? Write it little by little. Does their servant 
walk quickly.? He walks very slowly, he halts here and there at every 
^hop. Did you thank Mary tor her present.? I thankeil her. Who is 
ihere.? Our friend i» here, welcome Frank!. Where do you go now.? I 
am going to the gambling room to see whether 1 am lucky. How did 
you come out in gambling? 1 was unlucky, I lost all my money. I>on't 
you think it bard to lose money in that way.? I don't think it sweet. 
What quarter does the wind blow from.? It blows from the north. Where 
does this path lead to.? It leads to the southern shore. Whom does 
that child take off his bat to.? He takes off his hat to his master, Did 
your fath;r invite him.? He did. Have you anything else to say.? No, 
I now take leave of you. What are you doing there in the room.? I am 
dressing myself. How often do you change clothes.? I change lo clean 
clothes everv week. 




The pliable condition ol Tagalog words to perform the functions of differ- 
ent parts of speech applies largely to adverbs, prepositions and cunjunctions. 
The mutual relations of words are expressed in Tagalog in several ways, only 
the purpose for which the words establishing the relations are made use of. 
according to the systematic division established, by grammar, serve to clasify 
them as adverbs or prepositions. Some of these aptly illustrate the diffi- 
culty of classifying Tagalog words according to the parts of speech usually re- 
cognised by grammarians. The nominal ligaments too, sometimes stand in 
Tagalog for prepositions. 

To, at. 

Before, facing. 


Near, by. 

With, along with. 

With, by, through. 




In, at. 



Towards, to. 

Till, until. 

To, as far as. 



On, upon, about. 


. Sa, cay, caua. 
Sa harap, sa tapat. 
Sa ilalim. 

Sa mey, sa. piling, sa siping. 
Sa, nang, cay, cana, sabay, acbay. 
Nangy dahilan sa. 
Laban sa. 

Nang, sa, ni, cay, nin^, can^, na, ng, g. 
Sa, nang, g^ling sa, mula, mula sa. 

Sa, sa guitna, na sa guitnd. 
Dapit, daco, sa daco. 
Sa, cay, cana. 
Uala, ciilang. 

Sa, nang, b^gay sa, tongcol sa. 
Sa licod. 

Sa, as a preposition, is for every case of a common noun, except 
the nominative, and the vocative (nominative of address). It should be 
put before the object of )x>s8es8nu£^ and not before the possessor when used 
in relation to the possessive cff&6. Sa is exclusive for the dative. 

The depth of the river. 

I wrote to the priest. 

This plant is for the garden. 

He is shooting (aiming at) wild boars. 

We shoot (arrows) at birds. 

Thev look at the stars. 

( Ang sa Hog na calaliman, or, ang ca 
( laliman nang flog. 

Sungmulat ac6 sa pare. 

Ytong pananim itd,i, sa halamanan. 

NagtuturM siyd sa bdbuy dam6. 

Pungmapana cami sa mafiga ibon. 

Tungmitifigin sil^ sa mafiga bituin. 

Sa governs the local ablative mainly indicating place, no matter 
whether the verb denotes rest,^ motion or direction. 

I pray at homp. 

This child trfea greatlv at bchor 

He sleeps in Wd. ' 

We shall play in the garden. 

They sralked in the road. 

Xqu^o tp.pelm.. 

The .^qj is- bound for Munil-d. 
?hir rijdfd Isads lo the bearh. 


Nftgdadaeal ac6 ■ sa- bahory. 

NagtatafigiH it6n^ bata sa eEuueiahfln.. 

Satotolog Kiya sa hihiguan. 

.Vtagl&lard tayo su halaiuatian. 

Naglacad Mila an ddan. 

Napiipar^ii ciiyq aa Cebii. 
\ Tinigmotongd ang HUflaquian '(or aii^ 
' daiiong) fa. MajTiilu, ' ' '- -"- 

^ Tiingmotofigo ija.dalaaipiit«ig itOHg da- 
) an it*. 


hue 1 

_ - _ . for -prup«r iiuunt^ of persons what m is for iwimniun unei^, 
iVhat has been isaid of »« in the poeaeesivf cawe holdu good also fwr,.cHy. 
Due allowance should be made for the local ablative, ae persons are hot 

\ Avg ciiy Jiiaiig biihay, iing bithay ni 

/ Juan. 

\ Ang cay Mariang caniyum, ang carii- 

f yom ni Maria. 
Cay Antonio yafing baro yadn. 

I Hindf aed bungmibili cay Diana. (l>et- 

j ter). 

( Hindi si l>iuna ung binibilhan co. 
Tungmangap ijiyii nang pflac cay Ro- 

Tinangapaii niyS Si Robinson nang 

John's hoime. 
Mary'e needle. 

I gave fiowere to Jane. 
That shh-t is for Anthony. 
I don't buy 

from Diana. (Chinese 

He received Hiemonev from RobiiiBt 

Cand is my lor the plural of eompai 


The estate i>f tlie Wallacei 

fimith. Bell A Co's werehouw-s. 

The book iii for Arthur and hie family 
He viaited the Garcia family. 

He ran for the Wbeatley*. 

Your sister went out with her aunt. 

I walked along with my friend, with 
George, and with the La Rosa family. 
He was by the tree. 
I did it through charity. 
Blasphemy is a sin against God. 

\ Ang cauii Wallace na biiquid, ang 
( biiquid nina Wallace. 
i Ang cana Hmith Bell na ma^ga ca- 
< malig. ang mai^ga camalig nini! Smith 
f Bell. 

Ang libroji, canii Artitro. 
Dungmiilao siya canii Garcia. 
I 8ungmondrt siva cana Wheatlev. 
i (better). 

( Sinond6 niya sina Wheatley. 
( Ang inydng capalid na babaye ung- 
f malts casabay nang caniydng alf. 

Naglacad acd caHama nang aquing 

(;aibigun. ni Jorge, nina La Roea, 

Nariyan niya sa may cahoy. 

Gninauii co dahilan i-a aua. 

Ang pagtotoflgayao ay capalanang 

laban sa Dios. 

Nang, as a prepobition ggverning the poasos^ive and objective (dir- 
ect object) case, has been £0 fully treated of in foregoing chapters as to 
dispense .Ttitb. ihe. need offurtht* explar.atione;- JVan;? .(prep!g!^tdon',-)-g6- 
veraing the: ."aUftUv.e: -yate dftocrtes- the instrument whep-tite latter -has ■ ilOt 
heen expressed in the proper passive form of the verb. 

Cover that with a mat. Tacpan mo ivan -naag '.hantg. - ■.■■ 

^V>\y did my mother do Ih 
a needl*.? 


tu ii Baqiiit guinaua ni ini ito aanp 1 

■ carayom.?, or, ibaquit ang j-gHinana 

r ni ina nito ay ang carayom.? 

He is prattled hy every body. Pinupuri siya nang lahat. 

They killwl the cock-roach bv stamp- t „■ , ■ „-i ■ - „ . 

■'. - ' . rinatay nila ang ipit- nang yapac. 

He obtained the office through the Nang mamagiiitan nang caniyangama 
influenre of h'w father. ay quinamtan niya ang e^tungcoUn. 

The English preposition "of is lrant<lated into Tagal'>g several w»ye. 
When denoting pofeesfion it ie always tranelated by nang, n», »tnii, 
placed before the possessor (but a.ftcr the thing of posseBsion) or by an, 
my, rand, in the manner above explained, according to the former being 
represented by a common, a pergonal or a companionship noun. 

The ear of the dog. 

JoMBph's IxHjk. 

The house of the Maka' 

Ang taifiga nang a.m. 

Ang libro ni Jose. 

Ang buhay nina Mackay. 

The name is the case if the relation is mertdy adjectival. 

The bank of the river. 
The glory of Heaven. 

Ang tab] nang ilog. 

Ang caloualhatian nang laagit. 

For translating English compound nouns having the propoiiition "of" 
nnderstoo^l between their members, the following directions are given. 

If the relation ie one of matter, the two members are tied together 
by the nominal ligaments, the matter coming after the thing. 

Htone house. 
Gold ring. 
Silver looking-gl 
Steel pen. 

Buhay na bat6. 
Singling na guinto. 
Salaming pflao. 
Plumang patalim. 

If the relation is one of origin, the placing of the two worda in the j 
i^ame order may be sufficient, the ligament should be used if the word ] 
ends in a vowel, although *n is generally introduced without any ligament. 

Berlin flowers. 
I locos man. 

Bulac-lac Berlin, bulaclac sa Berlin. 
Ta6ng Iloco, taud tj& Iloco. 
\ Pacquit Calamianes, pacquit sa Cala- 

The ligaments stand for "of in the relation of ( 

Two pecks of rice. 

A glass of water. 

A pitcher of cocoa-nut oil. 

DalauAng salop na bigas. 
Itang vasong tubig. 
Ysing tapayang larigis. 

aliio expresses application or the use a thing is intended for. 

Prayer-book, book for praying. 

Mas? garments. 

Libro sa dasal. 

VaEo sa tiibig, inoman. 

Damit &a pagmimija. 

Hangav is used both for time and plst 

Prom to-day until to-morrow. 
From here to Cavite, 

Biihat Sgay6r. hangacg bticae. 
Mula dito hangin »a, Cavite. 

Other prepuoitionh are translated according to tlu-ir iense in ihe way I 
already explained. . 

He forced a pasiage among the crowd. Snngmagasa.siya sa eaxaaihaii. 

louBe and the gardei 
The path towards the forest. 
The dog without a tail. 
He speaki^ about the marriage. 
The house behind the church. 


\ Sa giiilni (paguitan) nang bahay at 
f nang halamanffti. 

Aug landae pa dacong giibat. 

jVng aeong oalang (Or culang) bontot. 
\ Nflfigofigosap piva longcol r^a pagaa- 
I fiiua. 

Ang biihav la. Itcod nang fcimbahan. 



How delightful to listen to the Mnging 

of birds. 

Terrible, ghastlj'. 


Gloomy, Horrowfwl. 


Gallant, courageous, \-ictorions. 

To tear down, to cleave. 

Her house is a place of reworl for 

many people. 

Hell is a place of torment for sinu- 

Wh.v do you not place thofie chairs 

facing each other.? 

Put also the two beds facing each 


Why had you thit* child chastised.? 

Because he made light of me. 

Don't laugh st the ]>oor. 


('atouatdua, caligajigaya. 

Caligflligaya paquiflgan ang huni nang 

mai^ga ibou, 



Calumbaylumbay, ciilunoslunoo. 




Ang bahay niya,i, bahay na piiiapa- 

panhican nang maraming taud. 

Ang inipieruo, ang pinaghihirapan 

naug manga macai^alanan. 

^Btiquit hindi mo pinagtatapat iyang 

manga upoan? 

Pagtapatin mo namiin ang daluuAng 


^An6,t, pinahampas mu it6ng bata.? 

Sa pagca,t, aod.i, pinafigieihan niya. 
i| Houag mong paglibaquin ang mafiga 
/ duc-ha. 


Why is Ann alwaya at the wiiidaw.? She i>^ always at the window, 
because she likes to we passers-by. Why do you change to new clothes.? 
I change to new ulothea, l>ecause I must go to church. How many time? 
does he undress himself every day.? He only undress himself on going 
to bed. Is he empowered to imprison me.? He has no power (autho- 
rity) to do that, don't fear, he can do nothing to you. How can that 
be.? It cannot be. Why cannot it be,? Becauwe it cannot happen. 
Am I very sick.? No, you can still recover. Is he wise.? No, but he 
can still become wise. How will you reward me.? I have nothing 
with which to reward you. What has hapjiened.? There was an earth- 
quake yesterday and our house tumbled down. Where is God.? God 
is everywhere. Where is Jesus Christ now.? Jesus Christ is now in Heaven 
at the right of the Father. Who in happy.? The man who is in the 
r grace of God is happy. Where is Peter's house.? It is at the middle 

I of the cocoa -plantation. With what did he 5ew his trowsers.? He sewed 

k them with a needle and some thread. With what shall I make this.? 

I Make it with an auger. Whoje ^hips are these.? They are Wise & 

H Company'o, Shall I write thsltttar in pencil.? Ye&, write it in pencil. How 

B did he kill the wild boar.^ Hi Mlled it with a spear. How are the houses in 

H 70ur town.? All of them but thfte are nipa houses. Have you bought any 

B gold ear-rin^,? 5*6, I have Bought three wooden images. From where 

B are thobe piet»t.-"CiE furftitu^ri " They are Vieftna furniture. Wha' 

B kind of shell i& '^t.? It.'is Gsvile shell. How many pecks of rice did 

B you sell.? J-5old three pdckfc oi rice and two bottles of wine. Where 

B ie the rice-^Bt.? The fiCe-pftt is at the corner of the table. AVhich, cat 


is your friend looking-for.? The three-legged one. Which is the most 
courageous among you.? The most courageous is Henry's friend. Do 
you wish to go by this pirogue.? I don't wish to, it is a pirogue where 
many embark. Is there anything more horrible than an earthquake.? 
An earthquake is, indeed, a horrible thing. Id John's house high.'? It 
is very high. How many houses has your father built.? He has built 
three. Are they nipa or stone-houses.? Two of them are stone, the 
other is wood. Do you like to live in a nipa-house.? Yes, indeed, how 
delightful it is to live in a nipa-house. When do you go to your friemli? 
I will go to him next Sunday. . ^1 

. J. 

■» % % 

<• • • • 

. • 

• • ■ ' * 

• • • 

* A* • 1 ♦ * 



Many wurds and particleu which we are already acquainted with as 
udvttrbs or prepoitition» are likewise used as conjunctions for connecting 
two Bcntencwi or words in different ways, only their function in the sentence 
ur clause serving to distinguish which part of speech tliey are. 

The following may he claawd aw. 



As well aa, holh, likewise, i 
Also, even, likewii<e, heside(. 
further, turthermori'. 
Not only hut. 

At. ay, ni, nang, sacA. 
Puti, sampon, saeit, sabay, chbi 

Hindi lamang. 

At is well known an a copulative conjunction 
ms or imlei>endent sentences to each other. 

. cundi hagcuii. 
ving to link two 

Ang liifigit at lupa. 
Is all nf them \ ^"^ mafiga angeles [^p.), ang mafiga 
< tau6, at ang mafiga htiynp ay parapu- 
( rang quinapal nang Dior. 

Tungmotogtog at nagaauit siya. 

Heaven and Earth. 
Angels, men, and animal 
were created by (iod. 
She plays and sing," 

Ay, the verhal ligament, may lie used as a copulative conjunction 
at the beginning of an interrogative sentence, aa connecting the sense to 
a mental reflection or to something previously said or understood. 

Well now, why dites he refuse.? 
And then.? what.? 

<;Ay baquit 
^Ay sac4, an6.? 


As has l>een already nald in foregoing lessons it is a peculiarilv of 
the Tagalog language that two nouns, two pronouns, or a iwrsonal noun 
and a pronoun may ht! linked by the particle of the poRseesive case. In 
the latter case the pronoun, if in the singular, should be put in the plural. 
In the case of two pronouns joining, the order of first, second and third 
person should be kept, by naming first (in the plural) that which stands 
first in rank although they be differently constracted in English. These 
forms are however becoming obsolete and replaced hy the mora natural 
ones used in Spanish. 

Henry and Mary. 

I, John and even my father. 

You and George. 

He and I. 

Enrique ni Maria, 

Cami ni Juan at ang amu ( 

CayiS ni Jorge. 

(Jami niyd. (not sila co) 


Ye and tbey. 
Mar J- and 1. 
He and his f«th^ 

Cay<i jiila. (not fila ninv-0 

Oami iii Maria. 

.SiU nang canjyatig aiiiii. 

Sard is usfd at thr end of ti ttiinl 1101111 

laid on the time elapsed. 

At BIX o'clock my father end I ar- 
rived, and at nine, the judge. 

She bore a child m 18K5, another or 
1886, and the last in 1900. 

L Cami nang ani:i co,i, ilun':mating nang j 
< a las >4eJ8, sactl nang a lai> nueve ay I 
f dungmating ang hocom. I 

t Nanganac wiya noong 1885, naAganac 
' < n6ong I88G, naca nang cahulihuli ay 
f 1900. 

Pati, Mampon, ruMihdy, a» ix>pulfttive conjunptionf, arf more emphatic j 
than at and denot* an idea of a closer connection of the words or aenten- 
ces they serve as a link to. They are Bi)metimea used to avoid repealing i 
ni and for the Hake of euphony. They govern the nominative case unlew ( 
the noun they link ia preceded liy the article, in which cask, they general- 
ly govern the ixis^eaaive. The n of mmpon may be dropite<l before a 
word l>eginning with the same letter. <n) 

Soul t 

'ell 1 


\ Caloloua pati cataouan. 

/ Culol^ua »ampo nang cataouan. 

T. .L .1. ij - .1 u L 1 .u I Ang guJntjS sa simlmhan pall nang I 
Both the gold in the chnrch and the 1 •■'^ '^ . .■ . - :■ - " I 

-ilvcr in the house i '"'"*■ *"' ^'^'"'>'- ^"« ^""116 «a su 

silver in the house. ( ^^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^^ p.,^^ ^^ ^^^^^^. 

Even what he eatP, he borrows. Pali' nang quinacain ay inodtang niy 

The coward and even the brave a'l Pati nang manga matapang sampfi i 

of them fled. nang maflga douag ay nagtacbohan. 

The night is atill, and the ^ea iiiealm. Tahimic and gabi, ang dagat ay pa- 

and the breeze is mild. yapa, sampd nang haf^gi,!. amihan. 

NnmAn and pa are postpositive conjunctions, and fttt 'k' sometimes u^ed J 
for expressing surprise, or reluctano* to do something. 

Also yon shall be punished. 
And rtill I am to go there.? 
i could not do it, and you can.? 

Vcao nama,i, parurusahan. 
^Acf^ pa ang parorrton.? 
Di CO nagatia, ;.icao pa.? 




To-morrow o 
I will pav. 
You or i; 



to- morrow 

Maguin, 0. 

Bucas usa macalaua nv 


Yciio aco. 


al the en. 

in alternative s.'ntcncfs. 

ll ilcmUet 

This month or perhaps in June. 

Sgayrtng briu! 

1 .hinio caya. 

Dili, an an alternative conjunction in aloo placed at the end. It io-l 
cludeH the conjunction and the negative ariverb and it; generally euployedl 
in interrogative sentences putting forth a dilemma. 

Do you wish or not.? 

Shall I accompany you or not.? 

^Ybig mo, dili.Y 
/.Saaamahan quita, dill.' 

Man is always a postpositive particle which only differs from i(i7i 
the latter having an interrogative use. 

Whether he g<ws «r nn 
Whether he says tl <-i- 1 

Haguin in used 
conjunction "either.. 

Either at my house or al yours; we 
shall apeak nhnut tlie matter. 


Paroitn man si3'ii di man siya (lahkiti. 
I wliai i~ili:il Sii.hihiii muii ili rutin niyi sabifiiu /.ay 
anhin tn<i. ? 

tlie mHnlle^ aJrendV eSplu!iii-d, (.ir thii dorrehltive 

Maguing 9a aquing bahay maguin^sd 
[ iyo, ningooHa|J tayo tongool sa liiigay 

i-bati print t): 

Neither, nor, 

it Maniia i.r New-Yi.rk [ \ ^"Kuing ch Maynila m.igiiiiig Sf 
- * ,. „ ,1, ' ' ■, Niieva-York ypatilinilmK I'n itnuj 

( librong ito. 


Though, althouglj. 
In spite of. with nil tijat. 


■ Neverthelesf, h< 
ing, yet, still. 
Although if. 
Or else, otherwi 

\ Nguni.t, cunili, datapi^ua, !~ubali, alin- 
1 tana. 

Man, hindi, rin, ut hindf rin. 

Cimdi, hagciirj, mona. bago. 
\ Man, l)agaman, bista. matav man. 
f cahit, cahiman. 

\ Man. gam'ion man, gayitn man, ga- 
I iiiyiin man. 

; Subali, datapoiia. 
Sucdan, maviipat, matiiv. 

All the adversative conjunctions ending in a vowel, rujuU and jinlihhann 
excepted, take the contracted form of at after them. Pnlihhana is followed 
by y—i, the contraction of the verbal ligament up. 

Nfitini, rajuli, datapnnn, aubnli, ntinUma are all ufied for every sense 
of the Englisli adverxative conjunction "liut". Sguni if used in the soh- 
ordinat^' sentence, generally in answers, and ia not proper to start a sentence. 

I .l,nnl,l like to eat, but I cannot. ( ™8 ™ ««n«n8 .onmiin OgumM, hmdi 

' I aco mangyayari. 

I .■ 1,11-1 , I . L- S Naqnita co siva, ftguniM, hindf en 

1 saw him, mit I (hd not Mpenk tn him. I . j indsan "^ 

fVwrff In also for (lie subordinate sentence and generally requires 
the pricipal one to he negative. 

It is not a male, hut a female child. Mindf lalaqni, cundf babave ang bata. 

ThiK I, not a fib,l.nt the verv ttulh. j ^'M', '"'"'''' ™»"'™l!«li%«n, enndt 
I catotolianang ganaji. 

: and i;* uned to make the I'onlraBi 
t Mayaman siyii, data|>dii)i. 

Datapoiia if somewlial ernphatl 
more noticeable. 

He in rich, but 
Don'l scorn <>td 

i palad. 

i Houdg ca magpaualang halaga sa ma- 
< Figa magiitang, dnla|)Hiua.l, purihin mo 
f sihi, 

not having a 

Vbig >-o saniinghumili oang daaiit. i 

Me wan cured, hut with all that he died, (iuinamot siya. alintana.t, namatay. 

Man and hindf rlu are correlative conjunetioiv.s used i>oHtjM)sitividy; 
ynan, generally, in the first member, and himlt rin, in the last, when the 
latter is employed for the sake of a ^^reater emphasis. 

Neither I nor vet hr. Aco man, siva man hiudi rin. 

We have neither betel not even tobacco. Uala cami. tabaco man, mamin man. 

Hindi rin may come at the beginning of a sentence when used as an 
emphatic negative adverb. 

However wise we may be, we cannot < ^.''^'^ f."°"S mardnong camf ay Hindi 
conceive (sound) the essence of God. \ Sj^^;**'" "'***'^ *"^ pagcadios nang 

Cundi^ hagcm, the latter e8j>ecially, are used in the sense of **rather/ 
and both of them may join in the same sentence. 

Whatever your condition may be, do Cahit an6 ang pagcalagay mo, hindi 

not give yourself up to despair, but mo pagpatiuacal, cundi bagcus mani- 

rather trust in God. uala ca sa bios. 

Not only he <loes not gain (earn), but Hindi iamang di siya naquiquinabang, 

rather he loses by the trade. » cundi nanguiigulugui pa siya. 

Not only not sound, but rather, ill. r)ili gumaling, bagcus sumama. 

liaganinn, hintd, rnatdy mum, cahit^>^.ahi^t, and the compound nifUmnn 
or rahimnt come* before; maw, after, the* word they refer to. 

John, though poor in money is rich in Hagaman si Juan, ay duc-ha, sa puri 
honesty. naman, ay mayaman siya. 

Hintd, hiHtii.t, hiatal is more formal and its use is rapidly dying away. 

rpi .II- -41 u -11 I Bista,t, siva,i, nagdadaldng p<Sot sa 

J hough he is angry with me, he will > . 4./.' •^'^ |. • » Vr 

^ ^t ^ "^ { aquin, av bibiguian dm niva aco nans 

give me the money. ) ^y^^' . *- . & 

Matdy man is emphatic and may stand for '*ever so much'*, with a 

Think I ever so much about it, I can- Matay co man isipin, hindi ac6 naea- 

not understand it. tatalastas. 

Though my earnest desire was to come Matay man a<»6 nacaibig parit6, ay di 

here, my strength failed. co macayanan. 

(UthH and its compounds are used in the same way as niutdy man. 

Although I be cudgeled. I will say Cahit ac6,i, hahampasin, uaia acong 

nothing. sasabihin. 

1 will go though he may not consent Cahima,t, di mayag siyti, paroroon 

to it. din ac6. 

Though he is rich, he is a miser nev- Mayaman man siya, siya,i, maramot 

ertheless. naman. 

r .,1 . • ^ -4 r xu ♦ ^ Hindi aco 'magbabavad sa iy6 ga- 

I will not pav vou m spite of that. < ^ ^ f^ . j s 

' - - * ( noon man. 

PaHhhana is used for ^since," *' whereas;" it is followed by y=— i and 
shares somewhat of the nature of causative conjunction. 

Whereas my neigbour trespassed, I Cun ang capoua co tauo ay naeasasa- 
may also sin, sinee I |am as frail la, macasasala naman ac6, palibasa,i, 
as he. ac6,i, tauong niahina para rin niya. 


Whereas He \i- God He can do every- Nacapangyayari sa lahat, palibh^^aj, 
thing. '^iyH,i, Diop. 

Sucddn^socddn is uj?ed in the sense of **no matter that," "be that as 
it mav." 

Be I first satiated no matter if I get ill. ^ Nngpapacabiinog nio.m acd, .sncdan 

^ f aco,i, magcasaquit. 

I tire, be that as it may. Babaril aco sucdan anong manyayari. 

Maya pn^^ mayo pat is very little used in a sense of surprise and reluctance. 

What, because I drank I must pay.? ] ^Mayapa.t, acd.i, ungminom ;.caila- 

' f ftgang na acong magbayad..'' 

Go, or else I will say it. PaF^on ca, cundi sasabihin co. 


Why.?, what for.? ^Baquit.? ^baquin,? ^an6,t,.? 

Therefore, as, so. Palibhasa, baquin, di baquin. 

Since, whereas. Yiman, hamang, yayamang, at. 

Why not. Baquit hindi, di. 

Because, for, as. Sa pagca,t„ at, ang, dahil sa, baquit. 

Hence, whence. Manaa. (lit., behold!) 

The interrogative adverbial conjunction "why" is expressed either by 
hdquii — baquin or by and followed by the contraction of the copulative 

Why did he send so manv books.? \ ^ "«<!"'." "a«P«'J*'»a '^ij" "«»« giydn 
•^ ' ( marammg libro.r 

Why do you look for the black hen.? j ^^h^;^; .,'""''*"^"''^ '"'* ""'^ "'^**'"'' 

If the sentence is both interrogative and negative and the form with 
a no is employed, the latter may be suppressed. 

Why did he not come.? ^.At di siya naparitd.? 

Af ano, ay at, ay a no are inquisitive expressions for **what of,?" **what 
about,?" "how is it about.?" 

What about your law-suit.?" ^.At and ang osap mo.? " ■"' 

And the marriage, what.? Ay at ang tungcolsai)agcasal^ayano.? 

How is it about the money.? ^,Ay and ang salapi.? 

Baquit also denotes "as," "how". 

As you are also a rogue. Baquit icao ay tampalasan naman. 

And so, how do you not do it.? ^Ay baquin di guinagaua mo.? 

Now, do you not see it is nonsense.? J buhae-hai?^^ ' ™^ "a^^ a"g iy^j>' 

Since (whereas) you broke the plate, Yaman or yayaman binasag mo ang 
pay for it. pingan, iyong bavaran. 

Because I laughed, he became angry. \ Jt/"^'*''*' '"'^^'^ "»?«*«"«' "'^galit 

T. • • . i_ t" • 1 \ Hindi ac6 nacapapar6on, at ac6,imav 

r cannot go, because I am sick. . . J ^j^rn* ^ . 

She refuses', because he is old:*. .' Nanayao siya, ang siya,!, matandina. 

He dof 3 not pay, Jpr he is .poor. Di siya nagbabayad at siya,i, mahirap. 

You did not bflievp me, before y<^ur Di mo acd ^inaniuala'an, mansa ang 

disgrace. cahirapan mo. 


Sa may al^o he a ruusative conjunction. 
As he (lid not come. I went there. Sa di 6i.%a napanto. naparoon aoo. 


li. Oun. 

Provided. Cun lamang, houag lamang. 

\ Cundf ]amang. lihan na, cun diri la- 

/ mang. 

I^st. MacH, bjica. 

Were it not for. Dafigan, cundangau. 


Cun and cundnngnn etc. generally come before the nominative cahe. 

-, , , , 1 4 1 ^ Cun icao ay auayan niva, houag cang 

If he ijcolds you, do not l)ecome angry, j ^j^j.^ij^ j j • © e 

If he looks for you. Cun hanapin ca niya. 

Were it not for him I 8hould have ) Oundufigan 8iya hinaini>a« cata. 

Were it not for Our Lord Jeeu8 CJirist Cundafigan ang ating Paiiginoon Si 
having redeemed us, all of us should JeBUcristo ay tsungmacop sa atin, ta- 
have certainly been damned. yong lahat ay napacasama rin. 

The following illustrations will show the use of the other conjunctions of 
this group. 

I shall give it you, provided you do not Bibiguian cata, houag lamang sabihin 
say it. mo. 

•,'.,,. 1 T 1 u;,« ^ 1 Hindi siyaparoroon, liban nasasiva,!. 

He will not go unless I order him so. I Q^g^n co 

T^ ,i , . « 11 ^ S Houag cang tumacb6, maca mahdlog 

Don't run lest you fall down. j ^^ orrmaca icao ay mahdlog. 

Go quickly, lest dark surprise you on Pardon cang madalf maca magabihan 
the road. ca sa daan. 


Well then, that is the reason why. Caya caya figa, yayamang. 

Consequently. Diyata, sa macatouir. 

Inasmuch, in so fas as. Yayamang. 

That, in order that. Nang, upang. 

That. Na. 

You have lH»en called, sinc^ you are Timiuag ca, yamang icao ay magaling 

well, go. paroon ca. 

As he ha. no farm, he leases one. \ ^ujJJ'^S' ""'" ''•"''"^ ^"'"''*' ""^' 
I £,aw him yesterday, consequently Naquita co siya cahapoD. =^d maci'.- 
f therefore) he did iiot embark. tour hindi ^iya sungmacay. 

He i-an do it inasmuch as he is Mangyayaring gaoin niya' yayamang 
king. siyi,\i, hari. 

The most important conjunctions of this groGp, ajje Tiang and n^. 

He says that I slept. yagsasabi 6^^ ^a ^^,i, nat61og. 

Be virt-.iou= that vou ciav be happv ' ^it.^/*^^^,^^?»«« m^gcapalad. 
hero and in the liic t. co^ ^ ■ ^^^^^^^^ '^'^ " '*"* ■-^'^. *='^^'- 

Allow your^li to be cured in order M^gpagamdt ca, nang iciio ay gunia- 
:Hat you "may recover. _ ling. 

A, the contratted form of the article aitg, is prefixed to the poBsesBire 
case of Douns or of the perboiial proDoims, in a verbal Bense, the same as 
"tea, when quotation of or reference to Ihe words or eavinge of such pereons 
or texts are to he expresKed, Honiewhal aft*r the defective "quoth" in English. 

God says, ur said. 
Peter tuiys, or tsaid. 
The Holy Scripture says. 
Saya, or said he. 
.Tesus Christ mys, said. 
Says, said'the-Apo^tlr. 
I say, Haid. 
They say, said. 
\Ve say, said. 

N is inHert£d for eiiphonyV 
vowel, OB seen in ntiaqwiii, ttUi. 

Huoundrel; vile, mean fullow. 
laeue, result, consequence. 

Aiiang Diop. 

Ani Pedro. 

Anang Hantong Sulat. 


Ani JesucrislP- 

Auang apcistol, 



Ananiin, anatin. 


the V" 


begins with 


Who went to ^(jhooL? Clara and MatiMe went t« school. Did ymi 
t.asf* the wine I sent you.? Yes, I have already tasted it. And what, 
do you think it good.? No, I tbtflk it bad. Where do you go.? I am 
going down to the garden if you bermit me. Do you permit me to go.? 
Yes, but don't gather any fruit, because it is still green; let^t you feel 
pain in your teeth. Where shall I sit.? Don't be seated on that chair. 
for it is broken. How did Lincoln die.? He died assassinated by a 
fanatic a sad and terrible thing tlie death of so great a man was.! Did 
he commit sin.? He will rather die than am. What do you want that 
chair for.? I take it for my friend to sit on. Why iloes he affect to 
practice virtue.? He affects to he virtuons that lie may be praised. Why 
do you not wash your face every day.? "iiecause the water is cold. Wlial 
did you order me to do just now.? Run for the priest and in case 
you should meet any acquaintaUce on iho street don't stop to converse 
with him. Why shall I not tftlk with him,? Because it is a very pres- 
sing business. But I have to go to Henry's. Well then, if you go to bim 
don't tarry there. Do the tree* you -planted, already fructify.? They do 
not yet fructify; Irtit they already b!os.iom. What does your father say 
to you.? He st\y« do not go to the forest lest you be assaulted by high- 
waymen.? WImt,? Do not go up into that house, lest there are some 
people above. What.? Do not rim lest your mother Ijeut you. Why was 
he afraid.? He feared, lest he should lie heard. Will she write to me 
every month.? She will write to you provided she is not busy. Who 
is mad.? Either her father ie mad or she is a fool. Will he come or 
not. Whether he comes or not, i& nothing to me. Did they both go.? 
Neither the one nor the other went, VVill you also go.? I would rather 
pay a fine. Did you not hear your brother is a scoundrel.? Although 
he may be a =iioundrel, he is not i rebel. Did you learn your leaeon 
by heart.? Though I study much I cannot learn it. Wo».lii they come 
Ji I offer them ---ome money,? They would not come even in epite oi 
that. Are you resolved to fight. him.? I will fight him thoagh I be 
killed. Do you know that J haire been beaten at play.? Vou did no* 
mind ce. behold the iisu>: now. . Will you visit my mother, since you 
are here.? Since I am her^ I will \-i.-ii her. Why did not the serx'^nt 
bring my horae.? Because you jaid notbisg to "him about, it. 




Among the Tagalog words serving as interjections, nbd, aroy and ina 
CO (the latter contracted into ixaco^^nacu,)^ which natives profusely employ, 
are the most important. Ahd is used for wonder, surprise, cheer, pain, 
warning etc., and it would be difficult to exhaust its meanings. 

O dear me.! jAha.! 

Alas.! jAba.! 

Alas, poor me.! jAba co.! 

Alas, poor thee,} warn thee.! jAba mo.! 

Let us go.! jAba tayo!, |ab» tayo na.! 

Well!, did I not say to you not to jAba! idi co uica sa iyo na houag cang 

go there.? par6on.? 

How!, did I not 8av 8o to vou.? \ i^bil idiU gayon ftga ang ninica co 

* ' ' ^ sa lyo.r 

What!, what is the matter.? ;Aba!, ian6.? 

Aroy or ardy is exclusively for sudden or intense, pain. 

Oh,! woe.! ;Ar6y!, iaray!. 

Oh,! this pain.! < iAroy!, jmasaquit.! 

Yna ro is an exclamation importing surprise or wonder. 

Oh mother!. iYnii co!. 

Oh mother!, the rain, (how hard it j y,,. , ^,,^, 

rains!) ) * > r> 

Among many other exclamations, the following are frequently in use. 

Oh how ! iAyaai. (always postponed^ 

Oh, how pretty!. jButi ayaal. 

It is a pity!. j Say ang! . 

What a pity, so much money lost!. jSayang ang saiapi gay6ng marami!. 

Would to (iod!. jCahimanuaril, jnaua!, |maanong!. 

Cahiwananari and maancn<j are used before; naud^ after the verb. 

Would to God you might attain Heaven Cahimanauari macamtan mo ang lafigit 

Would to Gfod he would die. Maanong siya,i, niamatHv. 

Would to God he may come. • Dumatirg sij^a.naua!.. 

Be cjuick.r . .. -. -^ .. • iDali.! .-. ." '. * . 

Away. I •*•• • iSliJong.! ' "• - . ' 

.Back.! . ,. .. ..** iOrong.f ..^ 

Beware.' _ . . ....* l... . iTabi! '.' 

Hush,! silen(r**.; ' *' * '"iHouag maguiflgay/ 

B# Mlent.! iHouag cflng mag-iiigay.! 

Poor thiiit!.- 
Oh (loil.! 

[Buti ilgu.! 
;(!!a:iua aiiii.! 
iAv l>iow t^o! 

Ayda, Inifula art- little in use nuwadavfi and are puatiiositive interjec- 
tions [iro|M;r to fxpresii wyml«r. A-i/da. is more In use bv women; lm}ia't. 
by men. Both of them may coiioiir ia the phniaii, hupdn precciling. Uy 
render the expression more emphatie. 

How pretty.! 
How great.! 
How lieiiutiful t*' see! 

iDiquit ay^.! 

[Laqui bapiia,! jlaqui bapiU, ayaa.l 

jGandi hapaa panoorin.! 

When the thing object of wonder is expresaed, the setjond n of hajid 
ayd is transferred to the end of the admirative dauae. 

Oh how good thia ia 
Oh how sweet that i 

[Oaling bapu nitd a.! 
iTamfs aya niying a.! 

Hyperbolical expresaluns can be made with pagra, and, ra, put tiefore 
the rcwt in the jxissessive case. Ca and pagca are used prefixedly. The 
root may be re}>eated tor the sake of greater exaggerative nense. 

How immenee the sea is.! 
How pretty these flowers are.! 

How the atars glare in ;i still nigb.l! 
What a crowd,! 

;Pagcalaqiii naug dagat.! 
( )Pagcadiqnit<liquit nitdng maAga bu- 
/ ladac! 

^ jAn6ng pageaningning nang maAga 
r bitm'n sa iping gahi'ng tabmiie.! 

jOaraming tauo.I 

Ae exelaniativp expressions may a.'.so be conaidered those formed 
with the pri'fix m and the repetition of an adjective or affective verbal root 
ill the way In h\: explained in .su^>se<|uent lessons. 

How tall.! 
How long.! 
How pitiful. 
How gbx)my. 
How amiable 
How horrible 





Caibigfbig si Juana. 

C'aquilaquiUbut ang camataya 

Imprec^ativn^ are greatly in fashion among natives, livery tense, 
but especially the past or the imperative, is maid use of for the purpose. 

May a caiman swallow (liee.! 
May the sea glut him.'. 
May a flash (thunderbolt) strike you.! 
Would to fiod they would die.! 
May a snake sting you. 

jCanin ca nang boayu.! 
jLamonin aiya nang dagat.! 
ITinamaan ca nang Untie! 
jMaanong mamalay sila.l 
jTuquin ca nang ahas.! 

To bury. 

Biirving place. 


To thruat in, to drive inl 

To carry on one's back. 

To endeavor, to force. 

To melt away, to melt. 

Melted lead. 

Decrease of the moon. 

To ojien, to lay open, t 

Maglibing, magbaon. 

Tumiric, magtolos. 
Mamas-iin, mapas-»n. 
Pumilit, magpilit. 
Matdnao, tumdnao. 
Tonao na tJAga. 
Tonao na houan. 
MamucMlb, magbucas. 


Order that I he admitted in. 

Order them to uncover the image. 

To join, to collect, to put t^getlu»r. 

To amass, to put on over again. 

To mix, (certain suh.^tances t^) make 

up a Ix^verage called nalahat). 

An amassment of misfortunes. 

A medley of curses and foul words. 

To bend, to bend back. 

Twisted horns. 

To twine, to twist, to curl un. 

Winding way or passage. 

Twisted thorns. 

MiscelaneouB things. 

Variety of colors. 

Trap, snare, slipknot. 

To lay traps for. 


To walk for amusement. 

The public place for walking. 

Substitute, delegate, successor, sue- ) n \ yy 

ceeder. ^ 

The priest is the delegate of God. 

To substitute, to act in behalf of other. 

To plead for. 

Intercessor, mediator. 

The patron saint. 

To feign, to personate others. 

To dissemble, to counterfeit. 

To please. 

To despise, to scorn. 

To augment. 

To elate, to become proud. 

To exalt one's self. 

Pahncasan mo ac '». 

Pahucsan mo ang larrinan sa eanild. 

Ma*<tipon, inag-i}»on. 


[ Magsalabat. 

Susonsusong cahirapan, 

Salasalabat na sumpa,t, tungayao. 


Balobaloctot na sungay. 


Licolicong daan. 

Licaolicao na tinic. 

Sarisaring bagay. 

Sarisaring ctilay. 



\ Magpnsial. (corr. from Sp. word panear. 
) "to^take a walk"). 


Ang pare,i, ang cahalili nang Dios. 




Ang pintacasi. 



Magbigay l<Sob. 

Magpaualang halaga, magaliposti. 



Magmalaqui, magmataas. 

He who wishes t<, please God must J i."?,:*''"^."? ungmifbig magbigay loob 
endeavour to nhun sin. ^ ^'"^ ^^^''^ magpumiht umilag sa 

f pascacasala. 

To inspire compassion. 

To cling to. 

To cling to, to grasp at. 

To be downcast. 

To transpire. 



To mow. 

To mow rice. 

To clear a wood. 

To transport, to carry. 

To bite, to sting, to peck. 

To sting by gnats. 

To nibble, (by fish at the bait.) 

A snake stung me. 

Gnats are stinging about. 

Do mosquitoes sting you.? 

Yes, and they bother me. 

Tortoise shell. 

Sea tortoise. • 

To tuck up the sleeves or petticoats. 

Why do you tuck up your pantaloons. ? 



Cumuyapit, mafiguyi^pit. 

Cumapit, mafigapit. 




Lilic, pangapas. 





Tumuca, manuca. 

Sumiguid, maniguid. 


Ac6,i, tinuca nang ahas. 

Naniniguid ang maf^ga lamoc. 

^.Sinisiguid ca nang mafiga lamoc.? 

Go, at aco.i, sinasactan. 



Magi ills. 

^.Baquit ca naglililis nang salaual.? 

To hreaV through, to run over, linwn 
T<i hold, lo wield, to handl.-. 
To trfimplfi, to tread on. 




Who are there.? The children of our neighbour. Why did you admit 
them.? Away.!, my master is angry, backl, be quick.! How.! Beware,! the 
buffaloes come on. Have they already finished the work.? They have. 
Bravo.! Do you know what has happened.? No, what.? The Chinaman's 
horse ran over your friend's child and he is dead. Poor thing,! what a pity 
not to have my gun on hand.! Where are the children roaming about.? 
In the corral. You, naughty people, be silent.! Drive them out, fury;! they 
are stamping on my plants. Did you notice how beautiful his female-cousin 
is.? Yes, and how modest she is ton. Have the labourers already planted the 
stakes for the enclosure.? They ore still carrying them. Where did you 
bury your child.? This is the place where we buried him. Who bore the 
coffing? His schoolmates bore it. What is that the Chinaman is melting 
there.? He is melting wax. Have you already laid your cheat open.? Not yet. 
Order it to be laid open immediately. Why are co many people gathering 
together.? They assemble to welcome the Judge. Why does the blacksmith 
head down the point of that spear? He bends it down to make a sickle 
out of it. Where did they buy the thimbles.? They bought them at a shop 
of miscelaueous things. What have you in your garden.? I have a variety 
of trees and Bowers of various colours. What do you set traps for.? I net 
traps for the monkeys. What bait do you employ to catch them? I employ 
cocoa-nuts as bait. For whom is your son a substitute.? He is a substituU' 
for his cousin. What saint do you plead before as an intercessor to God.? 
S&int Patrick Is my intercessor. When is the feast of the patron saint of 
this village.? 8aint John if the patron saint and the feast is on fhe 24th 
of June, Whom did the thief impersonate.? He impersonated an officer. 
Whom did he deceive by artful contrivances.? He deceived many people. l< 
riding pleasant to you.? Riding and swimming are very pleasant to me. Dock 
hedespiseher.? He does not despise her. Are priests despised by everybody.? 
They are honored by worthy people and despised by the wicked. Why did that 
man become so proud.? Because his fortune has beep augmented by an 
inheritance. Is it on account of that that he exalts himself.? It is on 
that account, but he inspires compas»«iun and hia action inspires shame. 
What is the matter.? There is a man being drowned in the river. What 
.■hall we do to save him.? Throw that log out to him for him to cling 
to. Has he grasped it already.? No, but he is going to grasp it, he looks 
downcast. Did the bu.sinpss transpire.? It does not transpire. Where iw 
the deer.? It got into the hush. What is that sickle tor.? It is for mowing 
rice. Is it not to mow grass or to clenr wimkIs.? No. Where does he carry 
that straw, (chaff)? He carts it to the enclosure. Have yoii been stung by a 
snake.? No, but I was stung by gnats. Are there any tortoises in this river,? 
There are a great many. Are their shells good for anything.? They are 
good for many things. Why did Ann tuck up her petticoat on crossing 
the road,? Because there is a great deal of mud, 




Most of th(^ particles have been noticed in speaking of the verb, but 
there are some that have likewise a nominal or adjectival use. Some others, 
which are not verbal, enter into composition for various purposes forming 
idioms and other peculiar ways of expression. Although explanations and 
hints about some of them have already been given occasionally in foregoinjr 
lessons, a separate study of all is now subjoined, anything relating to par- 
ticles being very important in Tagalog. 

AX, ('A. 

A)i, (hail, when the last vowel bears the sharp accent) is always a 
sufhx and the most important one. It is a)>plied conjointly with the prefix 
ra to adjectival n)ots ])\ir])orting a quality, to form the abstract noun for 
such quality. 





Noble, dear. 



Bad, naughty, 













Large, long, groat. 






) Naughty ness, 
S cruelty. 












Length, greatness. 




> Tampalasan. 

















Catampalasanan . 

Cahung-haiiga n . 














This composition is likewise used to form collective nouns. 

Hoy. Young people. 

Christian. Christendom. 

Jshmd. Archipelago. 

Earth, (material). Earth, world. 


Cristiano (Sj).) 





An^=^han, without ca, is appended to a root having a nominal or verbal 
force to form the place or the instrument on which, not by which, the work 
is accomplished, using the future t^nse for those roots admitting of con- 
traction, or beginning with I. 

To bathe. 
To put into a harb- 

To spit. 
To eat. 
To drink. 
To strike fire bv 






Steel or instru- 




percussion or rub- ment for striking > Pinqui. 


To lie down. 

To* put into. 

To worship. 

To make cock? 


To pasture. 

Mud, dirtiness. 







First, anterior. 

Last, posterior. 

To wrap up. 


Bed, couch. 

Storing place. 


J Cock-pit. 






Quagmire. Pusali. 

Sugar plantation. Tubo. 
Bamboo-grove. Cauayan. 

{ Cocoa-nut planta- ) xt- 

{ Banana planta- ) a ^ 

Pillow, bolster. Olo. 

j Pedestal, foot- ) 
( stand. 


J Paa 


S Back, hindermost ^ tt ^ 
1 I Hull. 

( place. <! 

Bundle. Balot. 


















The future tense of the an passive should also be used in other con- 
jugations with such nouns as indicate places which carry along with 
them an idea of futurity or potentiality for the actions performed thereon. 

To baptise. Baptistery. Binyag. 

To preach. Pulpit. Pangaral. 

To sentence, to Hall where a court ji .r i 

. , \ • 1 -1 L MaKhocom. 

pass judgment. or a judge sits. ) ^ 

^ S 1 au g h t e r i n g- ) T.^ . , 

,.!«.. ^ ^ Magpatay. 

To kill. 
To hang. 

} j)lace. 






But if the verbal root is intmnsitivc in character, ca should be used 
and the first syllable of the root repeated. 

To stumble. 

To fall. 

To slide, to slip 


Stumbling-p 1 a c e ^ 
or place- or thing ^ j^j ^ 
serving as an ob- j 
stacle. J 

fall down. 


Slippery place. Marula$. 



The stiidefit shoifld "notice thai in most nouns thus formed fro6i a verbal 
root, the str€.>ri oi the accent* i>'on the la^t* vowel: Thi*.- i>, In ntk'ny ca>es 


to draw a distinction between the person or the place. Thus pangangara- 
Ion means the person to whom something is to be preached, while panga- 
ngarnldn, is the place, to say, "the pulpit." 

An comes at the end of a diminutive noun or of those things being 
not real, but represented by any graphic means or of which one speaks 
in contempt. 

Little bird or the figure of a bird paint- ) ybonibonan 

ed or drawn. i 

Human figure painted or despicable Tauotauohan. 

person. ) 

Petty king or person who plays the Hariharfan. 

role of a king. ) 

Canopy, ceiling. Langitlangitan. 

Quack, empiric in physic. Medimedicohan. 

God, idol. Diosdiosan. 

Sometimes, an applied to a noun root converts it into an adjective 
of a characteristic quality in a somewhat augmentative sense. 






) Large-nosed per- 
/ son. 

J Ylong. 







Broad shouldered. 




ij Large - mouthed, 
( charlatan. 

^ Bibig. 


(7((, is another important prefix word-building particle. 

Ca, as has been said, comes before roots importing companionship, 
likeness, reciprocal ness or conformity, to indicate one of the corresponding 

Companion. Casama. 

Commensal. Casalo. 

Fellow-passenger. Casacay. 

Inmate, one of the persons living at / p k u ' 

the same house. \ ^asangDahay. 

Contrary, foe, one of the quarelling J p . 

parties.' \ ^^^^^y- 

Assistant, aiding party. Catolong. 

Competitor. Catalo. 

Playing-fellow. Calaro. 

Equal, fellow officer, ofiicer of the same ) p 

rank. S '^^^^^*'^' 

To scorn, scorning-party. Tumuya, catuya. 

Namesake. Cangalan, casafigay. 

Face-resembling. Camuc-ha. 

Equal, similar. Capantav, cahalimbaua. 

Resembling thing or partv. \ Catulad; cahalintular, cahambing, ca- 

^ ® ^ ' ( uafigis. 
J ourney-f ellow-passenger. Calacbay . 

Contemporary, of the same age. Ca^panahdn. 

Drinking party. Cainom. 

The first syllable of the root is sometimes repeated. 

Fellow-villager, compatriot. Cababayan. 

Scorning party. Cabibiro, cabiro. 

Ca comes before the quality root, object of comparison, if it is put 
at the ehd in comparative sentences with ga. 


As hard as stone. Gabato catigas. 

As long as this. (janito cahaba. 

As tall as that. Ganivan cataas. 

As sweet as sugar. Gaasiical catamis. 

How old is he.? ^,Gaan6 siya catanda.? 

Ca is also used as a particle expressing past time with some roots 
importing time. 

Yesterday. Cahapon. 

Last night. Cagabi. 

The day before yesterday. Camacalaua. 

Ca has a limitative force when applied to roots of numerable things. 

One hand f u 1 . Caracot . 

One piece, only one piece. Capotol. 

Ohly Dne palm, (length measure) Carangcal. 

Oie Atop only. Capatac. 

One p^r^o^i only. Catau6. 

In a word. t^a catagang uica. 

One loAd only. Cadalha'n, cadalahan. 

Only two t)ersons. * Dalaua catauo. 

Ca mAy be repeated to express a greater degree of limitation. 

Absolutely one piece. Cacap<$tol. 

Absolutely one person. Cacatau6. 

This limitative force of co is also applied to actions which require 
time for theif accomplishment. The sense imparted by the English verb 
'*to have jitat" may be expressed this way in Tagalog. The first syllable 
of the root should be repeated in this kind of expressions, with the subject 
in tpe possessive case, for these are passive clauses. 

He has just come down. Capapaniiog pa niya. 

I h^ve just arrived. Cararating co pa. 

They are just gone out. Caalis lamang nil^. 

We have but come upstairs. Capapanhic lamang nam in. 

This same construction may also be made to mean "no sooner than," 
**afl soon as," "immediately," etc. 

No sooner did he start speaking than ^ ., . . ... ^ ^> 

. • • J * 1 ( auiuica niva.i, nagcamali na. 

he was miscarried. ) . ' t* 

As soon as I arrived there, 1 was ) r, ... ^^ i ^^ , : „ ': 

. , * E Casasapit co doon ay pmacain aco. 

given food. ) ' 

immediately that he left, he saw you. Capanao niya dito ay naquita ca niya. 

The same construction (that of ca and the repetition of the first syllable) 
with the subject in the nominatve case, serves, in actions admitting degrees 
of Intension, to exhort, to excite to do the work in the manner most 
energetic possible. 

Pray most devoutly to the Holy Virgin Cahihifigi cay6 sa mahal na Virgen. 
Beware,! be careful, be cautious. Caiif^gat cayo. 

Behave most judiciously. Cababaet cay6. 

It has been seen in the preceding lesson that if ca is prefixed to an 
adjectival root and the latter is repeated, exclamative adjectival expressions 
are formed. 

How amiable.! Caibigibig. 

H(tw pitiful.! Ca^abaghabag. * .. 


How disgusting.! Cadumaldumal. 

How admirable, wonderful. Catac-hatac-ha, catacataca. 

How prodigious. Caguilaguilalas. 

Thij< same arrangement forms some adverbs or adverbial expressions of 

Suddenly. Caalamalam. 

All at once. Caguinsaguinsa. 

Off hand. Caracaraca. 

Ccr, in this construction, it should be noticed, carries the sense to the 
highest degree of intension and it is even applied to some roots of things as 
in cataloctalortocan which means the very summit of the mountain, the peak. 

Is there any spring yonder at the sum- Doon sa cataloctaloctocan nang bon- 
mit of that mountain.? doc na ya6n. ^may batis baga.? 

Ca with the suflix nn=^hnn forms the sujierlative degree of adjectives, the 
root being repeated as already explained. 

This is very precious. Canjahalmahalan ito. 

Very savory. Casarapsarapan. 

Very obscene. Cahalayhalayan. 

Very good. Cabutibutihan. 

Some adverbs of time are formed in the same manner. 

Lastly. Catapustapusan. 

Finallv. Cauacasuacasan. 

The repetition of the root may be dispensed with if some adverb or 
word importing time comes in the expression. 

To leave for, to go away. Panao, mamanao. 

To carry away. Magpanao. 

To exile. Magpapanao. 

This very week I shall leave. Capanaoan co itong lingo. 

When he was on the point of dying. Niy6ng camatayan na ni}a 

When he was about t6 kill them. Niy6ng capatayan na sa canil^. 


Do you wish to accompany me.? Yes, I will accompany you, whore 
do you go.? I am going to fish whith a rod. \Vhy do you scorn your 
fellow-citizens.? I don't scorn them. But vou find faults with them, do 
you not know it is improper to find faults whith others.? What do you 
admire most.? I admire the marvelous things made by God and espe- 
cially I admire the >)eauty of the stars on the skies. Can they be trust- 
ed.? They cannot be trusted. May not thev then Ixj intrusted with 
that business. I don't know. May I still become healthy.? Y^ou may 
J- till get healthy. Can you go to Manila.? I cannot go to Manila^ for 
I am ill. Can your brother go to Manila.? He cannot go to. Manila, 
because he is very busy. May this medicine alleviate the suffering of 
the patient.? It may alleviate it. Where is -tbe nobility (aristocracy) of 
this town.? They are at church. Has this house am" > bathroom, ? ■ There 
is here a bath-room for grown up people: young people i)athe>-fkt iht 
river. What do natives use for drinking.? Natives use cocoa-nuts as 
drinking vessels. Where i? the .pedestal of this iniage.? It is •i&'4lie ^cell. 
Where do the native people ass'em'ble.? They a>semble at the 6bok-pTl. 


Doe? your Iriend own any sugar plantations.? Ho does not own any sugar 
plantation, but he owns two cocoa-nut farms. When did you arrive.? 
I have just arrived. Wliere is your master.? My master is just gone 
out. Did you see her husband.? He had just got into the house wlien 
I saw him. Do you wish to dine with us.? No, I have just dined. 
What shall we do.? Think on it carefully and bo on your guard. What 
has happened to you.? No sooner did I start walking than I stumbled. 
Where did you slip down.? There, there is a slippery place and I came 
across a place full of stones. Did you find the b«ok.? As soon as I 
started looking for it, I found it out. How long is it.? It is as long 
as this. Is that wood hard.? It is as hard as stone. What a bat is 
it like.? It is as a bird when flying. Whom are you conversing with.? 
I converse with my fellow inmates. Whom are you going to take as a 
companion for the journey.? Your enemy. Are they orphans.? They are, 
how sad it is to be an orphan. Did you taste pineapples.? Yes, how 
sweet they are.! What do those people do at the beach.? They are 
bathing, how indecorous to see male and female people bathing together. 
Did you swim.? Yes, I did, how amusing swimming is. 






In is a prefix, a suffix or an insertable particle; /*/«, its more sonorous 
form, is alwa3'8 a suffix. 

In is prefixed to or inserte<l in nominal rootn to form derivatives 
denoting resemblance or sharing of the properties possessed hy the root. 

41 . I i Anvthing cut up ) 

A berrvjoctogonal ) . - .*^i . • 1 !i f o i- i- 
, *' ^ < in an eight-sided > Halingbing. 

in shape. 



Night scenting Anything resem- ij ^ 

rtower. hling such flover. \ ' * *** ^* 

Verdure, culinary Anything sharing ] 

vegetables, gard- in the green> Giilay. 

en stuff. colour. ) 

V ,1 \ Needle pointed^., 

Needle. . * ,• Caravom. 

/ rice. ) 

To boil rice. Boiled rice food. Saing. 

To spin. Spinning thread. Sulid. 

To boil meal, A sort of fritters, i , . 

our. any soft pap. \ ^ 

To knea<l. Bread. Tapay. 








The first syllable of the root (as for the present tense) should be 
repeated for anything which is permanent in kind, as these are but participial 

Father. Godfather. A ma. 

Mother. Godmother. Yna. 

o 1 1 4 i Stepson or step- ) . 

hon or daughter, l 1 ^ i . , ^ c Anac. 

^ ( daughter \ 

\ Half brother or ) ^y 

\ sister. \ 

\ Some woman who ) * 1' 

\ stands for an aunt. \ 

\ One's b r o t h e rV i tt^ 

\ mistress. \ ' ^* 

Brother or sister. • 






Ill, either prefixed or inserted, is the well known form of the past 
participle which, generally, stands for the direct object. 

The sweetheart or the beloved person. Ang sinisinta. 
The esteemed person. Ang minamahal. 

The already known person. Ang quinocoan. 

My property, what is held aB mine. Ang inaaquin. 

Others* projierty, their property. Ang quinacanila. 

What is yours, (plur.). Ang iniinyo. 

The same composition is likewise used to mean the passive effect of 
some destructive agent. 

What is destroyed by mice. Ang dinadaga. 

„ „ „ „ ants. Ang linalangam. 

Bananas are done away with by ) y„^„^^ ^^^j 

crows, ravens. ) o © © 

Every present or past stage of a bodily complaint is expressed by the 
root of the latter with in either prefixed or inserted. 

Itch, mange. j from^itch^" ^"'^^ \ Gsi\i». Ang guinagalis. 

Person who has \ 
Small-pox. suffered from> Bol^tong. „ binol6tong. 

small-pox. ) 

The same is the ease with the root of any limb or part of the body 
capable of being affected by pain. 

Stomach. Sicmura. 

John suffers from the stomach. Sinisicmura si Juan. 

Breast. Dibdib. 

I suffered from breastache. Dinibdib ac6. 

In or hin, is suffixed to roots of the above said complaints to express 
their suffering either at some future time or if they appear as chronic or 
habitual, forming, in the latter case, nouns expressive of the pijitient. 

( Person who will 

Gout. < be afflicted with } Piy-\ Pipiyohin. 

( gout. 

Itch. Itchy, scab. Galis. Galisin. 

Asthma. Asthmatic. Hica. Hicdin. 

The same may denote a defect. 

Small-pox. I small-pox. ^ ^ i Bol6tong. Bolotongin. 

T« 'A J (Person bearing ) ^r 4. ac * '• 

Lippitudo. hippitudes. ""jMota. Motam. 

Belly. Big-bellied. Tiyan. Tiyanin. 

In or hin, suffixed to verbal transitive roots stands for the thing or 
work which is the result of the accomplished action, if the verb admits of 
the in passive for the direct object. 

To sew. 

Needle work. 



To eat. 




To drink. 




But if the thing on whieh the work remains patent is meant, the av 
passive particle is used. 

To embroider mats \ \ . ^ i Sabat. Sinabatiin. 

( drawings on. ) 

TT S Cake made with ) t> 1 . i>-.. 1 * - 

Honey. | honey. \ ^^^^^' Pinolotan. 

Egg. Pie .with eggs in. Itlog. Initlogan.' 



The same com^>o:^ition ih eui]>loye<i for what is left behind as oflfal by 
the effect of i>*ome actions. 

To mow, to reap. Stubble. Gapas. 

To cull, to chooHe. Refuse, offal, dregs Pili. 

To cut out stuffs. Cuttings, clippings Tabas. 

To pick r a 1 1 a n 8 ^ ij 1 . . ^ 

quite clean. ( Peelings, parings. Cayas. 

) Pinilfan, pinag- 
( pi If an. 

^.Quinayasan, pi- 
( nagcayasan. 

If the root denotes a passion, an act of the mind or an involuntary 
action, the root should be prefixed by wm, the particle for adjectives, M'ith 
the same composition of in-hin suffixed, thus forming frequentative adject- 
ival nouns which are, for the most, acute in accent to distinguish them 
from the corresponding tenses of the verb. 



Bias, liking. 



Laugh, smile. 



If the root 
degree is meant 

Forgetful ness. 






^ Ten der hearted ) . 
I humane. \ ^"^- 

Loving, affection- i Sintii. 

ate. ) Iiog. 

Amateur. Uili. 

i Longing, caprie- ) ^r^. 
( ious. ) °' 

Irascible. . Giilit. 

^ Smiling pleasing, ; ^^^^ 
f agreeable. ) 

^Iourner. Tafigis. 

Obedient. Sonor. 

) A dull sleepy per- ( ^^j 
/ son. \ ^' 


) Masintahin. 
\ Mairoguin. 






admits of being contracted, begins with / or an intensive 
. the first syllable of the root may be repeated. 

i hhort of memorv, ) w , . 
■ , . - 1 ' ; Ijimot. 

/ lorgetful. \ 

Joyful. Logod. 

Faint-hearted. Tacot. 

Infirm, sicklv. Saquit. 

Bashful, diffident. Hiva. 







Ma is the well known prefix particle to form adjectives of those rootgi 
that are not adjectives by themselves. 













The adjectives thus formed may be conjugated by mng in the sense 
of affecting or boasting of i\w qualit}' they denote. 

Anthony affects to be brave. 
John boasts of wisdom. 

Nagmamatapang si Antonio. 
Nagmamarunong si Juan. 

If they are conjugated in the in passive of the um conjugation, the sense 
is that of holding or reputing the object as possessing the quality expressed by 
the adjective. 

1 consider that good. 

Minamabuti co iyan. 


) Minamasania co ang mai^amang qiii- 

( naogalian. 

He repute^J as judicious what PekM* Minamagaling luyk aug sinanabi iii 
feavs. Pdlro. 

I hold vice to be a bad thing. 

J/e£, is also joined to a 8u)>stantivc root indicative of a thing capable of 
being poHsessed of, imparting a sense of the subject abounding in such com- 
modity as is denoted bv the root. Ma, in this case* is but the contraction 
of may. 

There is plenty of rice in this town. 
Henry possesses a great deal of gold. 

Mapalay itong bayan ito- 
Maguinto si Enrique. 

This house is provided with many j jj^^.,j^j .^. ^.^^^ ' 
rooms. J o ^ 

Ma^ as a potential particle, comes before a verbal root, forming adjectives 
indicative of the possibility or capability of the action being performed. 
English adjectives ending in "able", "ible", or any other termination denoting 
potentiality may be expressed in this way. 



Feasible, practicable. 



Matiis, mabat^. 
Madali, magaan. 

The repetition of the first syllable of the root (as for the future passive 
tense of muca conjugation) may be used, especially if an idea of futurity is 
meant, either form being used almost indifferently. 



Potable, drinkable. 


Visible, perceptible at sight. 


Magagaua, mangy ay aring gaoin. 



Mangy ayari. 



But if negation or inversion of the meaning of the root is to be ex- 
pressed as when the Latin prefixes "in", "dis", or the Saxon "un" are 
used in English, the sense is made by the simple root (as for the imperative) 
prefixed by rnn and preceded by the negative adverb. 


Un tolerable. 



Inaccessible, unapproachable. 





Inexplicable, unexplainable. 

Di matiis. 

Di mabata. 

Di matingcala, di maabut iiang isip. 

Di macalag. 

Di malapitan. 

Di matapus. 

Di magamit. 

Di macain. 

Dili mangyayari. 

Di masaysay. 

If the capability is expressed by an adjective or an adjectival clause, 
the verb should be put in the proper passive. 

Easy to be done. 
Difficult to say. 
Troublesome to be attained^ 
Uirjpproachable. ' . 
ilasily pronotiilce^nble. 

Madaling gaoin. 
}^Ialiuag sabihin. 
JIahfrap camtan. 
Di malapitan. 
liadalfng uipaiB. 


Susceptible, punctillious. 

It is easier t<> sav it than do it. 

Di mauicaan. 

Madaling sabihin, mahirap gaoin. 

Maca, may be assimilated to dui as a particle forming adjectives, if 
prefixed to verbal root^. What nia is for the potential sense, maca is for the 
causative one. 

Agreable, what causes pleasure. 
Causative of shame. 
Mortal, destructive of life. 
Laughable, causing laughter. 


Maca is also prefixed to the cardinal numbers to form the adverb- 
ial numerals of time, the first being wholly, and the second and third, 
partly irregular, as has been explained. 



Thrice, three times. 

Five times. 

A hundred times. 


To cause weariness. 

To disgust, to cause disgust. 

To inflame, to cause to be inflamed. 

To produce anxiety. 

To produce nausea. 

To cause the disgust of satiety. 

It cannot be. 

Can but 

I can but go. 
It may be. 
It may not be. 
It may be, it may happen. 
It can hardly be, happen. 
To examine, to look into into the qua- 
lifications of some candidate. 
My brother passed examination be- 
fore the master and came out qua- 

Nobody knows it. 
Nobody understand it. 
Do you understand it.? 
He feels warm. 

He was swayed (blind) with wrath. 


Macaitld, macatatlo. 

Quislap, alipato, pilantic. 





Macasuclam, macarimarim. 


Hindi mangyayari. 

Hindi mangyayari di 

Hindi mangyayari di aco pumaroon. 
Mangyayari din. 
Hindi mangyayari. 
Sucat mangyari. 
Di sucat mangyari. 


Sinulid and capatid co nang maestro 
at siya,i, nacasulit. 

Ualang nacacaalam. 
Ualang nacatatalastas. 
^Natatalastas mo baga.? 
8iya,i, naiinitan. 
Nabulagan siya nang galit. 
Macii, sacali. 


Shall I do it.? Don't do that, lest you be damned. Do I jgo out 
then.? Go out and beware; don^t fail to do what I told you. Shall 
I go upstairs.? Don't go up, lest there may be some people over there. 
What are you going to do.? I am going fishing to see whether I can 
hook some fish. Why did he not lift the bag.? He is going to tyy 
whether he can lift it up. Did they shoot arrows at the birds. ?.;T^, 
they did and thev .-hot' down sosae. Did you riin* after hirb.?* I* tan. 
for him, but I could not overtake him. Do you wish n^ to gbvput new.? 

; present, for yi'u wrin be affected" 1 . 
will feel warm, .Shall I stay here any longer.? No, Ijegone. lest you 
may he overtaken by dark in the wuoil. What hap[)ened to them.? 
They were suilmg ami they were overtaken by a storm at sea. What has 
happened to you.? Our house was burnt down. What has happened,? 
The thread parted. What has happened to your brother-in-law.? His 
strength failed, hi? senses vanished and his mind gloomed, his breath 
was cut short and he breathed the last. How was it.? His walking- 
stick split and his ankle was sprained. Why do yoii laugh.? I laugh 
because that fellow etumbted and fell down. Do I assist him.? No. 
make him walk slowly, lest he may «lip. Uo you fear.? Yes, I do. 
What are you afraid of.? I am afraid of the Houla of the dead. Why do yon 
fear the ghoBtfi.? fear God and do not fear ghosts, as they will do nothing to 
you. Where did you stumble.? 1 stumbled against this stone. What house 
did yonr mother die in,? In our grandfather's house. What did she die of,? 
She died of fever. Why does that woman weep.? Because death deprived her 
of her infant child, I don't see your sister, where is she,? She is there 
knelt down near the altar. And your brother, where is he,? There he 
is standing near the pillar. Is he not that one who is seated on the 
bench,? No, he is that one who is by him. Who is your godfather.? 
My godfather iu my friend Charles' father, and my godmother, his sister. 
Do you take that as yours,? No, I take it ae theirs. How is your rice 
field.? It has been eaten up by locusts. Is your servant afflicted with 
it«h.? No, he is afflicted with asthma. Does Ids stomach pain him.? 
No, he has a handache. Is his father a big bellied man.? No, he ii- 
big headed. Where did you put the thrashings,? I put them by the 
side of the sweepings, Is your servant obedient.? No, he is, on the 
contrary, obstinate. Is there any money in the safe.? There is plenty 
of money in the safe. Is this letter pronounceable.? Yes, it is easy to 
pronouni*. Is eea-water drinkable.? It is not drinkable. Ib poison 
destructive of life.? Poison is destructive of life. Is the priest an atith- 
iuatic.7 No, he is a gouty -.nan. Are sparks dangerous.? They are, a 
Hparlc can set a town in flames. Is sweet potato eatable.? Yes. but it 
sometimes causes satiety. Did yon come out well from the examination.? 
No, I was disqualifled. 





Mag, as a particle forming nouns, is tlie contrary of ca. Ca. contracts 
the sense to one party; mag, indicates two at least. 

Mag comes before those nouns which are conceived only in couples to 
indicate both parties, and denotes plurality without the employment of 
the pluralizing particle being necessary. 

The two sisters-in-law. Ang maghipag. 

The married couple. Ang magasaua. 

Both quarrelling parties. Ang magauay. 

The engaged parties. Ang mag-ibigan. 

The parents. Ang magulang. 

The two brothers-in-law. Ang magbaytio. 

If the parties are of such a kind as to be conceived in a numljer 
greater than two, en should be used after mag. 

The two brothers. Ang magcapatid. 

The two companions. Ang magcasam^. 

The two friends. Ang magcaibigan. 

If the parties are more than two, ra should be repeated. 

More than two brothers. Magcacapatid. 

companions. Magcacasama. 

friends. Magcacaibigan. 

Correlative nouns are expressed by m^ig prefixed to the principal 

Father and child. Magama. 

Mother and child. Mag-ina. 

Father or mother and son or daughter- ^ i^r u- 
m-ldw. S 

Master and servant. Magpangindon. 

Hence these compound nouns may be verbalized in reference to the 
zecorAsLvy party. 

Paul is a devoted son. (that is to sav. ;;• p-K^rv,- *v^«^/,.^/^«« «^o«o«*«' 
he knows how to honor his parents.) ; ^' ^^^^^'''' marunong magama. 

?• '7 »• 

« « « « ,4 


If t'-e second correlative is named conjointly with the principal one. 
the latter is prefixe<l hv riKig and the former put in the possessive case. 

Jesus and His Mother. 
Flora and her father-in-law. 
Peter and his father. 

Mag-ina ni Jesus.. 
Magbianan ni Flora. 
Mag-ama ni Pedro. 

Mag denotes totality with some roots importing time. 

The whole day, throughout the day, ) ^ i 

all the day long. \ ^ ^^ apon. 

day long 
All the night long, the whole night. 


Mag is prefixed to verbal roots of the first and second conjugations to 
form the verbal noun signifying the agent or doer. The first syllable of the 
root should be repeated as if to form the future tense. 

Farmer, laborer, husbandman. 


Man, is another important prefix. Marij drops the n ang causes the 
same changes in the first letter of the root it joins to, as have been explain- 
ed for it as a verbal conjugating particle. 

Man, as has been said, if joined to a root denoting a unity of measure, 
forms distributive numeral expressions of the standard unity. 

Twenty five cents' money i)iece. Cahati. 

Twenty five cents each, at twenty five ^ m • 14. 
, ' , • > Manga hat 1. 

cents each. ) '^ 


One dollar each. 

One real each, at one real each. 
Half real. 
Half real each. 
Yard, ell. . 
One yard each. 
Peck, ganta. 
One peck each. 

One bushel each. 

Palm, (a measure of length from 
the thumb to the little finger ext- 

One palm each. 

One fathom each. 

One inch each. 
One hundred each. 





Sicolo, sicaualo. 


Bara. (corr. from Sp. word vara,) 










Sandali. • 




Man is more proper and ussual than rnag to express with a verbal 
root the agent or doer, especially if trade or habitual engaging in the 
action is meant. 

To sew. 

Tailor. . 



To write. 




To weave. 




To redeem. 





To spin. 
To solder. 



S Solderer, t'old-ljea- i t,. 

! ter. i ^1"»»'*^- 

To foresay, to fore- ^ ^ ^u u i 

. 1, "^ ' J Sooth-sayer. llola. 

To reap, to mow. Reaper. (iapas. 

To tempt. Tempter. Tucso. 

To conquer. Conquerer. Talo. 






Man also comes before a root denoting the instrument through which 
something is got at, or, before that of a thing to be got at in a customary 
or mercenary way, forming the verbal noun or the agent engaged in the trade. 

Saw. Sawer, sawyer. 

(loods, mercband- \ m i 

. ' < Tradesman. 







Hunter with a dog. A so. 

Medicine, root, ra- \ ,v , , . . .♦ , 

1. ] Quack, physician, da mot. 

Mapfu/ adheres to a verbal root to form, like 
for the agent or doer, if the action is represtMite<l 
of such a nature as not to appear as a inen'cnary 


To draw interest^ 

from, to invest I -r 

^ • X r Usurer, griper. 

money on inter- • ? ^ f 

est. J 

rp . X- i Bountiful, liberal, I r>» 

To grant, granting j ^^^^^ ^ Biyaya. 

Respecting, bono- obedient. 


To elate. 











Scoffer, jeerer. 








>ped in the throat. 








wav, the verbal noun 
as occasional or it 1.*^ 
or life-supporting one. 











He had a tin (thorn) stuck in his 


To become, to be proper. 

Do you think is it i)roper for a girl to 
go alone about the streets? • 

To hold, to be sufficient. 

To mistake, to err, to make a mistake. 

Magriin, may be made to denote 

Will it be perchance true.? 

Why might not that l)e true.? 

After a certain number of da vs. 

When one month may be elapsed. 

To meddle with. 

Why do vou meddle to look into other 

people's 1 >usi ness. ? 

f Mahirinan siya nang tinic. 


^Ang fsip mo baga ay nabab^gay sa 

isdng dalaga, ang paglaead na mag-i>& 

sa mafiga lahsafigan.? 

Magcasiya . 


doubt or chance. 


^.Maguiguing toto6 caya iyang.? 
^Saan di maguiguintotoo figa iyan.? 
Nang maguing-ilang lirao. 
Gun maguing-iging l30uan na. 
Manhimasoc. (from pasoc). 
^Baquin mo pinanhihimasocan ang 
biihay nang ib^ng taud.? 

To laugh mor" and more. 
He prays more and more. 
To walk and ever to walk. 
Read without rest. 
Repeat constantly tlie niinio oi 
They conwtiiiitly call ini.', as 
were no other hut me. 
I mean, I say. 

The Almighty, that is to .-iay. 

So to Bay, ns it were. 

The BOul. the vital prineijilea^' 


Tiiua nung tana. 

Dasal naiig dasal Hiya. 

I^aliicad nang lalacad. 

Bumasa ca uang humoHA. 

Ang Dios nans Dion ang uioain mo. 
■re Ac6 niing uco iiiig linataiiag nilS, 

4]iua,i, ualuniJ il it cundi ac6. 

Sa macatouir. 
\ Ang Macapangyarihan sa lahat. sa 
/ maeaiouir, ang Dies. 

Alalaong, alalaong baga, cun baga sa. 
\ Ang calolduft, alaliiong. ang dili bagu 
t nang hiihay. 

The divernily d! meanings whieh the pmnonn uih 
important and we sobjoin fome i I hi strati on h thereof. 



What in y<iur Imcinet^e berfi"? 

What is hiw hnt^ineBi^ there.? 

What is the matter with Pelev that 

he eries fo much.? 

They d.. nothing i.i liiin. 

And whiil iloeP thai nialt.'v lo ytni.? 
What do 1 need that lH...k what 
is that book to me.? 

What will become of me when I liave 
no money.? 

What haR happened to him on his 
tailing down, what was the issue of 
his fall.? 

See whether he wan hurt, inquire 
whether anything has been the mat- 
ter with him. 

Do you know how his handwriting is.? 

To what purpose more comment.? 

Wei! then, as I wss saying 

What elfe,? what more.? 

fAnti,? (.anil bagti.? 

^.Aan6 ca rito,? ^.ungmaano ca ritti.? 

iAano aiyii rrton.? 

^. Inaan6 baga si Pedn>, nag-iiyae siyu 


Hindi Biya inaano, 
\ ,',Anhin mo bagti iytin.? /.anting ma- 
t siiquit sa iyo.? 
J iAnhin vu ivang libro.? 

;, Paano.? 

^.Mapapaaiio biigiiacocuii 

salajii. ? 
^iNapaano bagj diya su ei 
i cahotog. ? 

> Alamin mo cun uopaant 

^ ^Naalaman mo baga cun | 
( caniyang pagtitic? 

^Paganhin savsavin.? 

Ay an6,i,... ' 

^An6 pa figii.? 

i, uahing 

'■ng pag- 


Who arc those two women.? They are sisters-in-law. AVho arc those peo- 
ple.? They are the parents of this child. Who is that couple sitting there,? 
They are wife and husband. Arc those two perHons brothers.? They are 
brothers. Are those three boys companions.? They are companions. And 
these two, are friends,? They are friends. Did the father and the son 
go to church.? The father and the son, the master as well as the servant 
went to church this morning. Are John and bis mother here.? It is 
Mary and her father that are here. Did you take a walk yesterday.? 
[ was walking all the day long. Were you at the neighbour's last night.? 
I was there the whole night. Has the husbandman come.? He has. Has 
the robber been found out,? No. How much shall I pay these weavers.? 
Pay them at one dollar each. How much cloth did he give them.? He 
gave one yard each. How much rice did every one of them receive.? They 
received a bushel each. How many pecks of rice did he sell to every 
reaper,? He eold them one osck each. Is your friend a tailor,? No, he 


is a writ<M*. \\'h<» was iho rodoornrr of mankind.? Jesus Christ was tlio ro- 
doemor of mankind. Did you soo xlw sj>inner.? \o. I smw tlie solderor. 
\Vlier(' is ilic sawver.? Tlie sawv(T is at llio tra(u*>iiia.n\^. Is lie a tisher- 
man.? No, lie is a hunter with dogs. What has the physician said.? He 
ordered the j^ailor to tak(^ a hot batli. Is this man a griiH'r.? He is a 
squanderer. [s our neighbour's son obedient.? lie is not ol>edient, but 
rather overbearing, and a detraetor. Are you tlien a scoffer.? I am not 
a mocker, but an observer. Can that bottle hold one pint.? It cannot 
hold one pint. What has happened to the priest.? He made a mistake. 
Will what the American said to us prove true.? It may perhaps be true. 
Why do you meddle to converse with my neighbo\ir's servants.? Because 
they do nothing but call ever for me. Why does the tradesman do noth- 
ing but walking.? Because he is a wanderer. What do you order me 
to do.? Read and read again. Why do you not pray.? Because my 
master is ever calling me. What is done to you.? I am alwa^'s laugh- 
ed at by these bakers. What do you want that pin for.? I want it to 
clean my teeth. How is the daughter of the writer,? She is already 





Pfl is prefixed to a noun or verbal root indicative of such thing or 
action as can be assigned to a person, to form verbal nouns denoting 
contents or the portion thus assigned to or handed over by an agent. The 
change or dropping of the first letters of the root also takes place sometimes 
in this kind of composition. 

Punishment, Pe- j penalty inflicted. DmL 
nance. ) -^ 

Inheritance. liCgacy. Mann. 

% f ri I ( The contents.what ) 

Marrow, flesh, ) . ... ' f r ' 

. . ' ' < IS written on a > Lamitn. 

contents. ) i 

( paper. i 

Tumor, abscess. Swelling. Baga. 

New i Offering of t h e ; ^ , 

^^^^- ( first fruits, tithe. \ ^'^^^'' 

Pood kept from 

the previous night \ Breakfast. Bahao. 

for the morning. 


Note, registry. 

To carrv. 

To conceal. 

To borrow things. 

^ Household furn- / .. ,, 

' iture, chattels. \ 

Poll, a record of / rp i - 
* \ \ • A. A. k lantia. 

inhabitants. ) 

Ix)ad, remittance, ) r. i . 

sendnig. \ 

Thing concealed. Tago. 

Thins borrowed. Hiram. 



Pa ma go. 




Pa tago. 

As for the goi'ernment of ientences in which a noun oi this kind 
enters, the agent should be put in the possestive case, the thing object of 
the action, if it is expressed, in the nominative, a.nd the person to whon^ 
it is apportioned, in the dative. The following examples will illustrate th^ 

I bequeath this to my nephew. Pamana co it'") sa aquing painangquin. 

This was bequeathed to me by my , ^.. . ^^^,„, ..^ n^„;« ^r^^r. r^^< /,.^ 
^ ., ^ \ 1 to,i, pamana ^a aqum nang ama co 

What I do is a penance inflicted on Ang guiiiagaua co,i, parusa sa aquin 

•Tie by the priest. nang pare. 

This book I torrowed from my mother. . YT6;ig libro i, .pahiram sa cquiu ni ina.. 

That is what I made him carry. Ya8,i, ang padali co sa caniya. 


If jHi 16 prettxi'd to ;i root expresKivo of a certain manner of placin^i. 
tlie posture, williout any reference whatever to the cause, is expressed. 

Seated, (status) Pau}»o. 

Standing. Patindifr- 

Lain down. Pahiga. 

Lengthwise. Pahai»a. 

Sidewise, incidentally. Fataguilid. 

Side-across. Pahalang. 

Knelt down. Palohod. 

Face downwards. Pataoh. 

Face upwards. Patihaya'. 

But if such posture is represented as the effect of some cause and 
stress is laid on the latter, pa should be prefixed l)y na. 

He fell face-downwards. Naparapii siya. 

I fell down and remained seated. Napaupo aco. 

Pag has already been fully treated of as the i roper prefix to form the 
verbal nouns expressive of the action in vm and viag conjugationi^, the 
first syllable of the root, for the latter, being repeated as has l)een ex- 

The eating, the action of eating. Ang pagcain. 

The killing. Ang pagpatay. 

The weeping. Ang pagtafigis. 

The weeping much, the action of ^ . i. 4. ^ • 

V ^ ] Ang pagtatafigis. 

weepnig hard. ( ^ i- & & 

Tlie giving. Ang pagbibigay. 

The throwing away. Ang pagtatapon. 

Pag, as a particle forming, either alone or with sa preceding, adverb- 
ial expressions of time, has also been so fully explained in foregoing 
lessons as to dispense with further explanations. 

On his writing. Sa pagsulat niya. 

After my reading the book. j f^f^^'^ ^'^ "*"^ ^'^'""^ '''' pagc^aba- 

On my finishing the work. Pagtapus co nang trabajo. 

By the an passive with ua prefixed to a root of a thing or actioii 
of anything capable of being exchanged for or of bringing about profit 
in return, expressions indicative of the way by which the gain has been 
come at, are formed. 

This money I came at by "Irving, j j^.jj .^ 1 

(rendering menial services). ^ r & e r 

This money he got at by his selling ^ xt u- • * -aa i r 

•^ ^ -^ ^ f Napagbigasan niya itong salapi. 



Pagra, is for intransitive involuntary actions, what jHig is for trans- 
itive or for intransitive, but voluntary ones. 

The dying. Ang pagcamatay. 

The falling. Ang pagcah61og. 

The stumbling. Ang pagcatisod. 

The slipping down. Ang pagcadulas. 

The sleeping. Ang pagcatulog. 

When pagca i^ prefixed to ^n active verbal root or to a voluntary 
action, it expresses manner, mode, fashion. . ... 


Your fashion of walking. 
Your maimer of pronouncing. 
Their manner of expruS}<ion. 
Her handwriting, penmanship. 

Piifjvti huiUln up tihstract nouns expressive of wliat constitutes the 
essence, the innermost nature constitutive of a quality. 

Aug pagcahicad mo. 

Ang pagcauica mo. 

Ang juigcasahi nihi. 

Ang pagcasiihit or pagcatitic niy^. 


The attributes of CJod. 

What is inherent in mankind. 




Ang pagcadios. 

Ang pagcadios nang Dio.-. 

Ang pagcatauo. 

Ang pagcalalaqui. 

Ang pagcababaye. 

Ang pagcadunong. 

Pala its prefixed to a verbal or nominal root denoting an action or 
thing capable of being converted into, or of being object of, a vice, to 
form adjectival nouns expressive of the habitual indulgence in such vice. 




Heathen. Anito. 

S Curser, mordaci- ) ^ 

I .. i Sumpa. 

/ ous. \ ^ 


I Barrator. 




Chat, speaking. 










^ Peevish, quarel- ) \ . , 
( some. ) 



S Palainom 

'( alac. 






Pan, prefixed to a verbal root capable of admitting of an instrument 
for the action or for the thing to be made by, expresses the instrument, 
when the latter is not indicated by y in the manner already explained. 

Pan, being the passive particle for man, drops n and causes the 
first letter of the root to undergo the same changes which have been 
spoken of in man conjugation. It is by paying attention to the signi- 
fication and cliaracter of the root, that pan derivatives can, in some 
cases, be distinguished from those formed with pa. 

To seal. 
To mow. 
To shave. 
To dig. 
To cart. 
Stick, club. 
To rub. 
To cling. 
To pinch. 





Pickax, hoe. 

Pannier, basket. 





To sprinkle, to S Water-Bprinkler. 

make abpersion^:. ( ^ 

To sound. Sounding lead. 

To scratch. Scratcher. 

To strike. Hammer. 

To write. Pen. 

To tie. Tying rope. 

Dash, line drawn \ Ruler for dravr- 

with a pen. ( ing a straight line. 











- t'isic. 






















Panali or pantali. 


If pan is prefixed to a root itself an iiistrumeiit, pan, then, hat thf» 
same import at? phwnf. that i.s to .say. what substitut«t< for tliat inntruni- 
ent, is formed. 

4 \ What serveK as an ^ r • u i- 

Auger. J ^^g^^ I Licop. Panhcoi>. 

^^ S What substitutes ) j ' o i ' 

''*''• 1 for a saw. Lagan. Panlagan 

Prime, the most excellent or valuable i 

part of a thing; intensity, the culmi- / Salocoy. 

nating point of an action, ) 

Do do do. (abstract) Casalocoyan. 

In the prime of. Sa casalocoyan. 

To be in the prime of youth. Masacasalocoyan uang cabataan. 

The time in which the sowing i^ in full f n ^ t *. - 

^ • ^ j Casalocoyan nang patatanim. 

The same for thrashing. Casalocoyan nang pagguiic. 

Your child is now at the point of Ang anac mo,i, nasacasalocoyan i^ga 

growth. v6n nang paglaqui. 

His sister i« now in tl.e prime of S ^"^ ^^''Y^'^S «*P/«d ,"» babaye ay 
!•£ * < nasacasalocoyan figayon nang caba- 

f taan. 


What penalty did the judge inflict upon you.? I have been lined 
twenty dollars. What legacy did you receive from your uncle.? He 
bequeathed me a thousand dollars. Is that true.? These words were the 
contents of his letter. What kind of food is that.? This food is for my break- 
fast. What has Mr. Such-a-one sent.? This is what he sent. Is that auger 
yours.? No, it has been borrowed from the carpenter. How shall I do the 
work.? You shall do it sitting, (seated) How should this l>e cut.? Cut it 
lengthwise. How shall I pray.? You should i)ray knelt down. Is he up or lain 
tlown.? He is lain down. How is his manner of speaking.? His manner 
oj speaking is by stuttering. How is the essence of CmkI.? The essence 
of God is incomprehensible to man. Is he a believer.? No, he is an 
idolater. Is your friend a drunkard.? He is not a drunkard, but he 
is a glutton. Is your cousin a wooer.? He is a wooer and a chatterer. 
Is he also peevish.? He is peevish and a barrater. What is that your 
writer has in his hand.? It is a seal. Is it not an auger.? No, it 
is a razor. Where did the servant put the dishclout.? He put it together 
with the pincers. What are you going to do with this sickle.? I am 
going to mow grass. Who has found the carpenter's hammer.? Peter 
found it in the pannier. Who hat. the mounding lead.? The sailor has 
it and the scratcher a? well. Where is my pen.? Your pen and the 
hook have been carried away. Ha ;t you no ruler for ruling this paper. *^ 
I have one. Where is the tying rope for these logs of wood.? The 
tying rope is in the house. 





Pinara is prefixed to nominal or adjectival roots, forming compounds 
expressive of what serves as a substitute or is reputed to stand for the 
thing or quality signified by the root. The following instances will better 
illustrate the matter. 

Boiled rice stand for bread with Ang canin ang siyang pinacatinapay 

natives. nang mafiga tagalog. 

We consider you our leader. Ycao ang pinacapono namin. 

The lion is considered the king of Pinacahari ang leon (Sp.) nang ma- 

animals. nga hayop. 

Sin h reputed to be the greatest evil. ) ^']^ pinacamalaqui sa iahat. na casa- 
^ ^ ^ maa,i, ang casalanan. 

What accidentallv serves as a broom. Pinacaualis. 

He who stands for a parent. Ang pinacamagiilang. 

He whom somcbodv reputes as his ^ t,- ^ • ' 

11 ' ^ / rmacapafiginoon. 

What serves as a pen in case of need. Pinacapaniilat. 
Anybody acting for a servant. Ang pinacaalila. 

The mistreas, the minion, anvbody ( ^ 
whom one reputes as husband oV wife. \ ^^^ pmacaasaua. 

Sang is but a determinated form of isd; the latter may stand alone; 
mng, is always joined to the thing or unity determined or counted. 
It precedes the first unities of the decimal system of numeration. 

\ • 

A denary. Sang pouo. 

A hundred. Sang daan. 

A thousand. Sang lib6. 

A ten thousand. Sang lacsA. 

A hundred thousand. Sang yota. 

A million. Sang pouong yota, sang lif^gao-angao. 

It expresses totality, length of time. 

He came one day. Naparit6 siya isang arao. 

All the day long. Sang arao. 

For a whole hour. Sang oras. 

Throughout the week. Sang lingo. 

All the month round. Sang bouan. 

The length of the year. Sang taon. 

It denotes the contents of some thing, not the vessel or continent. 

A tiNuUt (h\Y\L(- oarlhon pot) of. or. / v . , ^ 'i . , ^ m • 

tor water. ^ *- i . »- j- r- 

One tinajafiil (»t cocoa-nut. <»il. Sang tapayang langis. 

One l)ottle of wine. Sang hoteng lilac. 

One sjx>onful of honey. Sang curhnnin^ O^p) l>olot. 

Sa»(f j>recerl<*s nouns of towns, met^ting-jilacejj or re.<orts to indicate* 
the whole ])opulation or attendance. 

All the inhabitants; of Manila. Sang Maynila. 

The whole population of Cebii. Sang Sebii. 

The full attendance at church. ^^^g simbahan. 

The spectator? of a play. Sang teatro. 

The wholf offspring. Sang anaoan. 

The litter, th(» numbrr of pigs farow- i* . , , .. 

, , ' ^ ^ ■ Sane anacan babuv. 

ed at once. s 

Brood of a she-dog. Sang anacan apo. 

The whole crew (►f a ship. Sang dauong. 

The j>eoj)l<' sailing on a pirogue. Sang bangca. 

(.V)ll(»ctive nouns formed with m ]»retixrd and nn or Jmn suttixed adni t 
of ftfinq ])efore to indicate totnlitv. 

'I'he full house, all the tiMianls. Sang bahayan. 

The whole town, all the villagers. Sang bayanan. 

All the heavenly legions. Sang calangitan. 

Tlu» whole of mankind. Sang catauohan. 

All the world, (pt^ople). Sjiug ealibotan. 

The whole of Christendom. Sang cacristianohan. 

i'he whole Archii>elago. Sang capoloan. 

\11 the Saints in Heaven. Sang calangitan Santos. 


Ta(i i5 but a contraeted form of taya. Jt serves io form the season , 
monsoons or the prevalent time of any atmospherical occurrences. 

Spring. Tagarao. 

Summer. Tagbisi, tagarao, tag-init. 

Autumn. Tagolan, (rainy season) 

W'intei'. Tagguinao, taglamig. (cold season). 

Prevailing time of the south-west ) rl^ i i * . 
. 1 '^ . laghabagat. 

wind monsoon. S 

The portion of the year during which I rp ., 

north-east winds prevail. \ lagamihan. 

Space of time during which typhoons ) rp i 

AC A. * i' -I asrnasfuio. 

are most frequent. ) 


Tfiffn, besides the sense of origin and the others which have been already 
treated of, forms, like man, frequentative verbal nouns, generally indicating 

the trade the person is engaged in for a salary, and is put before verbs. 

rp . J , i I N Watchman, tend- / q. i 'p * i 

I o ttMid, to watch. • • lanod. lagatanod. 

f er. s '^ 

rp , ., . . i Cook, man charg- ) 

lo boil rice tor > , -'i i -i- f o" i, 

f 1 \ ed with b<» 1 n n g > hamg. lagapagsaing. 

f tin* rice. ) 

To watch over, to ) 

be on the lookoul ^ Sentry. Hantiiv. Tagapagbantiiv. 

for. N ' 

To look out. to be / .V T- ^ rn '- X 

^.j^reful. s Overse(M'. Jngat. Tagapag-ingat. 

To haunt. Haunter. Ligat). Tagaligao. 

Herdsman, swine keejier. (for othpr i rr * 
iw-ople's herd). \ ' agatanor i 

nng biihiiy. 

l^g forms, with tlie cardinal numeral?, tht dii^tribute numerals, the 
first syllable of the cardinal being repeated from five upwards in the way 
already exphiined. It dlffere from mini in the latter being only applied to 
unitiei! of nieanurf. while lirj \s> hut for numliers. 

One each. 

Two eac.h. 

Five to every onr. 

Ten to each. 


Tigdalauil. tigaliiua. 


Tigsangpono, tigcasangpono. 

Yen^cii, prefixed to numeral cardinalH 
the fir«t three lieing irregular. 

iverts them into ordinals. 

The fir^t. 
The second. 
The third. 

Aug oni, ang naona. 
Ang ycaiaua. 



Ycaiipat, ycapat, 
i Y c a p 6 u 6 , yc«- 

( sangpouo, 
i Dalauang pouo.t. Ycadalauang po- 

/ tall6. u6,t, tatlo. 

Sang pooo. 

Man, my friend, (used to attract a 

Woman, madam, {do do do). 
Good fellow, come hprc, please. 
Ciond woman, madam, ^top. plea»<p. 

My boy, my rhilil. 


_ 1 t (colloquial namegiven to any 

" > Mama. < male person, generally older 
) ( than the epeaker). 

Alf {do do do for female i»er.tonfi). 

Mama, half figa cayn. 

All, hintay f^ga po cayo, 

i ?w ^'"" I colloquial names for 

My girl 

Colloquial term, pretty name. 

Linage, race. 

Nobility, race. 

Come here, my girl. 

Uncle Tom. 

Aunt Emma. 

In or at the Autumn, in or at the 

rainy season. 

When do you sow your rice fields.? 

At the rainy season, we are now still 
in the dry treason. 
Where are you from.? 
I am from Malabon. 
Where are these men from.? 
They are highlander^. 
Is your servant Irom Ilocos.? 
No, my servant is from here, from Ma- 

t children, 

■ (dodo for female ones). 

* ining. 
} Ytay. 

Pal ay a... 



Yning, hali ca figa. 

f^i mamang Tomis. 

Si alfng Iliiy. 

f Sa tagoian. 

{ ^CaiMn ytinatanim ninyd ang iny6ng 


Sa tagoian, figaydn tayo,i, na sa tag- 

lirao pa. 

;,Taga saan ca.7 

Taga Mulahi5n ac6. 

Taga m&n haga it^ng mafiga tauo.? 

Taga bondoc si hi. 

(.Taga Iluco hagti ang iyong alila.? 

Hind!, ang aquing alila, i, taga rito, ta- 
ga Mavnila. 



If an action capable of a scurrilous performance is carried away from 
its natural sense so as to l>e made denote fiction, slowness, mockery or 
awkward execution, the verb, in Tagalog, is said to be in a diminutive 
form. This manner of representing the action, which is very common 
among natives, is generally made by repeating the entire verbal root, 
whatever else refers to the mechanism of the conjugation being preserved. 

To walk. Lumiicad. 

To walk in a scurrilous manner. Lumacadlacad. 

To say, to speak. Magiiica. 

To speak and pronounce indistinctly ) %f 

like little children. < Maguicauica. 

To sleep. Mat61og. 

To slumber, or, to feign sleeping. Matologtolog. 

Carried, taken. Dinalsi. 

Carried and })rought in again and over ) jy ^ a ^^ 
again. ) nmaladala. 

To writ^*. Sumiilat, magsulat. 

To scribble. Sumiilatsulat, magsiilatsiilat. 

Te eat. Cumain, magcain. 

To eat verv little as sick persons do: ) ^ ... . , 

to eat anci slaver as babies. \ Cumaincain, magcaincam. 

To weep. Tumangis, magtafigis. 

To whine. Tumangistafigis, magtaiigistangis. 

To rain. Ilmolan. 

To drizzle. Uraolanohin. 

To build houses. Magbahay. 

To raise little houses as children do. Magbaybahayan. 

To carry off a prey. Dumaguit. 

The sick person can alreadv walk ) ,. -. i ji ' i 

a little, can make some steps. i ^"^ ™^-^' ^^^^'^ nacacalacadlacad na. 

Thi? ciiild begins to mutter some ) . i x • 

words i ^^ bata,i, naguiuicauica na. 

Do not trust liim, he only feigns to Houag mo siyang paniualaan, nagto- 

sleep. fologtologan siya lamang. 

Why are you alwavs taking the book ) .vt' i j- j i j i^ tu o 

in and out? ' f 6Baquit mo dmadaladali ang libro.? 

The male and the female child write Ang dalau^ng bata nagsusulatsulatan 
each other little love-letters. nang palasintahan. 

My child begins to eat, to swallow ^ a u * • . ^. 

some food \ ^ ^^^ ^^'^' cungmacamcam na. 

Her i, alw«,. shining. j „*^.?"„"^»|,>'*<''' "'"•«"'''« 

The children are making little houses Ang manga bata,i, nagbabahaybaha- 
out of earth in the garden. yan nang lupa sa halamanan. 


What stands for bread in the meals of natives.? BoUed rice is for 
them w^liat bread is for us. Who will stand for vour leader now.? We 
shall take the priest as our leader. What should be reputed as the great- 
est of evils.? Sin is to be reputed as the greatest evil. What did your 
servant make use of as u broom to sweep the door-sill.? He made a 


cane serve as a broom to sweep it. Why do you res;ject your uncle so 
much.? I respect him so much, for he stands as a father to me. What 
stands for fork in the manner natives swallow food. Their fingers stand 
for forks. How did you write the letter.? I had no steel-pen at hand 
and made this quill serve as a pen. In what condition did he hold his 
nephew.? He considered him as a menial servant. How long were you 
at Manila.? I was there a whole day. Have you waited for me a long 
time.? I waited for you a full hour. How long is he going to stay with 
us.? He is going to be here one entire week. How many years' rent 
is our farmer going to pay.? He is going to pay one year's. What did 
the Manila population do many, years ago when .they were visited with 
an earthquake.? The whole Manila population went away to the open 
country. How many puppies does the brood consist of.? It consists of 
seven dogs. Where is the ship.? The ship sank, all the crew were drown- 
ed. How many passengers of the pirogue came on shore.? All the peo- 
ple csme on shore. Are there no inhabitans in this town.? All the vil- 
lagers are now attending mass. Has this house no ^ tenants.? . All the 
tenants died. ^Vhd redeemed mankind.? Jesus Christ redeemed all majak- 
ind and he is revered by all christians. Did the plague spread largely.? 
Plague spread about the whole Archipelago... What season are we now in.? 
We are now in summer time. Do you like winter.? I don't like winter, 
it is- a very cold season. In what months of the year do the north-east 
monsoon windg prevail.? North-east winds prevail in the Philippines from 
November to Jutie. In what part of the year do typhoons occur most 
frequently in Manila.? From the middle of October until the end of 
December. How much salary does he pay to the herder of his cattle.? 
He pays his herder ten dollars monthly. How did he distribute the candles.? 
He gave one to every man; two, to every woman; and three, to every child. 
Who was the first man.? Adan was the first man and Eve the first 
woman. What book is that.? It is the third volume. 

*f ■ • 

t ■ 
t » 

/ • . • • If 




To the many rules of syntax and illustrations of Tagalog ronstructioo i 
hitherto given, it will be well to append a few notes on colloquial Ta- 
galog which are suggeited by a consciousness of some of the common errors 
into which Euroj^ans are apt to fall. 

First. Get rid of tlie notion that it is necessary in Tagalog to ex- 
press invariably by nouns or jironouns the agents and ohjects of the actions 
spoken of. Sentences in Tagalog are arranged in a more impersonal and 
elliptical manner thau in the civilised languages of Europe. 

Give me. 

Tell him. 

Read it. 

Don't Bay it. 

Give it hack. 

Let U8 give them back to hii 

I think, I believe. 

He wiehes, he Ib willing. 

It Beeme. 

They say. 

I am told, people tell me. . . 

Big-ian aco. 

Sabihin sa caniya. 


Houag Babihin. 

Ysaolf mo. 

Saolian natin. 

Acala co,i,. . . (my guese is). 

Ibig niyiji,., . (bis desire is). 

Diua,i, (the appearance is). 

\ Ang sabi, ang balita,i,. . . . (the report j 

i Ang sab: nang maflga taud sa aquio 

?ay- .. .. 

I hear that she is going to be married. Ang 8abi,i, na siya,i, magaasaua. 

( Mabuti pa ang paglacad ea pageara- 
I like walking better than driving. j rmage (Sp.) (Walking is better than 1 

( driving). 

Even in scolding others, na.tiveg, sometimes, adopt such an indirectl 
mode of address as to dispense with the Tagalog equivalent for "you", 
that should be used in similar English sentence.-;. 

t ^Pipi baga il6ng bata,? ^at di siydl 

Are you mute,? why don't you answer.? \ sungmaBagot.? ( this boy mute?jf 

f why does he not answer.? 

TjAbaa!. it6ng tauong ito. ^Di niya na- \ 
^ I mamasdan ns ang quiEQ,i, pinupusa.? 
' 1 {Lit. Oh!, this boyl. Does'he not give J 
I heed to the cheese being nibbled at bv J 
^cats.? ' I 

S lAyaa, Imatamad na matamad itongJ 
( tauo. 

How stupid you are. I can't j 
the cats eating the cheese.? 

What a lazy fellow > 

Secosd. Learn to employ the various passive forms of the verb and i 
try to overcome the difficulties 6f construction peculiar to these foimt. 


The rats ate up the candles. Ang manga candila,!, dinaga. 

Wild boar^ use to uproot hemyi-pro- Aug manga jxtnoiig abaca, i, inoongi^al 

ducing treeti. nang balmy danid. 

To oflicerH of the Board of Health set Pinationog nang mafiga mnitnrio (Sp) 

fire to the nipa houses and prevented ang mafiga biihay na pauid athinalia- 

the jilague from t^p^eadillg. rang ang siilot na cumalat. 

Third. Bear in mind the diBtinttion between the sense given to an 
intranaitive verb by the particle um and that which is imparted by prefixing 
PMg. Uin, expresseii a t-tate: mrtg, an action. Such verb, for instance, as 
"to swim" may he considered either ae descriptive nf the condition of the 
person who swims or as of fome circumstance of the action of swimming. 
Hence, hnnnfiifoy, ■■to swim"; mngJoiigoy, "to take along something in swimm- 
ing". On the other hand, to say, lumaii.^is is to put more stress on the person 
who weeps, while inojfonjw, is more in reference to the cause of weeping; 
aungmustdat siyd, refers more to the manual action of his penmanship; 
nagsvstltat tiyn, lays stress on the thought he conveys to other people in 
writing; bumavnt or iiiiunK. ''to waste, to lessen by taking out a portion 
out of a heap for the subject"; magbairmt "to diminish by giving a portion 
to others, but practically, the difference here is not great. 

To following verbs will add to the illustrations given above. 

To walk. 

To carry along .something it 

To fly. ■ 

To fly to and fro. 

To leap. 

To rush on, to leap along wi 

To fallback. 

To withdraw, to take back. 

To dive. 

To dive fur. 

To sit down. 

To sit down, (many) 







U moron g. 






Fourth. Try to employ the specific instead of the generic word 
for the action to be described, when, as is generally the case in Tagalog, 
there is a verb for that particular manner of action. It may be possible 
to make one's self understood by using gavd and adding the complementary 
term for every kind of work, but it is much better to employ the approp- 
riate term for the particular manner or object of working, as aeen in the follow- 
ing illustrations. 

Working, doing. 

To make (something) siwedily, 

To make, to do something superfi- , 


To do carefully. 

To make carefully. 

To do, to practice, to train, m / ,, 

- ' ' , Maesanay. 

exercise. \ *b "^ .v 

To make something slowlv or little Maghinav-hinay, miig-inot-inot. 

by little. ' ■ ■ ■ - 

To work by night, to wake. 

To make something by night. 

To do at random. 

To do something wiUinglv. 

To raakf something, (miny »l the ) „,„ ^av. 

same timel \ * * 

To make something .again. BumagA. 

To work manuaUy. Cumimot. 

Uaud. (root- word) (generic). 

I Huraapiio. 


Mag Ian ay. 




To make a retraction. Tumaliuacas. 

To do harm. Magpanganyaya. 

To work earnestly. Magsaquit, magsumaquit. 

To work by the job. Magpaquiao. 

To make salt. Magtasic, magasin. 

This, besides the common way of prefixing mag to a root expressing 
any thing that can be made, as explained in mag conjugation. 

To break, to fracture, to smash. Bumasag, masag, magbasag. 

To destroy. Sumira. (generic) 

To split ,to cleave. Mali, magbali. 

To rip, to unseam. Tumastas, magtastas. 

To rend, to tear. Gumisi. 

To break, to divide, to separate by > hr i * 

using one's teeth. ^ ^ Sgumalot. 

To break some metallic object. Bumigtal. 

To break asunder. Bumiac. 

To break asunder rattans. Manhimatir. 

To crush, to break by collision. Magpocjol. 

To crack, (as a nut or an egg-shell) Magpisa. 
To pound husk rice. Bumayo. 

To part, (a line), to disunite, (trans) | ^"^Xot "''""' "'"^l'***'^' ^"'"°^°*' 
To part (intrans.) to l)e disunited. Mapatid, malagot. 

To <trike ^ Pumocpoc, mocpoc, magpocpoc (gen- 

l eric). 
To strike, to beat, to cudgel. Pumalo, humampas. 

To knock about, to deal out blows ^ tt u ^ 

with a stick. ^Humanbalos. 

To strike with the open hand, to slap. Tumampal. 

To strike with the fist, to box. Sumuntoc. 

To strike, to beat (as wool, cotton ^ 

etc.) for cleansing or fulling; to shake > Pumagpag: magpagpag. (intensive) 

clothes clean. ) 

To flap, to applaud, to clap. Pumacpac, magpacpac. 

To strike, to pound. Pumitpit, magpitpit. 

To throw away, to cast off. Magtapon. (generic) 

To throw someting to the ground, to ) ^r , ^, 

dash. i ^ ^^' 

To throw up into the air. Magtalang. 

To thrust, to dart a spear. Magborlong, sumibat. 

To pelt, to throw stones at, to hurl. Humaguis, maghaguis. 

To throw about, to scatter. Magbulagsac. 

To cast up, to vomit, to emit. 8umuci, magsuca. 

To throw splints at. Magbalibang, magbalibat. 

To shoot at, to aim at. Tumurla. 

To look at. Tumingin. (generic.) 

To look at for. ... Cumita. 

To look back. Lumiiigon. 

To look at soxiething in .astonish- ^ p ^ 

ment, to behold, to gaze at. • ' \ rancor. 

To look sideways at. Sumuliap. 

To look upwards. Tumifigala. 


To .look at from afar, to siglit. 
To -.tare, to look at fixedly. 

Turn [tig. 

Fifth. Try to get accustoiiifd tu thf iibp of the raiHcal alone, 
the radical with thp passive particle in the Hecond iwrsoiiM of thi.' ini 
rative, leaving tone or ifeBture to cuinpli-ment the meaning. 


Take. (it. them, fionie.) ' [^''f 
^ 'I hand. 

Kill, (it, them.) ilo 

Cast, (it, them.) do 

Look at. {it, them, him, her.) 

Buy. (it. them.) 

'ight.) i 

Tacb >. 





Tingni, tingntin. 




What whall I liny fnr hi* children.? Buy -^om^ Iny^- tor them. Shall" 
I send the servant for bread.? Send him. Shall 1 kill the big cock,? Kill 
it. What should he do with that money.? Let him return it to him. 
Do you believe there will be money enough-? I think there will not be 
RuSicient. What does he wish to have.? He wiahei^ to have something to 
drink. How does he fee!.? He seems to be very ill. What did vnur sist- 
ers tell him.? They told him that they will come by six o'clock. What 
about Mr. Reynolds,? J hear that he is going to .start a rice-husking bu- 
sineHs. Why do you go on fiwit.? I like better to walk than (to) riile. Whal 
do you bring me there.? I bring you som«^ oil. What an idiot you are.'. 
I tell you to bring water, and you bring oil, ymi are behaving badly and 
it will" serve you right if you got a drubbing. Why are these clolhet- thup 
destroyed.? Because they were eaten up by moths. Where is the fruit des- 
troyed by ravens.? I threw it to, the swine. What has l)een spoiled by 
ants.? The plants of my garden, have been all of them .spoiled by antw. 
and the trees dug up by swine. What does he carry along in walking.? 
He carries along some food to eat oil his way. (journey). What do kites 
carry off.? Kites carry off chickens. Why is the food bo badly cooked.? 
Because the cook hai* cooked it in a hurry. Did you read the paper I 
lent you yesterday.? I did superficially (perused, looked over). How shall 
I make this translation.? Make it slowly, Do you engage in prayer the 
whole night.? I pray the whole night. Did she do it willingly.? She 
did. Is this letter well written.? No, write it again. Did he use a tool 
to make that.? No, he made it with his hands. Does the carpenter work 
on wages or by the job.? He works by the job. Did you rip your 
shirt.? No. I have not yet ripped it. Did Peter tear the book-leaves.? He 
did. How does your grandmother brsak the betel nut.?- She uses to crack 
it with her teeth. Will your sister break the ring.? She will. Is the 
rope parted. It is. Whom did he slap.? He slapped his servant. Why 
did not my brother shake (flap) his clothes clean.? He had to pound 
the rice. Why does your child throw away fruits.? He is amusing himself 
by throwing some in the air. What are those boys doing,? They are hurl- 
ing stones at your horse. May I take that bonk.? Take it. Where 
shall I put those papers,? Throw them away. Where are the birds.? 
Over there, look at them. Do you wish your frieftd to buy the horse.? 
Let him buy it, What are you looking at.? I am looking at the stars 
on the sky, they shine very brightly. Whom are you looking to see on 
that window,? I am looking to see my child who was just a while 
playing with his schoolmales, but I nu longer see him. Whom is Pete 


looking back for.? He is looking back for Mary who remained at the 
well. What did you see at the theatre.? I beheld there the killing of 
king Richard the Third. What vere the love-engaged parties doing.? They 
were looking sideways at each otlier. Why do you not climb up that 
tree.? Because I am afraid of your looking upwards at me. From where 
did you sight the ship.? I sighted her from the summit of that mount- 
ain. Whv does his sister look fixedlv at me.? Because she likes vou. 

i { 




The Btudent will probably be much surprispil when at this stage of the 
work be ha» not found Kuch abstract terms as are comtnon in modern langu- 
ages. Thi8 lack of apecitic terma it> only natural to every language or 
dialet^t in its primitive state. The ancient condition of Tagala and their 
present comparatively backward state of culture account for such deficiency 
Every abstract idea of a thing, action or event not wcurring to their minds or 
being presented to their sensea, Kuch an they could not be acquainted with 
in their isolated condition of life before the conquest, has to be conveyed 
to them by having recourse to il^panish words or through parables nr 
metaphors, while, on the other hand, they have a profusion of words, 
either of a general or local use, for every shade of meaning of such 
things and actions as represent their customary dealings and transactions. 
A fair opportunity offers itself to the learner for exercising bis mind by 
availing himself of the words he is already acquainted with, to convey 
the notion of such things and acts as have not proper terms of expression 
in Tagalog. If the speaker is conversant with Spanish and considerfl 
that the native whom he is addressing has been initiated in the lang- 
uage or that he has held some intercourse with Spaniards, the former 
will do well in trying first if by Tagolizing the proper Spanisli term 
for the abstract notion be wants to convey, he succeeds to make himself 
understood. If he fails, he must then have recourse to such Tagalug 
words as may best serve his purpose, by using them in the way of parable 
or definition. 

We aubjoin sets of words and expressions showing the copiousness of 
terms for certain thingt^ and the scantiness for others, and how the latter 
may be replaced. In the latter case au English translation, as literal as it 
can be, of the allegorical Tagolog phracie is added on a third column; 
little care having been paid to the sense that the student may thus receive 
more valuable information. 


Rice, (generical term). 

great deal of / , 



Do. {coming early in the season). Fauni 
Do. (when it has not yet attained a 

state of maturity). 
Do. (coming last in the eeason.) Pabuli. 

Do. (coming from or resembling / 

that of Camarines.) \ 


















(having agglutinant i)roi>or- ) ... , 
ties.) » I'liorotong. 

(resemblintr in shapt* certain ^ ,,. , 

little fi.h called dolont,.) \ I>'nolonK. 

(black in colour.) Tinintti. 

(the ear of which tomewhat i 

resembles a flower named can- / Quinanda. 

dd.) • ) 

(very pointed in shape.) Quinarayom. (from ramj/om, "needle"). 

(bearing a downy matter en- / t> i i ' 

^ ' 'I \ I Bolohan. 

veloping it.) S 

(a kind of rice, the ear of </ nr^yu 
which abounds with grain.) i 

(a kind of rice which ^^^^^ ^ ^Xq^ '„ 

came from Macan.) \ 

(a kind of rice very while ) Quj^.^.tj,^ 

and savory.) \ 

(a kind of odoriferous rice, ) 

the grain of which resembles > Sinanqui. 

an is seeds.) ) 

(a kind of rice resembling in ^ Sir.,|rnbilai cr 
shape a fish named aomhiJavg.) \ '^' 

(a kind • of rice flavoring of ^ .v„. . ,. 
musk.) S Quinastoh. 

(the grain of which is licelike.) Tinonia. 

(the plant of which l>ears resem- y rp. i i -i 
11*. J V • linalanib. 

I)lance to common reed grass). \ 

(big-eared rice.y Binatad. 

(a kind of rice of a metallic ) Ti\.ii,v.k««, 
\.,. V / nnumhaga. 

gutter). \ ^ 

(a kind of rice, the shoot of i 

which resembles an herb called > Binambang. 

hn whang), N 

(a king of rice bearing gossamer Bontot pusa. (cat-tail.) 

all over). 

(roasted rice.) 

(unclean rice for pigs.) 

(food, boiled rice.) 

(void rice, empty husk of rice.) 

(roasted green pounded rice.) 

Bontot cabayo. (horse-tail.) 

Safigag, sinafigag. 


Canin, sinaing, morisqueta. 



To give, (generical term.) 

To give, to grant permission. 

To give the first fruits. 

To give an account, lesson. 

To give money on interest. 

To give a pledge. 

To give a salary. 

To give warning. 

To give satisfaction. 

To give earnest money in token that 

a bargain is ratified. 

To give word, promise. 

To give (m credit. 

To give l)ountifuliy. 

To give freely, willingly. 

To give, to present witli. 

Bigay, magbigay. 

Pahint<51ot, magpahint61ot. 


Siilit, magpasulit. 


Sanla, magsanla. 

Opa, umupA. 

Alam, umalam. 

Hinauad,manhinauad; maghigdy lo<S)>. 

Tampsi, tumampa; patinga, magpati- 



Mag6tang, magpaiitang. 

Biyaya, magbiyaya. 

Caloob, magcal6ob. 

Handog, maghandog. 






Accident, fit. Biglang. saqiiit. 

In future. \ f^*! I>a»ah6ng haharapin. '( 

I or darating. ( 

Isolated. Napaitsa. 

Common sewer, gutter, \ ^angbang na inaagosan 
jj^, ' ^ ' { nang manga dumi, at 

^ * ' ( pinaghugasan. 

^j S Panday bato, mangaga- } 

i ua nang bahay na bato. \ 

Ang inaaring santong sii- 
lat nang inanga turco, o, 

Ilibrong . quinapapalam- 
nan nang mafiga cautii- 
san ni Mahoma. 

wHrth?kn(Ser. ^"'*" \ P^gtogtog ^^ pinto. j 

Reservoir for rain-water. \ Pinagtitiponan nang tti- 

{ big sa olan. 

I Bahay o camalig na pi- 

nagtatagoan nang sari- 

The Koran. 




Auction, judicial «ale of [ P^g^ibili sa cahayagan 

property by public auc- \ "*"g P^g^f ' "^ ""f^' 
f- *^ J ^ r- I jQ^g ^^ caalam ang Jn%' 

[ticia. (Sp.) 

f Pananaisay o pahayag, 
Allocution, address, har-J na di malauig, nang po- 
angue. j no sa eaniyang mafiga 

I sacop. 
Highness, (kink of ad- Galang at pagbati sa 
<lress.) mafiga dugong hari. 

Alveolus or socket of the Butas naquinatatamnan 

nang figipin. 
i CaliuiC at canan; tauong 
< ang caliua,i, para rin ca- 
( nan. 

\ Patauad o paglimot nang 

) hari nang caniying galit 

^, sa isang bay an o sa ma- 

1 ram ng tauo. 

Patatacuil sa Yglesia sa 
tauong souail na hung- 
mahamac nang Caniyfilng^ 








. - . 


f Pagbabahagui nang isdng 
• bangcay nang maquilala 
-i ang casangcapan nang 
I catauoan upang tamaan 
[ang paggamot. 
\ Hayop na nabubuhd;,'.ba 
( tiibig at sa 'cati. 


Sudden evil. 
At a time which will be 
present, at a time to 
Left alone. 

Trench, the place which 
serves for the filth and 
the rest of mud flowing. 
Stone -artist, maker, of 
stone houses. 
What is considered %6 
the Holy Scripture of the 
Turks, or, book in which 
the commandments of 
Mohammed are contain- 
ed, (printed) 

Sonorous striking at ihfi 

Place where rain watej 
is gathered. 

House or construction, 
the place where several 
things are concealed. 
Sale in public of pro- 
perty with the assistan- 
ce and knowledge of jus- 

Account or explanation, 
not long, from the chief 
to his subordinates. 

Respect and salutation 
to those of royal blood. 
Hole which holds the 

Left and right; person, 
the left equally right. 

Pardon or forgetting of 
the King's wrath towards 
a town or towards many 

Expulsion from the 
Church of (to) the person 
who is rebellious or who 
scorns Her command- 

Division of a cadaver, 
that the parts of the body 
may be known and the 
remedv mav be discov- 

Animal that liv^Jaiv^t- 
er and on land. 

6&Btard . 

To baptize. 







Bull, {aniiistrumentdif' 
patched from the papal 



Compositor, (in print- 

Calendar, almanac. 

An ti pope. 


Cannibal, antbropo- 


Nangdi pa nagcaciigdiiao 

\ Tau6ng siayao maniuala 

i iia may Dioe. 

^ Anac sn caliipaaii, aiia<; 

( sa ligao. 

Santong Siilat. 

\ LalttguiiLn nang mara- 

t ming libro. 

\ Pag-aatsaua nang may 

I asaua na. 

i Salita nang biihay nang 

I iiitang tau6, 

1 Caronofigang naoocol ta 

<pagquilala nang pana- 

( iiim. 

\ Librong datialan nang 

I maHga Pare. 

f Bula. (tip.) Siilat na ga- 

I ling sa Papa na quinala- 

i lamnan nang caniyang 

[ calo<5b o hatol. 

) Butag na pinaghoholo- 

) gang Hiilat sa correo. 
Hocbong sacay. 
Tauong nangaflgasiiia na 
pageasami, t , paghaha- 
nay nang maHga Iflra 
(Sp.) sa. limbagan. 
Muntfng librong quina- 
papalamnan nang ma- 
iiga Santo na may capis- 
tahan arao-arao at nang 
pagaicat, pagbilog at pag- 
eatunao nang bduan. 
Copnng (Bp.) guintd pi- 
lac na guinagamit aa ca- 
galang-galang na mcrifi- 
rio (Sp.) nang mit«a 6 pag- 
aalay aa Dio». 

fAng ungmaugao »>& ca- 

J longcolang pagcapapa. 

I Catalo o caagao nang 

[Papa. rSp.) 

iTauo patiuaric sa atin 

{ 6 tungmatahan ga cabila 

] nang lupang ating cata- 

Ang mngmacain nang 
Tiipoua tau6. 

Tagoan nang Hamit, 


^ When there wat* not yet 

( inundation. 

t Person who refuses to 

< own f trust) there is (one) 

Son from lecberoueness, 
ailventitiuuis sun. 

( To throw water Irom 

I above. 
Holy writing. 
Place for many books to 
be placed. 

Marriage of a person be- 
ing married already. 
Account of the life of only 
one person. 
Little sky. 

Knowledge that looks 
forward to the acquaint- 
ance with plants. 
Book containing the 
prayers for clergy. 
Writ arising from the 
Pope in which his mer- 
cies or advices are writ- 
ten, (printed). 

i Hole through which let- 

< ters are dropped into the 
f post-office. 

Mounted army. 
Person charged with the 
joining and combining of 
the letters in the print- 
ing-plant, (place). 
Small book where the 
daily commemoration of 
the Saints and the rising, 
full, (rounding) and wan- 
ing moon are printed. 



Cup (glass) of gold or ailv- 

l er, used in the wublimt* 

r sacrifice of mass or offer- [ 

ing to God. 

He who assumes the I 
dignity constitutive of 1 
Papacy. Competitor or J 
rival of the Pope. 
f Person lying in an in— 
I verse position to ours, 
-J or. living at the other 
I side of the Earth facing 

He who eats his fellow- 

I CoBce*ling place for gar- 
( medte. 

























Ycalau^ng pangalan. 
Dagdag sa libro. 


\ Pagtalicod sa ating Pa- 
/ figin6on Jesucristo. 

Second name. 
Addition to a book. 

^ Fit, resemblance of 

( death. 
Turning the back on 
Our Lord, Jesus Christ. 

j Ajmtd (Sp.) Alagad ni , pj^^j j^ ^^ j^^^^^ ^^^. 


i Talaan nang opa, bilyad Adyertisement of salary, 
I o halagang taning o tad- 
( hana nang mafiga puno. 

\ Capisanan nang mara- 
\ ming polo. 

j Tagoan nang matiga ma- 
( halagang casulatan. 


( Bahay o camalig na pi- 

< nagiiftgatan nang sari- 
( saring sandata. 
t Cariquitan navg togtog; 

< pagcacaayonayon nang 
( togtog o tinig. 

( Maestrongmaiunonggu- 

< maua nang mafiga sim- 
( bahan at bahay na bato. 

) Pagcataas, pagcasiilong 
/ nang catongcolan. 
\ Caronofigang 6col sa ma- 
\ figa bitoin. 

Pasiil nang Santa Ygle- 
sia 6col sa pagsampalata- 
ya,t, magaling na ogali. 

[ A n g pagcacahalohalo 
J nang lahat na bagay bago 
I linalang at pinagbobo- 
( codbocod. nang Dios. 

^ Mataas na pareng casan- 
( goni nang Papa. 

Pag-ibig sa Dios at sa 

capoua tauo. our neighbour. 

Pag-iiflgat sa cahalayan. j J^^"""" ^g^i"^* obscen- 
) Librong quinasusulatan Book on which doctrine 

pay or price fixed or en- 
acted by the rulers. 

Gathering of many isl- 

Hiding-place for valua- 
ble writings. 

^ King-hood, (muffle, king 

\ loing-cloth.) 

House or construction, 
the place where diversity 
of weapons are kept. 

Beautiful nes of sound; 
conformity of sound. 

Master who knows how 
to make churches and 

Rising, forwarding in 


Knowledge about the 


Decision from the Holy 
Church relative to Faith 
(the believing) or fair 

The confusion (medley) 
of all things when not 
yet created and separa- 
ted by God. 

Conspicuous (high) priest 
counsellor of the Pope. 
Love unto God and unto 

( nang dasal. 

\ Tau6ng nagaaral nang 

} dasalan. 

\ Catiponan 6 capisanan 

i sang sangcacristianohan. 


\ Daco nang langit riatata- 

( pat sa ating olo 

\ Y«ingbagagna pananim f . . , , 

is written. 

Person who learns doctr- 

Gathering or assemblage 
of the whole Christendom. 

\ (Corr. from Sp. word 

\ cehollas) 
Point of the sky right 
opposite our head. 









Chimney, funnel. 





/ n 

To communicate, to re- 
ceive Holy Communion. 



Caasalan, s e r e m o n i a. 
, (corr. from Sp, word ce- 
f remonia). 

Yt-^ng alac na ganit6 ang 
. ngalan ; serbesa. (corr. 
f from Sp. word cerveza.) 


\ Pagcacabagobag6 sa 
} iba,t, ibang camay. 

( Pagcasulong nang manga 

^ baya,t, mafiga tau6 sa ca- 

( ronongan. 

\ Ang pinagdadaanan 

/ nang aso. 
Catiponan nang mai\ga 
caotosan at pasia nang 

) Ysarig bagay na gulayiri, 

f coles (Sp.) 

fCapisanan nang manga 

j tauong tungmatahan sa 

" isang bahay na natatala- 
ga sa pagtuturo,t, pag- 
aaral nang carunungan. 
Capisanan nang maiiga 
tau6ng ypinadadala sa 
ibang lupain nang maca- 
pamayan d6on. 6, ang lu- 
gar (Sp.) namang pina- 

i Cus 


A liquor thu.s called. 



Earl, count. 


j Maquinabang. 

Pagquilala nang maga- 
ling na dapat sundin at 
nang masamang siicat 

ll rinagcasondoan nang 

I Papa at nang Hari. 

i Capolofigan nang manga 

< rardenales (Sp.) sa pag- 

f halal nang Papa. 
Tauong may carafigalan 
na gayon ang tauag,c*o?t- 
de (Sp.y 

\ Tindahan nang sarisa- 

^ ring matamis. 


i The state of passing cont- 
\ inually from one hand 
( to another. 

Advancement of towns 
and people in wisdom. 

The passing-through way 

for smoke. 

Collection of laws and 

regulations from the 


A sort of vegetable. 

Assembly of persons 
lodging at the same house 
and who are devoted 
to the teaching or learn- 
ing of knowledge. 
Congregation of i)ersons 
who are taken to other 
land, there to settle in 
towns, or, also the place 
where they gather in 

To receive benefit. 

Knowing of the good 
which should be follow- 
ed, and of the evil deserv- 
ing to be shunned. 
Covenant made by the 
Pope and the King. 

f Meeting of cardinals to 
i elect the Pope. 

Person possessing the dig- 
nity thus called. 

Shop of various sweet 


• • • 

What does fit mean.? A .^udden ill. What does isolated mean.? 
Left alone. What is a mason.? A maker of stone houses. What is 
the Koran.? The Koran is what is considered as the Holy Scripture for 
the Turks, a book containing the doctrine and laws of Mohammed. What 
i^ A warehouse.? A house or conftruction for several things to be concealed in. 
What ij^ a public auctiao.? The sale in public of property with th^ assistance and 


knowlecige (mivice) of Justice. What i;* fl Imrangue.? A short ftddrfSF from 
ft chief to hia riuhordinatew. What is an amnesty.? A pardon or forget- 
ting on the part of the king towards rebellious people. What is anathema.? 
The expulsion from the Church of the peraon who scorns her commandment;'. 
What is Anatomy.? A science treating of the different parts ef the body, 
What does um]phibious mean.? AmphibioUB means an animal that can 
live both in water and on land. What doe^ antediluvian mean.? Ante- 
diluvian means what Joiisted beforu the deluge. What is an Antipope.? 
He who assumes unlawfully the dignity of Pope. What is an antip- 
ode.? The inhabitant living at a point of the Earth opposite ours. 
Who is a. cannibal.? He who eats hip fellow creatures. What is a ward- 
robe. It is the concealing place for clothes. What is an appendix.? An 
addition to a book. What is apoplexy.? The resemblance of death. What 
is apostasy."? The turning of the back on our Lord Jesus Christ. What 
is an apostle,? An apostle is a disciple of Jesus Christ. What is a tariff.? 
Salary, pay or price fixed by the Authoritiefi. What is an Archipelago.? 
Sea containing many islands. What kind of things are Archives.? The 
concealing place for papers and valuable writings. What is an armory.? 
House or construction, the place where a diversity of weapons is kept. What is 
Harmony.? Beautifulness or conformity of sounds. What is an architect.? 
An artist knowing how to make churches and houses. What is Astronomy.? 
Knowledge abiiut the stars. What is an atheist.? Person who refuses to 
acknowledge the existence of ttod. What iw a bastard.? A child not born 
from marriage. What is the Bible.? A hook containing the Holy Scripture. 
What is a library.? The place where many books are collected. What 
is bigamy,? A second unlawful marritige. What is a biography.? An 
account of the lite of one ))erBon, Wbal is a vault,? A little sky. Whai 
is Botany.? The I'cience of plants, What is a breviary,? A Ixmk 
containing prayers for clergy. What is a hull.? A writ dispatched from 
the Pope to mnke his mercies or advices known. What is a letter-box,? 
A hole through which letters are dropped into the jiost office. What is 
Cavalry,? A mounted army. What is a compositor.? Person who joinf^ 
and combines letters in a pnnting bouse. 
book containing the feats of every saint, 
silver cup used in the mass. What is 
Holy Church, relative to Faith. What i 

things before their being created by God. What is a cardinal,? A 
conspicuous priest counsellor of the Pope. What is charity.? Love unto 
God and unto our neighbour. What is Chastity.? Caution against obscen- 
ity. Who is a catechumen,? A person who learns doctrine. What does 
zenith mean.? The point of the sky right opposite our heads. What is 
beer.? A sort of lii^uor. What is Science.? Science is wisdom. What 
is Civilization,? Advancement of nations or people in science,? What is 
a chimney.? A conduit for the smoke. What is a Code.? A collection 
of laws and regulations from the king. What is a cabbage.?. A sort of 
vegetable. What is a college.? An assembly of persons living at the same 
house and who devote themselves to the leaching or acquiring of knowledge. 
What is a colony,? A congregation of persons who are taken to another 
land, there to settle in towns. What is couBcience,? Knowing of the good 
to be followed and of the evil to be ovoidetl. What is conclave,? The 
meeting of cardinals to elect a Pope. What is a count.? A jwrsoii hearing 
the dignity thus called. What Is a confectionery.? shop of various sweet 

What is a 

n almanac? A sniail 

What is a 

chalice.? A gold or 

1 canon.? 

A decision from the 

8 chaos.? 

The contusion of all 



TAGALOG. (continued). 




To confess. 













^ Pagcacatipong lihin sa 
( paglaban sa [)ono. 

( Catiponan nang mafiga 
^ bitoin na hindi pabago- 
f bago. 

Calacal na bauali 
i Tahanan nang manga 
) fraile o monja, (Sp.) 

JLugar na pinagtitiponan ) 
nan manga pare sa pag- > 
dadasal. ) 

S Catiponan nang mafiga 
} tau6ng nagaauit. 
\ Y&ang pono nang mafiga ) 
I sondalo. ) 

Caronoiigang nao<ScoI sa 
pagquilala nang lagay at 
pagcayari nitcng mun io. 

S Pagcasalaysay nang ca- 
) lagayan nitong mundo 

S Bibigobutas nang mafiga 

( volcdn, iSpA 

^ Paglalang. Pagcoha sa 
unhi nang Pafigindon 
l>ios nang mafiga bagay. 

\ Ang hi hat na linalang 

( nang Oios. 

S Ang hiniuan ni Cristong S 
i hrt|m|mp«iH> 8a rnir. <Sp.) ) 

y rrtg\^rto»li|HUiatpag8Usu- 
. U»Mtt nting hiH*lH)ng laban 
f «rt \\\M\^M k\\ binyagan. 



(Corr. from Sp. word can- 


Secret meeting to oppose 

a ruler. 

Action of remembering. 

Cluster of stars not chang 
ing place. 

Prohibited commodity. 
Lodging-place of friars 
or nuns. 

Place where priests ass- 
emble for prayers. 

Meeting of persons who 

A chief of soldiers. 

Knowledge referring to 
the aquaintance with 
the position and shape of 
this world. 

Explanation of the loca 
tion of the parts of this 

Mouth or hole of volca- 

Act of creating. Snatching 
of the things from Chaos 
by Our Lord God. 
(i) believe. 

Every thing created bv 

The image of Christ in a 
posture nailed to the 

Meeting and march of 
the army against heath- 
ens, (those not baptized.) 

Poiket-ho()k, yi 


To tun Ulh.N 

To I haw, 




To pave. 



I Soson-soBonn jiappl iia ti- 
iin|>)i]iH. <clop at tinahing ana- 

(qiiing liliro. 

J Ycaapatnabahiigui naiig 

I mabilug. 

I. (rtp.) Aug pa- 
nuh<Sng nauuna Ha PaKro 
(corr. from Sp. word Pnn- 
niii) nang pa.gcabi!hay, 
naypinagotos nang San- 
ta Igleyiang houag ou- 
muio nang lamangcati. 

I Arao oa caganapan nang 

: taon oapafiganacan ^a 

f if^ng tand. 

i Paglulotu nang niaaga 

^balaL nil guinagauang 

/ ^apin. 

^ Ang sangpiuKing otnn 

I nang Dioh. 

I Oasalanang pagputiiy ea 
DiuH na para nang gui- 

-{ nana nang mafiga J^tilw 

I (Sp,)8a Ating Pafiginoon 

1 Jesuoristo. 


Parcel of papers foldnl 
and stitched togftlu^r m- 
a book. 

Fourth part of what 1b 
circular, (round) 

Ba:<t«r. Thf time (space) 
prct^uding the feast of Kc- 
tiurrt'ction, during which 
I the Holy Church orders 
to refrain from eating 

Day of the year in which 
the on(» nf the birth of a 
pi^rson is aorompliphed. 

( Cooking nf hides out of 
i whieh shoes are madi;. 

Thf Ifn commandmentf 
of God. 

I Sin, the act of killing 
[God aa it was done by 
r Jewfl lii Our f-ord JesuH 

L Mangagiimot, manliliniH ) 
? at manhuhusiiy nang) 
f ngipin. ^ 

* Tagoiin nang maRga pag- 
I cain, 

i Librong parang tandtian 
\ na quinasu^ulatan nang 
f lahat na uica. 
I DMemliTf. (Sp.) Paflga 
\ Ian nang b(^uang cata- 
( pi»an nang taon. 



, cleaner and arr- 
of teeth. 

IPagcacasonodfwinod nang 
maSga hari na iimang' 

1 Lupang nasaKUCopan at 
■ pinagpoi>onoan nang 
f i,-ang olii^i>o. 
\ Paghihiuabiy iiang mag- 

\ Lahi^ na pag-ibig na ca- 
I niy4 liimang. 

\ Urong-solong. Uniicwi,t, 
i humaha, 

iPagalix nangtaurt^aca- 
I niyang hayan. 
Maglatag nang bato. 

To melt, to dissolve. 
Concealing place tor vic- 

Book like a registry 
where all the words arc 

Name of the month nt 
the end of the year. 

) Inundation, (occurring 

I once only.) 
Essence of Gtid. 
Orderly succession (con- 
catenation) of kings of 
the same (only one) 


Land belonging to, and 
within the jiiriMliction 
of a bishop. 

Separation of both marr- 
ied parties. 

Excess of love tor him- 
self, (only.) 

Backwards and forward. 
To alretch in and to 
stretch out. 

(ioing away (exit) of 
people from their town. 
To outspread stones, 







To book-bind. 


To ride. 
Foreigner, stranger. 


Extreme unction. 






Frenzy, distraction. 

To smoke. 

Glory, bliss. 






Cagalang-galang at ma- 
taas na inisterio (Sp.) na 
- pagcaca ta ouan t4iu6 
I uang Verhoug (Sp.) da- 
! quila. 

\ Catiponan nang lahat na 
f carunuiigan. 

Balatan ang libro. 
( Enero. (Sp.) Paiigalan 

< nang un^ng b<5uan nang 
( tadn. 

Piesta nang tatl6ng hari. 


Sumacay sa cabayo. 

Taga ibing lupain. 

Casulatan quinasasay- 

sayan nang caguilaguila- 

las at cagalang-galang 
v^na biihay ni Cristo. 

Santong lana. 

i Pafigalan nang isang b<S- 
( uan. Febrero. (Sp.) 
C Mafiga tau6ng nasasacop 

< nang ising cura tongcol 
( sa caloloua. 

Naoocol sa babave. 
Caningasang nang loob. 

f Most venerable and lofty 
I mystfery of the Incarna- 
I tion (the act of assuming 

a body) of the Word. 

(second person of Holv 
L Trinity). 

Collection of all the 


To skin books. 

Name of the first month 
of the year. 

Feast of the three kings. 
Time, weather. 
To embark on horse. 
From other land. 



Anae na nasatian pa. 

Pag-ibig sa capoua tauo. 

\ Caololan mabafigis na 
( may halong lagnat. 
\ Hangauan nang isang ca- 
ll harian. 
Manabaco. (Sp. word ta- 
baco conjugated by man). 
Manigarrillo. (Sp. word 
cigarrillo conjugated by 
Pono sa hocbo. 

Tauong sacdal nang laqui 


( Pagquilalft pagpahalaga 
( nang dtang na loob. 

r Ang capisanan nang ma- 
J figa panotong casangca- 
1 pan sa mahiisay na pag- 
1^ sasalita,t, pagsiilat. 

HocbiSng lacad. 

Malayo sa catunayan. 

Ualang daan ycahiisay. 

Writing in which the ad- 

-mirable and venerably 

life of Christ is expos^. 

Holy oil. 

I Name of a month. 

Persons dependent of a 

curate in what refers^ to 

the soul. 

Relative to woman. 


Inward blaze. 
i Son still in the womb 
( (belly) 

S Loving our neighbour. 
} (fellow, creature) 

Furious madness with a 

mixture of fever. 


Boundary of a kingdoBo. 

I To use tobacco, To use 
j cigarettes. 



Person, the pith of tall- 


L Acknowledgment of the 
< value of a debt from the 
( heart. 

The collection of mles 

necessary to speak and 

to write in an orderly 


Walking army. 

Far from being real. 
^ Lacking the way ta be 
( arranged. 


Full moon. 
Waning luoon. 











Mo th er-^ ou ii t ry 



To petrify, 



To profane"-- 


To progress,'; 


Cabayoiig miintii 
I PaHgalan nang bouaiig 
' ycapito aa latad nang 
f taiJn. JuHn. (Sp.) 
' bona II iia Jac&d nang 
f tadii. 

Bagfing bouaii. 

Cabilogan nang bdnuii. 
\ Tiinao. Ycnapat aa. pag- 

f Hit. 

Ycaapat na. paglaqiii. 

L Marzo. (Sp.) Paugalan 
( nang biSuan ycatld sa la- 
f tad nang taon. 

Naodcol sa lalaqui, 

k Mayo. ( Sp. ) Paiigalan 
- nang bduan ycalimk s>a 
I liicad nang taon. 


Pagbabag6, pag-iilia. 
1 Sanglibotan, i^angtiuac- 
' pan, 

\ Orhibrr. (Sp.) Pangalan 
; nang bouan ycauangponA 
1 sa. lacad nang taon, 

Bahay lapati. 

Bah ay bata. 

Tiniipay . 
I Papa. Ca taastansau I'lui- 
I tifiet (Sp.) aa Roaia cu- 
( halili nang ating Pangi- 
Ijlodn Jesucristo sa Inj^a. 

) Caguinhauahaii.calonal- 
f Italian, 
father- j Lup^„g tinolwan. 

\ Pag-ibig sa c a n i y a n g 
f liayaii. 

Toiitofigan, paahau. 


Haliguing batft. 

Patiday pilac. 

Bantiiy pinto. 
\ Bagay na dl nao6col f:& 
-- I Dios <5 sa sirab&han'. 
I Piiggamit sa diU ddpat 
' nang mafiga bagay na 
( na&ficol ?a Dipp. 



^fingdali, ^angdalirj:, . ' 


Small horse. 

Name of the sp^'enth 
month in the way (cjour- 
He) of the year, 

^ Sixth month in the way 
(. of the yeaPv 

Iloundnesf of the mooti. 
Melting. Fourth part tow- 
ards the growing lese. 

\ Fourth part towards the 

( growing up. 
Name of the month, third 
in the way (course) of the 

Relative to male. 
Essence of motherhood- 
Name of tlie month, fifth 
ill the way (course) of the 

Renewal, cliaugillg. 
The whole around, every- 
thing covered. 
Name of the month. 
tenth in the way (court-e) 
iif the year. 
Pigeon house. 
House of the child. 

Highest Pontiff in Rome. 
rau&titute for our Lord 
Jesus Christ, on Earth. 

(one) has 



( Resting-placi 

( Soil where 
1 grown up. 

f Love for hit- 

Foot-standing place. 

To convert into sUtne. 

Stone column. 

Silver- worker. 

I Matter which doe& not 
V belong to God or to the 
( Church. 

The using to foms undue 

purpose of the tbiogs- 

corresponding to God. 


To get (push)'forwarfl. 
\ The whole i-pace (com- 
I ent3) of a 4ng6r. •' 







Watch, clock. 
To tow. 

To apostatize. 


To resuscitate, (trans.) 









Simon V. 




Subsistence, livelihood. 

Suicide, self-murder. 



Drop cui||tai<l. 

Sanlang mahal na tau6. ^ 

Haring babaye. 


) Tumalicor sa ating Pa- 
f iigindon Jesucristo. 

Pagtatacuil sa asaua. | 

) Buhaying oli, buhayin 

( p0nibag6. 

j Cahalili nang Dios, ama 

( nang cololoua. 
Calapastafiganan sa ma- / 
iiga bagay na nao<5col sa ] 
Dios. ^ 

Tauong lapastafigan sa 
Dios 6 sa mafiga naodcol 
sa Dios. 
Gamot sa caloloua. 
Naoocol sa Dios. 

\ A u i t sa pagpupuri sa ( 
} Dios. I 

\ Catiponan nang i§ing ) 
{ daa,t, liming pou6ng ) 
\ mlmo (Sp) quinatha ni 
( David. 

Pagcacamit nang caga- 


Manonobos, mananacop. 
Septiemhre. (Sp.) Pafiga- 
lan nang b<$uan icasiyam 
sa lacad nang tadn. 

Sangdaang ta<5n. 


Pagbibili nang maftga bi- 

yaya 6 bagay na nao6col 

sa caloloua. 

Simbahan nang mafiga ) 

Judio. ) 

Hanay nang pafigofigo- ) 


Bofigang t61og. 




Caronofigan magtalatag 

nang hocb6. 

Paraam nang pagstilat 

na casingtulin nang pa- 


Pahinging tot6ong mala- 

yb ang abot. 

Tabing nang comedia- 


Pledge of a conspicuou?. 
Place of the hours. 

To turn the back on our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 
Dismissal of (to) -^ the 

To make live again, to 
make live anew. 
Substitute for God, fa- 
ther of souls. 

Audacity in the things 
which belong to God. 

Bold person towards GcJd 
or towards things belong- 
ing to God. 
Medecine for the soul. 
Relative to God. 

Song fpr praising God. 

Collection of the hundred 
and fifty psalms compos- 
ed by David. 

Attainment of the good. 

Redeemer, redemptor. 
Name of the month, 
ninth in the order 
(course) of the year. 
Space of one hundred 

Selling of the gifts or 
things appertaining to 
the soul. 

Temple of the Jews. 


i Twisting of the speech. 

Fruit from sleep. 
The essence of life. 
Act of allowing one's self 
to be killed. 
Contents, inside. 
What causes Kfe. 
Science for the placing 
of an Army in order. 

Art of writing as swiftly 
as speaking. 

Looking instrument very 


Curtain of th* play- 




Theology, Divinity. 


( Caronofigang naoouol ea Rcienoe looking forward 
/ pagquilalA sa Dion. to the knowing of Go(i. 

^ Pagc.quilala„.„, ) k„„„.We. of Ihings bv 
/nSg' " '""'"""'' "('I" understanding only'. 

Potong nang Papn, t'rowii of the Pope. 

) Pagsasdin .a il.ang uicu. \ *^.«Pyj"8 '"*° "^l"*^ '*"- 

' / guage. 


I Catatlohan. Aiiscagalaii- i • ■ ■ . ,\, tu 
\ ., . ..1 ' * f Joining ui three. The 

< galang na tat ong pfr- ]■ 11.. n _ _ 


Table servitf.crockerv. 

Virgin itv, 
JIare. " 

J Manga Imb.iiiugnin. 
('abuuui)g catiiuuau. 
C'abayong liabaye. 

i nerable three Persona. 

rrhings which will b, 
f lirokeii. 

Entirely of the hoJy. 

female horae. 


What IB a conspiracy.? A meeting to oppose a ruler. What is a 
memoration.? An action of remembrance. What is a constellation.? A 
luster o£ stars not changing place. What is smuggling.? A prohibited 
commodity. What is a convent,? A lodgiiig-hoHHe forfriars or nuns. What 
in a choir? The place where prieBtPHseemblt^to say prayers. What in a 
chorus.? A number of persons singing together. What is a colonel.? A 
chief of soldiers. What is Cosmogony.? The scienc* acquainting u« with the 
poeitton and shape of this world. What is Cosmography.? An account 
of the formation of the different parts of this world. What is a crater.? 
The mouth of volcanoes. What is a creature,? Any thing created by God. 
What is a crucifix.? The image of Christ nailed to the Croi^s. What is ii 
quadrant.? The fourth part of a circumference. What is licnt,? The space 
of time preceding the Resurrection feast-day and during which Roman Church 
forbids to eat meat fixid. What is a birth-day.? The day anniversary of 
the birtli of a person. What is the Decalogue.? Tlie ten commandments 
of God. What is a dentist.? A curer, cleaner and arranger of teetli. 
What is a pantry.? Coneealing-place for victuals. What is a dictionary.? 
Book in the way of registry, where all the words are written. What is 
a dynasty.? The orderly succesion of kings of the same lineage. What is a 
Diocese.? Land within the jurisdiction of a bishop. What is Divinity. 
Tb« attributes of (iod. What is selfishness? Excess of love for the 
self. ( one's body ). What is emigration.? Exit of people to another 
land. What ii- to pave.? To stretch out stones. What is a foreigner.? 
A person from another land. What is Gospel.? Book in which the 
life of Christ is exposed. What is feminine.? What refers to woman. 
What is a fctu.-.? Creature still in the womb. What is Philanthropy.? 
Love for our fellow creatu^e^. \Vhat is to smoke.? To use tobacco or 
cigarettea. What ife a general.? An army-chief. What is bli^s.? Rest. 
Vrt^t ih gralefulnesE.? Acknowledgment of a debt from the heart. Wha1 
is grammar.? The collection of rules to speak and write properly. What is 
Infantry,? Army marching on foot. \VTiat is a pony.? Small horse. 
What is masculine? What refers to male. What is a pigeon-hole,? 
A lodging for pigeons. What is the womb ? The fcetua' lodging-place. Who 
13 the Pope.? The highest Pontiff at Rome. What is a parable.? A myst- 
ery. What is Paradise.'' A refting-place. What is Patriotism,? Love" for 
one's country. \'''hat is a pedestaX? A fooi-itanding place. What i^ a 
pillar.? A stone p61e. V.'hat is ah ibch.? The length-space of a finger. 


What is a queen.? A female-king. What is a sacrament.? A medecine 
for* the soul. What is sacred.? What relates to God. What is a century.? 
A hundred years' space of time. What is Syntax. ? Twisting ©f words. 
What is a tiara.? The Pope's crown. 

. . ff 

• ■ ■ • 
• < 

« > •• 

• • ; 

A • ■*. Aw •• 4P^^ 




As indicated elsewhere in this work we now subjoin a list of the 
most usual contractions and other peculiar ways os forming Tagalog comp- 
ounds, especially those in which the suffixes in and an enter. 

The majority of these figures of diction are syncopes or contractions 
affecting the last vowel of the root, or the latter and the final consonant 
or consonants thereof, which are dropped before receiving the aforesaid 
suffixes. There are, -however, some which are epentheses, that is to say, 
some, in which some letter or letters are replaced, inverted or inserted 
in the middle of the root, the structure of which is, in the latter case, 
expanded for the sake of euphony. 

The following compounds may be considered as examples of 



To roof. 

Commission , 

Pinch, pinching. 


Cell, apartment. 

To pass through, 

to pierce. 

To plant. 

To shift, to put on 

clean clothes. 

To spill. 

To blow. 

To deviate, to turn 


To fail, to err, not 

to hit the mark. 

To accifstom. 

To kiss. 

To substitute, to 
act for. 
To take. 

















Aptan aptin. 


Cotdan, cotdin or 



Bisan, bisin. 




Bihasnan, bihas- 

Hagcan, hagquin. 

Halinhan, halin- 


Conan, cunin. 

Atipan, atipin. 


Corotan, corotin. 




Bihisan, bihisin. 




Bihasaan, bihasa- 


Halican , hali 


Halilihan, hali- 


Cohdan, cohain. 






To arrive. 


Datnan, datnin. 

S Datifigan, dati- 
f ngin. 

To repair to, tc 
hurrv to. 

' 1 Agad. 

Agdan, agdin. 

Agaran, agarin. 



\ Caalipnan, alip 

- Caalipinan, alipi- 

1 * * * 

( nan, alipnm. 

nan, alipinm. 








Alagdan, alagdin 

Alagaran alaga- 





To cohabitate. 


Apdan, apdfn. 

Apiran, apirin. 

To pound in 

^ i Asod. 

Asdan, asdin. 

Asoran, asorin. 




Salt, to salt. 


Asnan, asnLn. 

Asinan, asinin. 





Low, meek. 




To bear on one'e 

' j Baba. 







To wet. 


Basan, basin. 

Basdan, basain 

To suffer, to bear. 


Bath^n, bathin. 

Batahan, batahin 

To pound rice. 


Bayan, bay in. 

Bay 6a n, baydin. 

To give. 




To buy. 



Bilihan, bilihin. 

To except. 


Bocdiin, bocdin. 

Bocoran, bocorin. 

Tolay open, to un- 

1 Buc&. 




To open. 




The other side. 


Cabilan, cabilin. 

^ Cabilaan, c a b i - 
( lain. 

To itch. 


Cathan . 


To cloak, to denv. 




To bite. 


Cagtan, cagtin. 

Cagatan, cagatin. 



Caliuan, caliuin. 

< Caliuaan, eali- 


( uain. 

To loose, to untie. 


Calgan, calguin. 


To attain, to obt- 

f Camit. 



To eat. 


Canan, canin. 

Cainan, cainin. 

To grope for. 


Capan, capin. 

Captan, capdin. 

To grasp, to em- 

i Capit. 

Captan, captin. 

Capiian, capitin. 

To apprehend, to 

1 Daquip. 



To clothe. 


Damtan, damtin. 

Damitan, damitin 

To bring, to carry. 


Dalhan, dalhin. 

Dalahan, dalahin. 

To touch. 


Damhan, damhin. 

( Damahan, dama- 
( bin. 

Road, to pass. 


Danan, danin. 

Daanan, dhanin. 

To prostrate. 




To stick, to adhere. 


Dictan, dictin. 

^ Dicquitan,dicqui- 
/ tin. 

To hear. 


Dinggan, dingguin 

{ Difigigan, diiigi- 
( guin. 




To stretcTi out 

one's arms. 


To do one's duty, 

to fulfill. 

Work, to do, to 


To awake. 

To pull down, to 

To repair to, to 
run to the assist- 
ance of somebody. 
To conjecture, to 
note, to guess. 

To send, to remit, 

to take along, 

to accompany. 

Ribbon, band, 


To sow, to scatter 


To borrow, to 

lend things. 

To lie down. 

Shame, bashful- 


To complain. 
To ask for. 
To wait. 

To clean from lice. 

Other, to change. 
To go for water. 
To make water. 
To unload, to 
alight, to light 

Large, great, to 



Inside, inward 


To soften. 

Far, distance. 


To put, to place, to 

To make merry. 
To spit. 

By and by. 
To mistake. 
To observe, to ex- 

To begin, to com- 

f Dipa. 
^ Ganap. 








I Hiya. 











La man. 










j Mohi. 


Diphan, diphin. 
Dugan, duguln. 

Gaoan, gaoin. 

Guiban, guibin. 


Dipahan, dipahin 
Dug6an, dugdin. 

Gauaan, gauain. 


Guibiian, guiba- 


HalaUn, halatin. j Halataan, h a 1 a- 




Hirman, hirmin. 




Hiiigan, hifigin. 

i Hifigot^n, hifigo- 
l tin. 

Ybhan, ibhin. 

Ygban, igbin. 


Ybsan, ibsln. 

Lac-han, lac-hfn. 



Latan, latin. 
Lay an. 

Lag-ian, lag-in. 


Lis-an, lis-in. 
Maliin, malin. 





Hiraman^ h i ra- 
m in. 


Hifigian, hiilgiin. 
Hintay in. 
Hifigot(5 an, hi- 

Ybahan, ibahin. 
Yguiban, iguibin. 

Ybisan, ibisin. 

Laquihan, laqui- 




Lataan. latain. 



Lagayan, lagay in 

Logoran, logorin. 
Lisaan, lisain. 
Malian, maliin. 








To oj)en one's 

To make thin. 
To chew. 
To return, to rep- 

To settle, to appe- 

To contain, to in- 
clude, to print, to 
lie manifest. 
To dream. 
To itch. 
To listen. 
To part, to split, to 
To squeeze. 
To tlirow a ker- 
chief round one's 

To crush, to crack. 
To press into the 
To fill. 
To cut. 

To sweat, to pers- 
pire, perpiration. 
White, to whiten. 

To nibble. 

To cut off with the 


To embark, to 


Pain, to rack. 

Tale, to narrate. 
Fault, harm. 


To come back, to 

give back. 

To render narow- 


To set fire to 


To eat, to devour. 

To follow, to obey. 

To wonder. 

To cover. 

To hew, to cut 


To turn one's back 


To hold, to grasp. 

To stand. 

To taste, to test. 

[ Sganga. 










> Pingi. 










\ Sganhan, figan- 
} bin. 



Olan, ol-in, 




Pigan, pignin. 



Pisan, pisfn. 

j Pisil. 



Ponan, ponin. 
Potlan, iK)tlln. 

j Pauis. 





Quibtan, quibtir 

j Quitil. 

Quitlan, quitlfn. 

i Sacav. 

Sac- van. 


Sactan, sactin. 



Salitan, salitfn. 

Saman, samfn. 
S Sanghan, sang 
( hfn. 

f 5tgafigahan, nga- 
( figahin. 



Olian, ulfiu. 



Patiran, patirin. 

Pigaan, pigain. 


Pisaan, pisain. 


Ponoan, pon6in. 
Potolan, potoiin. 


( Quibitan, quibit- 
( in. 

\ Quitilan,quitilin. 


S Saquitan, saqui- 
} tin. 

Salitaan salitdin. 

Ham^n, samain. 
) Saflgahan, saf^ga- 
i bin. 

Saolan, saolin. Saolfan, saoliin. 

Sicpan, sicpfn. 

L«:_ '. 


Silan, silin. 








Sildan, sildin. 














To look. 




To save, to Iw 

; Tipid. 

TiiHliiii, tip^lin. 

Tipiriin, tipirin. 

To redeem, 


Ttil.aan, tuhstn, 


To leave behind ae 




a. aurphiB. 

To crush lice with 
the nails. 




To peok, to sting. 


Tuciin. toquiu. 

Tocaan, tocaln. 



Toyan. toyin. 

Tov<5an, toy6in. 

Nothing, to lack. 


flal-itn. ual-in. 

Ualaan, ualain. 


Truth. Pinch that child. Slavery. Salt the fish. Bear the log. Suf- 
fer the punishment. Pound that rice. Give rae bread. Buy the oil. Lay 
aside two for rae. Lay open the chest. I cannot attain it. This is boiled 
rice, (.irasp that knife. Seize the thief. Put on this Hhirt. Clothe that 
child. Bring that. Take it to your father. Lie down on your face upon 
this mat. Stick thin paper to the wall. Whom have you heard it from.? 
Kneel down and ntreteh out your arms before thiu imago. Do it. John 
perceived that I wai* angry. Chord that liarp. Sow this rice in the garden. 
Borrow this. Lie down on the floor. Complsiin of your friend. Ask ("for") 
H dollar from John. Wait for your mother. Clt-an that poor man from 
lice. Change the word. Go for water to the well. Make water into this 
pot. Lighten the servant of the load. Raitte my wages to five dollars. 
Place that on the table. Amu^a thiu child. Spit on him. Clean him from 
nits. Leave that off for a little while. Mistake in writing. Watch closely 
whether the dog is rabid. Commence the work. Make this stick thinner. 
Repeat the word. Pour beer into the glass. Write a good advice in the 
contents of the letter. Impose a name on your godchild. Listen to me. 
Part with that bad habit. Squeeze that lemon. Tie the kerchief round your 
head. Crack that egg. Press my hand. Fill up that vat. He is in 
perspiration. Cut out one yard of that stuff. Whiten those pantaloons. 
Nibble at the sugar. Cut off tiiat flower with yuur fingers. Mount on that 
horae. Tell what he said. Cut off some branches of the mango-tree that 
there may be plenty of fruit. Restore back to Frank (he money. Po not 
make your heart narrow. Set that filth on fire. Eat that meat. Follow your 
father. Admire the greatness of God. Cover that plate. Hew that tree. 
Turn your back on hira. Hold the candle. Stand on the border. Tatite 
this banana. Do it on purpose. Look at it. Save your money. Leave hJm. 
come food. Crufih that louse on the comb. Redeem yonr pledge. Put those 
clothes to dry. Blot out (cancel) what I owe you. 




In no better way is the natives' fancy displayed than in proverbs, 
adages, riddles and paradoxes, which, one might say, constitute the ver}' 
pith of their speech and are considered by them the highest form of wit. 

We give hereafter some Tagalog proverbs which have fairly exact 
counterparts in English. A translation, as literal as it can be, of the 
Tagalog words is offered opposite in a third column. This translation 
will be found in many cases to trample upon English syntax and accurateness. 
It is needless to say that this has been done on purpose and with a view 
to help the learner to a l>etter understanding of the matter. 




r An6 mang tfbay nang 
The thread will break j torseng abaca, capagnag- 
where it is weakest. ^i sosqIo(I). ualadinpuersa 


However strong the hemp 
fiber may be, if left alone 
lacks strength. 

A man's word should be Cun sinong umaco, si- Whoever promises, he 
as good as his bond. yang napapaco. *" -r becomes nailed. 

We see the mote in our [^''^l^^^iy''^^^^ One knows how t4> s^e' 

neigbour's eye, and noW !LrM^rf ^'f^^^ U^^rt cdU stain, wbil^' 

tb^ btem in OUT own 



j his face hangs with so^. 

A word is enough to^ the 

M maninong uimntmdi J ^ ^ ^ vcodanUnda. 

Paper speaks when men S Ualang mabuting sacsi 
are silent. ) para nang sa papel sabi. 

Money makes the mare S Pag may salaping titic, 
go. I pusa ma.i, tatalic. 

There is not so good wit- 
ness as what is said in 
a paper. 

There being ready mon- 
ey, even the cat will 

(1) Spanish word 9oIo, "alone", 

(2) ■ CoTT. from- Sp. word /fierza^ **8trength". 

(S) Cmintidi is the Spanish verb fntrndery "to undergtand" : tagalized and conjugated 
bv Mm. 





Opportunity lost is seld 
om regained. 

Nothing venture, noth- 
ing have. 

The scalded cat dreads 
cold water. 

Ang hindf tnagsaman- 
tala, magcamit ma,i. ma- ^ 
hirap na. 

Ang di magsapalaran, 
hindi macatatauir nang 

Pag ang tauo nasosocb 
tinatandaan ang pagto- 

He who does not avail 
himself of an opportunity 
though he may succeed, 
gets into trouble. 

He who does not risk 
anything will not cross 
the seas. 

When a man has butted 
his head he takes care 
to bend it. 

No one can tell what is Ang nagiiiuica nang ta- He who speaks of succ- 
to happen to him. piis ay siyang nacacapus. ess, is just he who fails. 

He that flatters you^ 
more than he was wont 
to do, either intends to 
deceive you or needs your 

Ang mapanuyo,t, magti- 
lang may masamang ti- 

He who is officious and 
flattering conceals evil. 


The master's eye fattens 
the horse. 

» 1 * 1 ' C What makes a horse grow 

Ang sa cabayo pagtaba \ . . . /.u-^^j-ux ,i,^ „. 

sa mata nang may alaga.;^;^^^^^^^^^ ^^^ -' 

Covetousness brings no- S Ang naghahafigad nang 
thing home. ) t'^g^'na. 8ang«ilop ang 

^ f nauauala. 

Tell me your companv f ^"^ ^f^^^^^ ^^ ^^ "^^": 
and I will tell you Wi\ ^"^^uiba, cung sumama 
vou are ^""^ manguiguiba,i, man- 

(^guiguiba na pati. 

Tell me your company Pagsumonod sa calabao 
and I will tell you what na 'may piitic, magcaca- 
you are. ptStic na pati. 

He who longs for half a 
{)eck, a whole one is miss- 

The buffalo that is not 
destructive, if it joins to 
the destructive will also 
become so. 

fin following a buffalo 
' besmeared with mud one 

will be filled with mud 

aB well. 

A» yen liT* yon .ball di«. j y?°g" matoya^^^*^ "" ^ ^' *• ^"* ^ ** **••*• 

f Cun ang caning ysinusu- 
Thereismany a slip bet- J bo ay nalalaglag pa, ^di 
wixt cup and lip. j lalo pa caya ang uala sa 

[ Camay.? 


" If boiled rice when taken 
to the mouth crumbles, 

^ how more will be with 
that which is not yet on 


Look before you leap. -< 

Ang isip ni Capaho (1), 
ang magaasaua,i, biro, 
mamin baga,t, .ysubo,i, 
lua cun mappso. 

' Jack thinks that to marry 
is a matter for fun, some- 
what as to chew betel 
that when •t^fcen. to the 
mouth is castv.QUt if it 

(1) Capaho, is an imaginary name uskI to avoid anv fM^ssibility of a real person beinij 
alluded to. ' " * * 

% •• 



XT V . 1 1 ( Ang lumapit sa batis na- He who approaches a 

^ ■ ( mig. ne»e. 

Perseverance overcomes S .'^e.'' °^ ,. J ed by the continual drop- 
every difficulty. J pinatac patac nang tu < ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^j 

[^ the water. 

I Pagcamatay nang sinag, The sun-beams being ex- 
At night all cats are grey. < ualang pintarong(l) ba- tinguished, there is no 

( yauac. colored iguana, (a lizard.) 

A closed mouth catches ( A^^ ^}^]^ "^ "f jfjj^ ) Speechless mouth hurts 

Cheap things are dear- Ang bumili nang mura, Buying cheaply just 
est. siyang namamahalan. turns out the dearest. 

The more we have, the Ang bolsa (2) nang ma- The wealthy person's 
more we want. yaman parating cdlang. purse always is in need. 

It will happen when two Bucas cun macalipas, sa S , ^'^^^^^J^ ^ Vy ^^ ® 
Sundays ^me together, lingo cun ^^''^^^?^>>- l^S'V^I^ ' 

\ Ang cabay6 big-ian man You may give a horse 

It is not for asses to lick f nang asiical at tinapay, sugar and bread, he will 

honey. \ hindf cacanin, ang^sfo not eat any, for he only 

( (Sp.) ay ang compay. likes grass. 

^ Di man maquita ang ni- Although the flames may 
No smoke without fire. < figas, as6 ang magpapa- not be seen, the smoke 

( hdyag. will disclose them. 

To jump out of the fry- Ang umilag sa baga, sa He who shuns live coal 
ing pah into the fire. nifigas nasusugba. fulls into the fire. . 

fitr^k.'-^^ ««^ ,v,««k««A fl^ is troublesome to 

A rolling stone gathers ^^^f/.L^fr^f^n^^ri' change, for one vear (pas- 

-j .angtadng par«5o,t, pan- . ,^^ f^' ^^.^^^ here and 

t * 1^ there. 

no moss. 

Walls have ears. ^ ^^^^ ^^^^«^ ang lupa, The soil has ears, news 

( may pacpac ang bahta. has wings. 

H. wh« K>W8 .Inds will j ^'AifW'f,'"* ""■? I H8 who lends wild. wiU 

(1) Pintarofk^j corr. from Sp. vrord pintado y ** 

(2) Bohay (Sp.) **punie." 


frLd^to .hoe" wilfhave ' *"« ■•"■' " '"'''»8' ""'t^' J " l""-"'"'!!. although h. 

' t^feel) iiui-asy. 


Half a loaf is better than Ang bigas na basa, fbu- Moiat rice, why not tn 
no bread. Something is (giiit di yHiiing sn pana- be fried in time of scar- 
better than iiotliing. hong uala.? city.? 

A man is not wise at ail ) . . 

Still waters run thodw))- Ang oaualing lupn, nm- 
eat, or, save me from u latnig nia.i, pag-init ay 
fnnke in the gr:iss. daig nng oaualing bacal. 

Ualiing marunong at ba- There is no wise and ex- 

tid sa gan;i,L, hindi na- pert man who never fail- 
lihis. ed. 

The earthen pot though 
il may be slender (cold), 
if warniPtl. preserves the 
heat Innger ihan the 
ketlle. (more literally) 
Ttie earthen vessel over- 
t'omCH the iron ve^.ael if 

ShottTMkoningPan.lti:'*,""''™' "" """" > CU.r «<o 
^ \ (op) mahaWa ang pag- ,- 

( riaeama. 

long friends. 

( company. 

Misfortune nr-ver ™me. ( f?^ ang tauA ay naghi- 
, i hirap, caaabiiy and pag- 

*^""'*^- t tiadalitn. 

On a man being in dis- 
tress, suffering join? to it. 

( Mahfrap n± mayaman 

Bird, of . t™thpr flock ?°8''™-';''''P'^"i»°;»; 
,, i lian: mahfrap sa duc-hil 

together. ■ ' _ 

^ naman »a mayanian ma- 

1 quipisan. 

It in hard to the weal- 
thy to join the poor; it 
is also hard for the poor 
to join the wealthy. 

j A„g tauooK gahamgah.- ] ^| ^ j. 

man ninanaj^a.t, di ma- l . . l- ■ 

' ' >res and cannot obtain, 

I (his) happiness gets away. 

Covslousne-'S brings no- 
thing home. 1 camtan, lungmaJayo and 
V capali 

All is not gold that glit- 

Hindi ang lahat nang 
cnngmiquinang ay guin- ] 


Not all that glitters 

r Madalf pang guisifigin Sooner arouses he who in 

No one ia so deaf as he J ang natotol<% nang ma- deeply slept than he who, 

that will not hear. j himbing, aa nagtotolog- being awake, feigns lo 

I, tologan nagaiguising. sleep. 

Spare the rod and vou \ Ang lotoong minamahal \ ^"^ *'^°"^ f"* esteems 
will spoil the child." ] siyLg pinaghihirapan. ) ^J^^l^'^ l^^^ *hom one 




Vicious habits arc* seld- 
om thrown off. 

He measures everv man's 
corn by his own bushel. 

A bad agreement is l»et 
ter than a law suit. 

Save a thief from the gal- 
lows and he will cut your 

transpire now and then. 

(1) sisinga 

Ang isip nang magnana- 
cao, magnamicao ang la- 

Ang macocoha sa op6 lio- 
uag nang ytindig. 

A thief's thought, every 
bodv is a thief. 

What can be reached 
from the seat, do not 
(reach it) standing. 

Ang magali]<t nang ouac He who takes care of 
mata ang binubulag. crows will become blind. 

No one goes worse shod i ^ ^^ . ^^^ j j_ j ^j^ blacksmith hm 

than the shoemakers > , ^ *^ , ^ -^ , ' i -r / 4i«e.«\ 

.^ i yang ualang sundang. no knife, (cutlass) 

All keys hang not at the ( Ang hing pintong ma- i ^ ^ j^^^ ^^^ ^ju 
.ame girdle J '" u\^ " sangpouo ang J ^^ 

^ f mabubucsan. > ^ 

v« „ „ u I 1 /> ij _ij (After wrapping and 

Many brooks make a Capag nagpoldopoldo > . X^ ^j* j, 

. nagboboong sigaro. (2) (completed. 


Knowledge is preferable Daig ang may tinongcos He who has money-bags 
to riches. \ nang mabuting hinocod. is surpassed by a smart. 

He who does not look 

i . ,. . ... A i "6 wno aoes noi iook 

Look before you leap. \ ^^^ di tumifigm sa ond, > ^ ^ ^.jj ^ ,^^^ ^j^^^ 

>_ ^ ^ ^ sa huh mapag-iisa. ) behind. 

In for a penny, in for a 

Cun mahdlog ca,i, d<5on 
sa layogan, houag sa ma- 
baba nang di ca tauanan. 

A bird in the hand is Ybi ang pogon huli na sa 
worth two in the bush. sunf^gayangdadacpfn pa. 

( Cahima,t, paramtiik ang 
A hog in armour is still ] hayop na machin mag- 
but a hog. ) pacailan ma,i, machin 

l^cun tauaguin. 

If you fall down, let it 
be from a high place, nev- 
- er from a low one, that 
you mav not be liughed 

I at. 

f A quail already caught 
J is different from a horned 
head of cattle (a stag) to 
be taken hold of yet. 

Though the monkey be 
clothed he will always 
be called a monkey: 


To see the mote in our 
neighbour's eye and not - 
the t)eam in our own. 

r Ang machin ay tungma- 

The monkey laughs at 
the length of the cow's 

taua sa haba nang buntot 

nang.baca bag6,i hindf Kan/anf he doernot"^ 
naqmquita ang haba , ^i^^\ ^^^ „{ ^5, o^„. 

nang bontot my a. J » 

(I) Vlsio, corr. from Sp. word vicio^ *'vice". Xatural, (^i*.) '^natural disposition**. 
(2^ Sigarn, con\ fnuii S^p. word eignrro, "cigar*'. 

Better alone limn in bad Maraiui man at di toiio, 
comjmny. ■" mahafiga,i, nagsoBolo. 

Hunger is the best aauee. ! P«8 .V»li"g WWB - "- 
* ( nao iinumin la bo man. 

First come, first served, j ^"b' "^^' '^J' '^'^'S "*"S 

One Bcabby eheep Bpnilw Ang ising masamiing to- 
the whole flock. pa, sa iba,i, nacahihila. 

There is a great differ- ) 

enee between saj'ing and > Nasauica,i,ualtt8agauii. 

doing. ) 


Tho' many (and) it at 
odds, better to be alone. 

Tliere not being any lim- 
pid water even the tur- 
bid will be drunk. 

Caution overcomes swift- 


A bad sheep can drag 
the others along. 

Ill speech not in work. 

Tell me what you are Pag uala cang cayaraa- 
worth and I mil ipll nan, ciilang ca na cama- 
vou what von arp. Iialnn. 

YoumUBt never look „ ( Ang c.hay6,,g bigiy ans 1 
SIR hor.e in the n,ot,th. |;^f|P»,»'' •"■"'« "»»« i 

, ,, .11' i Ang sa cabataa.i, ualiing 

Idleness m youth brings \ S ^^j^,^, ^,,,^ 

sorrow m old age. i f„„a„d« 

Ont of night, "Ut -'i Ang nialayo,t, patiiy i 
mind. uulii nang caibigan. 

Better lo be the head of Mabuti pa ang munting 
a mouse than the lail of aquing sa malaqning ha- 
a lion. hilin. 

Silence gives consent. 

k Aug hindi ungmiii 
( ungmaaco. 

Cucks crow well upon Ang sa sarili naatiipang, 
their own dunghills, nniamd sa ibing hayan. 

He that doe, his ^st ^tlLl^^l^fZ^; "».ll 
( nang casalanaii. 

should not be censured. , 

I r^a mafiga nadadala nan- 
Bought wit is the best, j gagtiling ang nangagta- 
( tandii. 

. ,. , . „ I Ang mafiga nica nang 

A foohsb question i-^" ) hunghang di -Upat pa- 
quires no answer. f quingan. 

f On your lacking wealili. 
I ynu l:ii'k worlliine«a. 

Don't look at the leelh of 
a gift horse. 

He who does not work in 
youth will l>e in distress 
when (l>ecome8> old. 

The absent and the dead 
persons have no friends. 

Better the little mine 
than the much that is 
taken charge of. 

He who is silent, admits 

of (accepts). 

L He who in his own (land). 
< is brave, meek in alien 

f town. 

He who does what be can 
is not to be blamed, (has 
no blame). 

From those tutored by 
experience the cautions 
come out. 

The fools' words should 
not be listened to. 

Beggars must 


Ang manhibifigi di dtipat J 

Those who 
should not 




Help yourself, a n«l (Jod 
will help you. 

Cun ibig inong gumin- 
^ hauA ay laagpacapjigod 

If you are willing lo 
become well off, trv earn 
estlv to toil. 

A liar should havo ^1^'?^ .*«"""? ^'"'^"^'^""g'l A rthe) liar needs to 
good meo^ory. 1-^- -»^"-^ ™- jbe keen! 

Passed waters grind no Aug patiiy ay patay na; 
mill. ang hiihay ay ypagadyd. 

The dead, dead already; 
the living, are (is) to 
be cared for. (defended.) 

When the cat is away Paguala ^ng pusa, piesta On the cat going away, 

the mice will play. nang manga daga. a holiday for the mice. 

A good shop wants no Ang cayo cun mainam The stuff, if good, is sold 

sign, nagbibili na sa caban. in the case, (chest). 

To close the stable door Cun ang cabay6,i, patiiy If the horse is already 
when the horse is run na, ang ciimpay ay /,a- dead, to what purpose 
awav. anhin pa.? the forage.? 

mnth breads novprtv }^^^ tauong matamad The lazy fellow is always 
hloth breeds poverty, j ^^.^^^ ^^^^ ^^j^^ j^ j^^^ (destitution.) 

The poor man and the 
cardinal (are) alike when 
tbev die. 

The rich and the poor 
are alike in the grave. 

Ang duc-ha,t, cardenal 
magcaparis c u n mama- 

Between lionest friends 
compliments are useless. 

Great talkers are little 

Sa tunav namagcaibigan j . . r • i .u 

w ' i ( Among true friends there 

uala nang maraming oa- > . ^ . , . . 

^ V IS no smiulation. 


Capag ang tiibig ay mai- 
ngay asaban mong ma- 

If f on j the water being 
noisv be sure it is shal- 



i Houag cang mafigahas 1 jj^,^,^ ^,^^^ g^. .^ ^.^^ ,^^^ 

Cut your coat according ^ j ;^^ ^ ^j^ Don't 

to your cloth. j ^^ ^^ ^^^^^^ ^ wing.. 

Beware of the silent f !^L3 W^r^v hL^' 
man, and of the dog that<^ ^.^L «L„a1i tnn^r^^ 
does not bark. [t^T 

A fault once denied, is 
twice committed. 

Cun ang isdng sala,i, 
tinatanguihan d a 1 a u d 
ang quinacamtan. 

Beware of the man whose 
mouth is closed and of 
the dog that does not 

If a fault is denied, two 
(faults) are caught in. 

"U^l'^thr^aSo'irre! l C"" ^^^ '^"K i.v^"^ y^- As you sow (plaut), ju.t 
turn ^nimsiya mong aanihin. you will reap. 

He. who has grown up in 

Spare the rod and you Ang laqui sa layao ca- ) :"i:;"rnT*'„:",Z ° 
w5ll spoil the child. raniua.i, hubad.- J '"S^"*^' g^"^'^*"^ »« 



Givea dog an ill name Cim magaling ang i.ang j ^ ^^^ ^ 

and he will soon be sugat, ang masamang ui- V , , . j 

hanged. ca,i, di cungmucupas. ) ^"^^^ '^^^ ""^^ ^^^^ *^*>'* 

He deserves not the Ang pulot ay lalong ma- Honey is ( the ) more 

sweet who will not taste tamis, cun macatiquim sweet if the sourness has 

the sour. nang mapait. been tasted. 

Opportunity makes the Ang bucas na caban na- An (the) open safe can 

chief. catotocso sa banal. tempt the honest. 

A wise man will change Ang catigasa,i, sarili Obstination is the pro- 

his mind; a fool, never, nang hunghang. perty of the fooL 

Time brings truth to Ang gauang lihim sa ca- What done secretly, in 
light. launa,i. napapansin. the long is discovered^ 

Skill is better than Ang calacasa,i,daig nang Strength is overcome by 
strength. paraan. skilL 

One gift i. betternhan J M^^""„*»g^fjgiyJj;W Better one "gives" than 
two promises. j **gg ^"* ^^ aaiauang > ^^^ ..^^ y^ gjven." 

The foolibh and head- Hunghang at cariio^o (Sp) i p^j^ ^ ^^ frivolotis 
strong make lawyers nagpa^aj^aman sa «?.o- ^ p^^pj^ ^^^^j^j^ ,^^y^^^ 

All truths are not to be Hindi lahat nang toto6 Not all that is true may 
told at all times. ay masabi. be said. 


A i>ound of care will not S ^^^^''^^ mo ang otang Pay your debts and you 
A pound 01 care will not ^ . . maalaman will know what belongs 

pay an ounce of debt. ) a - x ♦^ „ 

* ^ ( ang ganang lyo. to you. 

Whatever one loves, ap- Ualing pafigit sa iping There is nothing ugly 
pears handsome to him. ungmilbig. for one who loves. 

,,,, , u «* o ♦ i-A' ( On the speech beine long 

Who speaks much, often Pagmarami ang sahta, N ^j,^ mistakes (will be) 
blunders. marami ang sala. i .-,„„„ 

* ^ » 

I^nd to your friend, and Aug nagpapaotang sa ) jj^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ ^ ^ ^^.^^^^ 
you will make him your caibigan ay cungmiqmta \ ^^^^ ^^ enemv 
enemy. nang caauay. 1 

TT ., . u .. ^ r* • A J- ^ / When something can be 

He that has time and Cun magagaua at di gao- ^^^^ ^^^ .^ .^ - ^ 

waits for more, loses in, di na magagau*-cun -^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ j^^ ^^ 
^•'^^- ''''S^°- ^ do it when one is willing. 

THE lord's Player. 


Our Father who art in heaven, hallowed be Thy name; Thy king* 
dom come; Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven; give us thi% 


day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive them 
who trespass against us; and lead us not into temptation; but deliver 
us from evil. Amen. 


Hail Mary, full of grace, the Lord is with Thee, blessed art thou 
among women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. 

Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the 
hour of our death. Amen. 


I believe in God the Father Almighty, creator of heaven and earth; 
and in Jesus Christ, His Only Son, our Lord, who was conceived of the 
Holy Ghost, born of the Virgin Mary, sufferred under Pontius Pilate, 
was crucified, dead and buried; He descended into hell; the third day He 
rose again from the dead; He ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right 
hand of God the Father Almighty; from thence He shall come to judge 
the living and the dead. I believe in the Holy Ghost; the Holy Catholic 
Church, the communion of Saints; the forgiveness of sins; the resurrection 

of the body; and life everlasting. Amen. 



Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and. to the Holy Ghobt! 
As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without 
end. Amen. 


Hail holy Queen, Mother of Mercy, our Life, our Sweetness, and our 
Hope; to thee do we cry, poor banished sons of Eve; to thee do we send 
up our Sighs, mourning and weeping in this valley of tears. Turn, then, 
most gracious Advocate, thine eyes of mercy towards us, and after this our 
exile, show unto us the blessed fruit of thy womb, Jesus, O clement, O lov 
ing, O sweet Virgin Mary. 




To what has been said in the part devoted to Prosody and in the 
fourth lesson about the ligaments we now append some additional remarks 
on the subject, one likely to tax the learner's patience. 

G, ng and na, as ligaments, require two different terms to be link- 
ed. Thus, nouns referring to the very same person or entity are not 
linked together. 

Father Charles. 8i Pare Carlos. 

Saint John Chrysostomue. Ang p6on Si San Juan Crisostonio. 

The Rodriguez family. Sinii Rodriguez. 

In the same wav and for the same reason, nouns in the vocative 
case are not linked either. 

You, Americans. Cay 6, mafiga Americano. 

You, natives. Cay 6, mafiga Tagalog. 

Listen, my brethren. Paquingan, aquin mafiga capatid. 

Ye, sinners, beware!. Mag-iiigat cay6, mafiga macasalanan. 

If, however, a characteristic predicate is added to an historical name, 
or an adjective or numeral is used as an epithet to a noun, the lig- 
ament or the article should be employed, as it is also the case with the 
latter in English. 

K,., Perdin.„„ .he ».i„.^ j ^-f^^^ "'^ ^;'-»''»"« S"*". ■"• 

P.«,, the le«r„«l. | «' /^.tl^r'"""'- "'' " ''°'"' 

r ., J S Pagaaral na vcalauft. or, ycalaudne 

Lesson the second. ) ^^l^^^^^^ ■ 

The same takes place with any adjectival clause. 

I Si Juanang anac nang aming alila, 
Jane, the daughter of our servvant. < or, Si Juana. ang anac nang aming 

f alila. 

As for the use of ra after words ending in two different vowels, it 
maybe said that t}us is generally done with such' vocables as are accented 
on the antepennltixnate' * syllable, and that, if the vocable is o.therwise 
accented, ng is to be preferred. . 

Limpid water. . Malinao na tiibig. 

Cleatr day. - Arao na* malm^nag. ' \ ^ 

Pluiitcteping fellow. Magnanacao na tau&. 


Good fellow. Tauong mabuti. 

Tenth exercine. Ycasangpoudng pagsasanay. 

Copulative and alternative conjunctions, whether polysyllabic or not, 
cause the preceding word to droj) the ligament. Thus, nouns or sentences 
put in relation by means of any such conjunctions either expressed or 
understood, are not linked. • 

Life and death. Aug buhay at camatayan. 

John, Peter and Frank. Si Juan, Si Pedro,t, Si Qui'coy. 

Water and liquors. Ang tiibig patf dlac. 

Body and soul. Ang cataouan 8ampongcalol6ua. 

The Cruz family and Jane. Sina Cruz ni Juana.' 

Little birds feed on worms and the Ang oor, ay quinacain nang mumun- 

former are eaten ( devoured ) by ting ibon at ang munting ibon ay 

kites. linalamon nang lauin. 

This or that. Yt6 6 (cun) iyan. 

Whether long or short. Mahaba man, maicli man. 

Be it true or false. Maguing totoo, maguingcabulaanan. 

Shall you come or not? ^Paririto ca, dili.? 

Any pause in the speech, generally indicated in English by the 
comma or a similar sign of punctuation, is, in Tagalog, tantamount to the 
dropping of the ligament. 

You, Sir, are vealthy; I, a poor man. j ^J^i^X'*' ™''-''*°'''"' '^'^'"' "^"^'"^ 

Don't say that, you will be punished, j Houagsabihin fyan, icao ay haham- 
^ ^ ^ * ( pasin. 

The articles of Faith are fourteen, sev- Ang mafiga punong sinasampalataya- 

en of which refer to the divinity of nan ay labing apat, pitd sa canili,i. 

Jesus Christ. naoocol sa pagcadios ni Jesucristo. 

In the same way and for the same reason, explanatory phrases intro- 
duced in the sentence by way of parenthesis, anci words of a digressive 
character are not linked to either the word preceding or following them. 

Soul,i, e., the vital principle. Ang calol6ua,dfuabaga nang catauoan. 

Religion, I say, not only is the word Ang Religion, anaquin, hindi lamang 

of God; but also uica nang Dios; cundi naman 

Pay forthwith the debt, he says. Bayaran mo dao capagdaca ang litang. 

The servant, it seems, lacks pru- ) t, ti • w i •. 

, ' ^ *" , two ^ « f ^j^g alila. anaqui, ualang cabaitan. 

The priest, he says, is dead. Ang Pare, uica niy£^,i, namatav. 

Faith, the Hoi V Father, sav, h like S ^°? pananampalataya, sabi naug 
.1.1.*^ * ' < manga Santong Pare ay parang isang 

( tanglao 

If between a noun and its qualifying word or vice-versa, some particle 
adding to the sense is inserted, the ligament incumbent on the first of 
the two, passes over to the particle. 

Tall person. Tauong mataas, or. mataas na tauo. 

Person alieady tall. ' J^H^ '^''°« °'^*^^'' °'"' '"**^** "^"^ 

She is likewise a wealthy woman. iiya,i, babave namang mayaman. 

Old person still strong. ■' -''*^^^' ,P*^« matanaa, <tf, maunda 

^ ^ ( pang malacas. 

Much money indeed. Maraml figang salapi. 

If tv'o or itoorc of. ^such particles are inserted the ligament adl^eres to 
the last article. • ~ 


A girl who is alreadv also a school- ^ ta i ' i 

mistress. ' \ Dalaga na namanp: macstra. 

Saint John *theMi»ciple always most Si Ir^an Jaan, ang alagad na parati nt 
heloved by Jesus Christ. lalo pang iniibig ui Jesucristo. 

Tliis rule holds good also for the monosyllabic pronoun en. 

You are a good boy. Bata eang mabait. 

You are, certainly, a scoundrel. Tau6 ca figaning tacsil. 

As indicated elsewhere the rule is not applicable to negative adverbs. 

You did not write. Hindi ca sungmiilat. 

I will not say it. Di co sasabihin. 

You did not stop, that is the reason ) r^- j, i . ^ j. •. 

why you did not see it. i ^' ''^ tungmahan, caya di mo naquita. 

Houag is, however, an exception, as it causes the pronoun or the par- 
ticle to be linked to the verb if the former is inserted, but not otherwise. 

Let Peter be cudgeled no longer. j Houag nang hampajn Si Fedro, or. 

^ ^ I houag hampasin na Si Pedro. 

Do not run. ( pi ural ) . \ ^^^^^ *=*y^"« tumacbd, or, houag tu- 

^^ ^ I macbo cayo. 

Don't buy it. (sing). Houag mong bilhin. 

Let them not come here. Houag silang pumaritd. 

Let him not kill the pig. Houag niyang patayln ang babuy. 

Two verbs, one of which is as a direct complement to the other, are 
linked together if the first of them ends in vowel; but not if it ends in con- 
sonant, (r? excepted). 

We desire to learn. Tayo,i, nagnanasang magaral. 

They endeavour to learn. Sila,i, nagsusumaquit magaral. 

The same is the case with phrases where an adjective governs the in- 
tinitive with the verb *'to be" understood. 

Beautiful to see. Magandang tingnan. 

Easy to be made. Magaang gaoin. 

Hard to be broken. Matigis biaquin. 

Light for running. Malicsing tumacbo, 


or, if the past participle is governed by an adverb. 

Newly made. Bag6ng guinaua. 

Written on purpose. Tiquis siniilat. 

Neither adverbs of place and negation nor the words following them 
take the ligament. 

Write here. Dit6 ca sumulat. 

Hp n^tP thprp ^ ^^y^^ ^^y^ cungmain, or, cungmain 

ne ate tnere. ^ ^j^^^ ^^^^^^^^ 

r,,, tf I 1- 1 S D6on si ama namatav, or, namatav 

Ihere mv father died. • -i * • ^' 

( doon SI a ma. 

I don't wish to go out. Di co (big umalis. 

He is not willing to drink any liquor. Hindi siya ibig uminom nang alac. 

Of the causative and adversative conjunctions, m paged, nguni, datapoua, 
are linked by means of t) pnUbhasa, by means of i, as explained in 
foregoing lessons; the other are used without any ligament at or before them. 


Man should be honest although he Ang taud,i, dapat magmabuting asal * 

be poor. bagaman siya,i, due-hii. 

This is not yours, tun njuu'. Vto,i, hindi iy6, cundi aquin. 

Tj .. . , S Yyong bilhin, yamang icdo.i, mav 

Buy it, since you have money. < salan 

Not a scoundrel, but ratlier a saint. Hindi tacsil, cundi bagcus santo. 

Interjections drop the ligament, unless they are made substantives. 

Would to God he would come.! iCahimanauari pumarit6 siya.! 

What a pity, so much money.! jSayang,! ganiyan caraming pflac. 

What does this (word) aha mean.? Ytbng abdng lib, ^ano ang cahulogan.? 

The interrogative pronouns excepted, any other interrogative word drops 
the ligament. 

How many days.? ^,Ylan arao.? 

Where are they going towards.? ^Saan sila napatotoiigd. ? 

Why did you read it.? ^.Baquin mo binas^.? 

When will you (plur.) pay.? ^Cailan cayo magbabayad.? 

Ay — if is employed when the verb is used in merely the verbal sense 
or stress is laid on the action; ang, when it is used in the participial 
sense or stress is laid on the agent. 

He stole. Hiya,i, nagnacao. 

♦ It is he who stole. Siya ang nagnacao. 

Notwithstanding all that has hereinbefore been said on the lig- 
aments the student should remember that Tagalog is hardly yet fixed 
on this and other points, nor is it likely to be so for years te come, and 
that, as a consequence thereof, he will probably find these rules dis- 
regarded in practice. The fact is that the language has not yet been devel 
oped to a point where theory and practice can be made to coincide with 
any great degree of accuracy, and thus, the rules laid down should be 
considered as being only approximative. 



I confess to Almighty. God, to blessed Mary ever Virgin, to blessed 
Michael the Archangel, to blessed John the Baptist, to the holy Apostles, 
Peter ang Paul, and to all the Saints, that I have sinned exceedingly, 
in thought, word, and deed, through my fault, through my fault, through 
my most grievous fault. Therefore, I beseech the blessed Mary, ever 
Virgin, blessed Michael the Archangel, blessed John the Baptist, the holy 
Apostles Peter and Paul, and all the Saints, to pray to the Lord our 
God for me. 

May the Almighty God have mercy upon me, forgive me my sins, and 
bring me to ever-lasting life. Amen. 

May the Almighty and most merciful Lord grant me pardon, absolu- 
tion and full remission of all my sins. Amen. 


Behold Jesus in the Holy Sacrament, the source of every good, in - 
viting all to visit Him. "Ijct him that thirsts come to me''-^aint John 
VII- Oh! what waters of grace have the Saints continually drawn from 
this fountain, where, according to the prediction of Isaias, Jesus dispenses 


all the ineiita ot His passion! "You shall draw waters of joy from tlie 
fountains of your Saviour" -Isaias XII,- From her long and frequent visits 
lo Jeaua Crist in the Holy Eucharist, the Countess of Feria, that illustrious 
disciple of tlif venerable Father M. Avihi, was called the Spouse of the 
Sacrament. Being aeked how sthe was employed during the hours whicli she 
spent nt the foot of the nltar, she replied: "I would remain there for all 
eternity; for the Holy Sacrament contains the esaence of God, who will In' 
the food of the blessed. Good God! I am asked what I do in the presence 
of my Saviour. Why am I not rather asked, what do I not do.7 I love Him, 
I praiae Him, I thank Him for His favours. 1 supplicate His mercy; I do 
what a lieggar does in the presence of n rich mun, what a sick man does 
in the presence of his phyxician, what a person parched with thirst does 
before a dear fountain, or what u man fainting from hunger does l>efore u 
splendid table". 

O my most amiable, sweet, and beloved Jesus, ray life, my hope, my 
treasure, and the only love of my soul, How dearly ha? it cost Thee to 
remain with ns in tlii^ S>acrament!. To dwell on onr altars, and to as- 
sist us by Thy presence, Thou hadst first to die on a cross, and afterward^ 
lo submit to numl>erless injuries in the Holy Sacrament. Thy love and 
Thy desire to f>e loved by us, have conquered all ditticuUies. 

Come, then, O I^rd!. Come and take {Ktssesaion of my heart. Lock 
ibe door of it for ever, that no creature may ever enl«r, to share in 
that love which is due to Thee, and which I desire to give entirely to 
Thee. O my dear Redeemer, mayest Thou alone possess my whole beinji. 
and, should I ever he wanting in perfect obedience to Thee, chastise mi- 
with severity, that, for the future, 1 may be more careful to please Thee in 
all things. Grant that I may never more desire or seek any other pleasure 
than that of pleaning Thee, of visiting Thee, and of receiving Thee in the 
Holy Sacrament. Let others seek Earthly goods, I love and desire only the 
treasum of Thy love. This gift only do I ask of Thee at the foot of Thy 
altar. Grant thai I may forget myself lo remember only Thy goodness. Ye. 
blessed serapbin, I do not envv your glorv, hul vour love for your and mv 
God. Teach me what I inusl do lo love and please Hini. 





Books in Tagalog being very scanty, we have had recourse to a col- 
lection of sermons and selected the one which is given hereafter for prac- 
tice in reading and translating. We can hardly commend it as a good 
morsel of Tagalog literature; it may serve however as an illustration of the 
manner in which religious truths are served to native people hy clergymen. 

The arrangement is so devised as to give the student a gradual assis- 
tance in his endeavours to translate. In the first part, every Tagalog 
word or phrase is marked by a number placed above it, and so also is 
marked the corresponding one of the English text over against it in the 
second column. In the case of phrases, whenever two or more words in 
Tagalog have a meaning to be expressed by a single word in English, the 
former have been enclosed in a parenthesis, the same having been done 
for English words and phrases in a similar case. When this could not be 
done, as when a Tagalog word or phrase is to be rendered by two or more 
P^nglish terms requiring the insertion of a third word between, the words 
bear separately the same number on the English side. 

In the second part, both texts are brought face to face and corapareil 
without any numbers or parentheses; in the third and last one, the Tagalog 
text stands alone for the student to do the work and consult the key, if ne- 
cessary, for what he may not understand; while, on the other hand, the whole 
exercise is supplemented with foot-notes. 

The rendering in the first part is as literal as it can be, the pro- 
per rules of English syntax being sometimes disregarded for the purpose: 
the second part is somewhat less literal, but not so idiomatic and free 
as the closing one which will he found in the key. 

1 2 3 4 

Touing iniisip co, (ang uica ni) (P<5- 

5 6 7 8 

on Santo) Tomas de (1) Villanueva, 

9 10 11 12 

13 2 4 5 6 

Whenever I think, (says) (Saint) Tho- 

7 8 9 11 10 

! iias of Villanueva, whenever I consider, 
12 13 14 

touing iniisip co (sa aquing 16ob na ; (all alone bv myself) the (frivolity) (1) 

13 14 , 15 IB * 17 18 *19 

mag-isa) ang (manga hamac na t6ua)'of (men) (here in the) world, (their) 

15 16 17 18 I 21 20 22 

naiig (manga tauo) sa mundo (2) (ang (futile) (2) designs, (their) 

19 20 21 

canilang man<za) panimdin (na ualang 

22 I 

cabuluhan), (ang canildng manga); 

(1) De, Sijaninh [nvjjosition f0r**of".r (\) Literally in Tagalog, the worthless 
The saint's name is also in Spanish. ['rejoicings. 

(2) Mumlo, Spanish, "worM.". (2) Literally in Tagalog, **not worth a 

I down hair." 

2S 24 M 2&; J3 24 25 20 27 

inasnEaiDiitig i>!ignftnat^(i ;i( Uinp fani- 1 wicked deeires and Iheir impudence, 

■17 28 2it 30 2S as 30—31 

!ang) capaftgahasan na (iinaqiii), (di'that (I say). (Ihev ace not iiBhumed) 
31 32 :!3 34 ;15|' 32—33 '34 3,^ 3K 

tuahiyang) ibtgiiiii nila ang (mjiiiga i<of Iheir lnviiig) the (works) (1) of 





40 39 

41 ■ 

KimaJ natig Diucll) (laid jia sa) viii- tiod (betler ihan) lh«v iove ((iod) 
39 40 41 42 43 44 ' 1 42 43 44 4.4 44 4H 

ihignilifsa Diufi^din. na ('mav guuaj hinisulf, wliu \s their Creator, I 
45 :^ 46 47 48 ' 49 47 48 49 5U 51 52 

(aa eaiiila.i, at:6,i. piiiupapaisocan natig become j crvadwl witii a great afflicl- 
50 51 52 53 54 53 54 55 5fi 57 58 5W 

itfing inalaquhig calumbuvan at faiigJ ion and t^arH (flow) from mv eves; for 

55 56" 57 58 60 Hi 62 

luhaj, (i, tungmiitulo>sa aquing mata! who, (cays the Haint), [is he who) (will 

59 60 61 I 63 64 66 6f^ 67 

I'sa pttgca,t.) ;,(sino cava) (anang San- i not ba luiddened) if he seefi (sucht 
62 S3' 64 I 68 69 70 

to) ^2^ ang (di mahiliimbav) tun ma- '(a great numt)erl (of people) who, 
65 66 67 "68 69 [ 71 72 

quita niva(ung gandong) darning taiio 'although (it was for their sake thai 

70 7i ?- I -. ■ ""^ ''■* •"■'' 

na hagaman (i^ilii rin ang vguinauaiGod created) (Heaven), (Earth) and 

73 I 76 77 79 78 80 

nang Pafiginrion Diof) (nang liifigit), i (every thing) that we pee and (we do 

- 74 75 76 77 ,| 81 83 82 84 

(nang lupa) at (>ang lahut) na na-|(lo not pee), they forget (all that) (is 

78 79 80 «1 185 86 S7 

itiiiqiiita nati,t, (di nainiiqiiitiO (ay good) and (ihey tlo nut leiiienilni-i 

naralilimoti silii (sii diliing) (magaga- . 

SK S7 8K 

ling) at jliindi iiila niuilaulaj (ang vgiii- 

uaUii nang Pung-in<5on l>ios sacanijii)? 

^■hat God madf tht'in for). 

At houag ninying atalain na ang 
niafiga moros, judios, herejey (I) oaya' 
o manga hindi liinyagan (2) ay t<ila 
liimang ang pinangungnsnpa.t, pina- 
figafigiiral ni Pdong Santo Tomas; 
hindi, mafiga capatid eo, cundt ang 
pinafiguflgusapa.t, pinatatamaan ni- 
yA,i, ang lahat na natiai^acopan nang 
Santa Ygletiia, (3) ang nia&ga crie- 
tianoB (4) baga, na Eungmnsaiupala- 
taya aa i^ing Dio^ na toto£);.ang 
ma&ga cristianos na hindi diipab.tur 
rang cristiano, cundi g.i pafigalan 
lamang, at ang maraming tauo nii ang 

Ami do nut think Uml it was 
the Moory, llie .lew? or fienlilffi, to 
them only (to) whom Saint Thomas 
addressMi (himself) and preached; no, 
my brethren, it was rather all who 
were subjects of Holy Church that 
he addressed, and aimed at; the very 
Christians who believe in one true 
(rod; those Christians who dL-sorvc 
lito l>e called wo but in name, and 
the many people 

(II Morot, iii<ilr.ii htrej's, {SpX ■'moors," "ieivh," "'iiertt 

(3) Ri»t, Wntioj, "t^ baptiw"; hinyajan, "baptwed." 

(3) .SrtnW r^Wij, (fill.; "Holy CHmen." 

(4) Cri»ti4»not, (Sp.) "CnriRtiaA»,v . 

caiiiling hinuhabnl A'ltb sa mundo, 
ay ang maflga. t-ayamanaii; ang <;u- 
niling iiinanaii& ay. ung muflgu piiii- 
pita naitg uunil&ng catuuotlng lupa; al 
nng (janilang hiiiahaf^gad, ay ang ina- 
tataaa tia catoDgcula,t, canin'galiin (1). 
Itong lahat ua Ho at ang ibj pa' 
gBiiitb rin ay silang pinafigungu-' 
j;apa,t, pinangafigaralan niySng ma- 1 
hal na Santo at tJnatafigisan pa , 
niya ang caniling bUhay ul caoga- 
lian (2) na ualiing caiiculan (H) muDti 
man sa mahal at niatiia» na caluual- 
hatfang (4) ynilalaan (5| nang Pa- 
figini^on Dios sa mafiga mamimin- 
tuho (6) ea Caniyi. 
i,Ar.v pa ang tiUout L-ong ydugtong e-,i 
mafiga sinasabi ni P6«n Santo Tomae 
de Villanue\"a.? 

^Di iiga cahabag-habag tingnan uiig 
mstamang a.>-a\ nang niufiga bata, ung 
di pagaalnmana nang maftga uiata- 
tanda ea oaiiil^ng caloldua, ganoong 
calapit na siM sa hiicay.? (7) 
iTH calumbay-Iurabiiy tiflgnan ang 
pagmamalibog(8) nang maflga babaye 
^a pananamit (9). t-a manga quilos 
nang cataouan at ^a ili pa, at ang 
pBgiililuhan nang manga may ufiaua.? 
;. Di caha bag-habag ttngnaQ ang gay mg ' 
caraming taiiong nabubiihay sa. cuni- 
ling pagnaniicao at ang Hindi mubi- 
lang na mafiga cmtiano na ang pi- 
nagcacasipugan (10) njli gabi.t, arao 
ay angpaguusapusap (11) nangbiihay 
nang il a at ang pagsira nang puri 
nang capoua tau6.? 
It6ng lahat na ito.i, Biyang ttnatangi- 
»an (1'2) ni Ponn Santo Tomas nting 
h'iya.ii nabubiihay pa,t. nafigangara) sa 
inaiiga tauu, at ftiya nga naniilii ang 
siicat ycatafigiH nang manga may tai-ot 
sa Dins at ypag-njcang casami ni Da- 
vid: "^V(i(wm J'<ic mihi, Dominr, fi-ntm 
mcitia". Sa mat^iatouid. "yjiataldnldn 
mo sn a^vin, I''ir>gi-n6iin cotig Di< 

whose eole pureuit? here in the world 
are riches; their only detires, 
brute apiwtiltM of their earthly l»od- 
ies; and their longings, high offices 
and vanity, AH this and other thingn 
of the same kind were juj<t those 
which that great Saint wati treating 
and preaching about, and he even 
wept over their behavior (lives) and I 
propensities that paid no regard, how- 
ever little, to the great and lofty I 
glory that our Lord has prearranged 
for those wtiu profess to obey Him. 

What eist' should I add to what Saint | 
Thomas of Villanneva naytt.? 

Is it nol a pitiable thing to witne^i^ 
^see) the i,liildren"s ill demeanor and 
old people's disregard for their soiiIe. 
the latter being already &ri near the ] 

Is it not sorrowful to witness (to see) i 
the impudence of women in dresBing, 
in waddling, and in other ways, and J 
the infidelity (treachery) of married ] 

Is it not a sa<i thing to witness (to I 
see) so many jjeople who live upon 1 
their robberies and the numberlet 
Christians whose most eager pursuits, 
day and Uight, are back-biting at 
others' Ijve^ and destroying the cha- 
racters of their fellow-creaturea.? 

All this was what Saint Thomas wept I 
over when he was still alive and was j 
preaching In men. and just thi(*, too, is ' 
what men fearing (iod ought to mourn 
over, and also what (ought) to maki* 
them exclaim with David: ■\Vfl/iim /"<' J 
7iiihi, Dnmine,fiiun mevwt"; thatix t 
[say; "iiinh! tnov>n lo mr my Lont five 




From do.t\Q<i'-, "fanie", "digaity," carar.yiLi 

Ytam cjtli, "custom", "habit ," abst.. eaajalu. ., , 

From uroI, "to suit" ^ coi.cuiin, "conformity". 

Root. lova'Jiafi*. "glOr?-". "rest''; caJo^aJJiatiaa, "bliss". 

Root, Man. "to make ready", ^jnilal&nii instead of yJiniliia 

Boot, pitiiohoot mintohf,, ''irt obey". 

Hucay, "grai-e'". 

From Wio}. "lecherous" i pajmrnn^'J/iOT. "growing li'fbErou?' 

Frono dawif pari^nimff, ''manner of dreaiiog".' ■ 

Root, ftpjj, 'cari'"'. ' natchiulncas''; hence, pini/j-M 

£>imiiiuii%c verb meaning "to epeak idly". 

TvnataKfitan, present lenee lor tinangitan, pobt le 



maguiguinfi cararnlndn (1) nang bflhay'l what the ftnl of nti/ lije will bf''', for so 
c(i, sapAgca,t,gayi5ng«vrtiDiiangnmfi);a 
(tatiutanaiig naqukiuita iiang mata co 
(lit6 SA mundo at gayong carami ang 
manga eiiuandalung (2) nacncalat (3) sa 
maflga ciudad (4) at sa maflga bayaii, 
na haiott di i:o naalaman cuu un6,t, 
ypinai^anac |5) tii ina ea aqiiiti, ha- 
lo8 di CO naalamun ang ygiiinaiia Mo 
sa aquin. 

Cayii, mafiga capatid co, ang punong (ti) 
p^ay (7) at ttadiyang (S)ygiunaua nang 
Dioe aa tau6 ay siya binabanta (9) 
i-eng sayBayi.t, ypagsermdn (10) sn 
jnyS figaydn. Paquiugiin ninyo: 
Sa luhat na quinapal nang Pang- 
inoun Dios, ang tauo latnang ang pi- 
nauamasouaiii. At totos figa, maiiga 
capatid co, sa pagca.t, ang ibang giii- 
uauanang Puiiguindou Diot ay parapii- 
rangguiignioBonod at tungmutupad (111 
nang maftga ytiniicoy (12) nang Dioe |l man does nnt 
£1 canil*. at ang tau6,i, Hindi, 
Ang arao, and bduan. at ang ibi ma- 
iiga astro (13) uagEisipibit (14) at naca- 
liliuanag{15) arao.t. gabi dito sa eang- 

Ang lupa, nania,], tinutubiian nang 
palay, crnis, (16) at nang t^riaaring 
gugulaiu at nang mafiga cahoy na 
parapara.i, namuniulac-lae at naniu- 
tuunga )>a canit^aiiilang (17Jtacdiing 
panahon, at ualii mA mapi nafigafigabas 
liumuay tia ypinatutungcol (18) nang 
. Pang-indon Dios sa canila. 
Ang manga hiiyop ay gungraaga- 
nap (19) din nang muilgayniotnsnang 
Pang-in6on Dios su canila at nama- 
mang-inoon (201 ]•» sa linr'i. 

many are the sins my eyes (eye) m 
on Earth and no many the M:andalt' 
spreading over cities and towns that I 
can hardly understand what my motli- 
er brought me forth (into the world) for, 
and i^ciircely know what Thou createdet 
me for. 

Tlierefore, my brethren, the main pur- 
pose and final destiny God made man 
for, will be the topic I intend to 
develop, and the reason of my preach- 
ing to you to-day. Listen: 
Of all things that have been cieal«d 
by Go<l, man only ie indeed disobe- 
dient. Yes, indeed, my brethren, for 
the other things created by God, our 
jl^rd. all of them obey and" fulfill the 
task assigned by God to them, but 

The sun, the moon and the other stars 
turn around and impart brightness. 
day and night, here to the (wholel 

The soil, too, produces rice, maize and 
a variety of vegetables, and trees as 
well, all of which alternately blossom 
and be^r fruit in their respectively 
appointed seasons and not even one 
;(of these things) dares revolt against 
the task imposed by God on them. 

Animals do carry out the commands ul 

God to them and they besides acknowl- 
edge man as (their) master. 



(5j From o 

; inailgiiiic 

J'Afa'i; 'iiui'i-Jw", "aim". 

(8j Sadiija, "objeuf, "goal". 

(9j BantA, "to intend", "to propose". 

(10) Root itrmon, (Sp. w.) for "sermon". 

(W) Hoot-word tJipt/i=tupar n\ iopad^Jopar, "to discharge one's d 
all one's promise " 

f\2) Root, t6coy, 'prearranged Ihingj" iitinwoy, "what a thing "i 
intended fir." 

i'13> Aitro, isp.v.j "star," "any luminous body.'" 

{\i} Koot, fihii. "to turn around," "to rotate;" magn is in ref 
great numtier of stars, 

^15^ Root, Uu&nag, "clearnefis." 

fl6> Jfais, fcorrr. from Sp, -k.) »iaii. ■ maize". 

(\7) Canicanila- is an inatance of a double plural; it reiers botii 
and to ibe different seasons. 

f'lSJ Root-word, Conijcol''; "to imi>o«ic a, tuek." 
Oanip, "to iulfiU." ■ 

From Fang-inion, "lord;" mamaiuj-indon, "to acknowledge as a 
•orve as a Blave." 

Ang calabao, sa halimbaua, ay, gung- 
magaiia sa lupa, hungmahacol naitf; 
bate, lupa.t, buhangin; buiigtnihJla 
naiig inaftga cahoy at Cftuayan,at di- 
iiadata niya sa manga parian ang in- 
y6ng piilay, mai'tt at biilatig nang yiii- 
lalaoo niny6. 

Ang cabayo,i< nagpni<ut«acay su tauu at 
ynihahatid niya ang caniyang |nii)g- 
ini5on i^a balaiig paruroonan (1), 
Ang a»o,i, nagbabantuy sa baliay, 
sungm&Bania ea caniydng paiig-iiioon 
m biindoc, »a biiquid, sa pafigifig-a- 
so, (2) at nag-aalaga (3) ]>& nang ea- 
tauuun at tnaflga pag-aari nang pitia* 
oapangindon niyd. 

Ang topa.i, nagpaparamit sa Ian6 ati 
nagpacilin pa sa caniydng masarap na 
came (4) o lamau (5). 
Ang manoc, ay. ungmiitlog ga bahay at 
nag-aanac nang maraming tiistu ua 
*iyang yquinahahanap (6) nang tauo 
nang caniyang pagcabiihay. 
At ang lahat na hayop ay paraparang 
Blingmoeonod sa catongcolan yniha- 
lal (7) nang Pang-intSnn Dios sa canila. 
Ang tauo laniang. ay siyang maso- 
uail (S) sa lahat, Ba pagca,t, Biya figa lii- 
mang ang na&gaflgahuii lumuban at 
HUmuay i^a may gana sa caniya. Ana- 
qui, hindf niy^ naalaman ang yqiiina- 
pal nang Pang-in(fen Dios na caniya. na 
ualang dabilang iba cundf ang qnlla- 
lanin niyl ang Dios diii. alaalaiianin, 
ibiguin.t, sundfn dit& sa bi3bay na ito 
nang mapanmxl iiiya,t, calugdiin 19) 
>fa L-alouathatfan i^a La%it. 
,^Di figa baga ito ang yguinauii nang 
Pang-infSon Dios na inyo? ;,At di ltd 
rin ang hindf inifnip a*. inaalnU nang 
laramibang tau6 na nagbahansng (10) 
anao nang Dios? 

!Ang di pngsifiinilja baga cun Domingo 
at |>ieptang <I1) pafigilin! 
!Ang di pagcocolasitSn (12) ca maflga 

The buffalo, for instance, i^orks the 
soil, carts st">ne, earth and sand; drags 
along timber (liiml>er) and reed-<jane, 
and carries to market-places your 
huBked-rice, maize and anything you 
deal in. 

The horse iilloww himtvlf to he mount- 
ed (ridden) by man and he carries bin 
master to any place whatever. 
The dog keeps watch at home, accom- 
panieti his master to the woodb, totha 
cornlieJds. to hunting (with a dog) and 
takes care of Ihe persuii (body) and 
property of him whom he considers as 
hie master. 

The sheep yields clothing to man and 
feeds him too with its tasteful meat. 

The hen lays eggs at home and brings 
forth many ckickens, the same serving 
man as a means to earn his livelihood. 

j And all animals conjointly fulfill the 
lends which were prearranged for them 
I by God. 

Man, only, is the most rebellions crea- 
ture of the whole, for it is only he 
who dares face (stand) and disobey his 
Creator. It seem-" as if he did not know 
the end for which he was crealed by 
Gotl, which was for (no) other pur^iosM 
but that he might know the true Ood. 
remember, love and oliey Him here in 
this life that he may behold and enjoy 
Glory in Heaven, 

Is it not this very object (end) G("l 
j created you tor? And is it not just 
I this that mopl men who Imast to be 
I the sons of God do not think a^ion 

and rerneniber of? 

Not to boor mass, therefore, on Sundays 

and holidays! (feast- keeping days.) 
: Failing to fast on the 

(I) FitrnrixKinit, reach iny-t>lHce ami also the thing or rent^ijii gone for: from pa 
ri'ifin, "to go Ibere". 

(2). From "«", ■"rf'nj;" paili/^ingnin, "llie tiiintinK with a 'If*;." 

i3* Alaijii, "t" take cure of", "to liiok after ; generallv hvmi; tli'ngi-. 

(J> Came (Sp. «■.) -meaf'. "fleph"'. 

uj iamdii, "the inside", "the pith of anything. "' Here it ie used redundantly, so ^ 
as to av6id misunderstanding on the part of thoee who might not be acquainted with 
the ST«nifcli-word cam^. 

ff( Tq^imahahiiTiap, '■wtiat serves as an instrument in seeking, 

'') Root, hatel, -to prepare" (beforehand), <fnihtlnl for yhinalth 

(') Xasoud'!, jrndg^ng-jeUi^w". 

(^.1 From loyoii. "gayely", "rejoicing" , ealwyddn, contracted second derivati^e 
abstract noun. 

[10; BAnM-i. "to 'hoaBt". 

(II) Corr. irom fp, w. Jfr^w. "fea«t'', "holiday''. 
;12) Corr, from Sp. w, colaci6n, "diet to be kept in fact days". 

arao na ypinag-BHton!- ;Ang pagco- 
compifal *at pagi-iwomulgar na liin- 
di lapat ill inahiisay!. [Ang niad- 
Ung (1) inaacala.t.pinapacsii (21nang 
tau6 na may ciihalong haflgin (3) 
na,tni capalalt'iaii!. jAng malatiuing 
capanaghiUaiig nacadailalamhati (4) 
aa maraming tauo na ualang bait. 
Ang pagsisilve (5) nang manga ma- 
figafigasauil (G) nang isi, daL'iua 6 tst- 
long ta6u sa canilaiig bibtyanaiiin (7 1\ 
na laban an, catouiran, palib)]asa,i,' 
it6ng ogali ninyo it6,i, biiual nang 
Pang-iniSon Dios at buual namun nang 
mafiga pono natin. Yting lahat na 
ito, anaqiiin, at ihing ganganitd,!, 
^maiiga gaua cayti nang mafiga tauong 
nacaiibig maraintuho sa Pang-iiitSon 
Dios dil6 sa buhay na H6, nang ma 
camtiin nila biilang lirao ang calnual 
batfaii sa Liiilgit?. 

appointed dayet The oonfes^ing and 

receiving of Holy Communion unscni- 
pnluuslyand nndeservedly! ThPiium- 
berlesa thoughts and forethought con* 
trivaiious (dcHignp) of the man who 
it< muvud through tho vain wind 
of pride: The great envy (that) many 
6ckle men (lacking wiedom) brood; 
the serving of the male-betrothed 
parties for one, two, or tliree yeara 
( to) their future fathers and mothers-in- 
law. whicli is contrary to right, (be- 
cause) this custom of yours is forbid- 
den by the Lord, God, and is alsrt 
prohibited by our authorities. All of 
this, I say, and other Hmilar things, 
are they, then, the actions (acts) of 
men profeseing to obey tiod, the 
I Lord, here in this lite, that they may 
some day attain Glor)' in Heaven?. 

(1} Maiit6 or mirld, iiideUrminate or upread about muttitude of iKin;,'!' ill I'orili'a- 
diHtinction lo vtarami, which rieniitee thini^s m[>aMe of being roimhvl. 

(2) PoftA and pAcay cxpreiis wliat ix Hone connuioiisly anil piirpcmrlr. 

(^) Vahaloiui hangin, "wind trifflee", "vain frivolities". 

(4) DaUijnhati, "ia fret", "to lake paiiis (or", "to broml." 

(-■i* Silve or »ilri, vorr. from Sp. w. trr"ir, "to nerve," "In wftii uikiii." 

(H) From ondua, "either of the married parties", paiSgnHgamiu/i , dioit.' ilii> ac- 
c«atuation) "t/j pay addresseB with a view to marry," 

(7> Krom IrianAn or biyanAii, "father or mother-in-law"; hihiyniianiii^ I'litiU'e fu- 
ther or niother-ln-law. ThiB refern to a wii1«ly-8preaii native i-axtom o( tiride- pa renin 
exatiting personal wrvices from their (iituro Bons-in-lnw, }>prori' the former pve up 
their duiiKhlerH in marriage. 


lAy iiia»g» eapatiil cd!. jPiiiiiLng uniting oupapucanan i_v*in tniifigiif 
iiiny&ng iyiin!. jCunili ninyo ytufigo tia Pang-indon DIus ang iiiydng maiiga 
gauil!. jCundf ang Pang-indon Diof aiig tiing6 ninyo, ang rarongBolan (1) 
nang inyong Idob, at ang cararatnan (2) hinahaiigad ninyo, t, pinapacsii!. 
iCundi iuan ninyd ang aifn man iliing sadyii at ang aliii man ibang pag— 
nanasa!, jCundi, anaquin, linan (3) niny6,'t, talicoran (4) ang and an6 (5) 
man quinacapalaran (6) niuyo dito sa lupa, liban sa Dios!. jAy puiiaug ua- 
liing cabolohan ang inydng mafiga gaui at liindl mandin mangyayaring 
maguing duang ycapapasalaiigit (7> nitiy6!. 

Napailral cay Moises ang iiUn mafiga taiiS uu hibhiing ninanasa niUng 
maalaman ang mngaling na liral na v^'ftpapasalangit nila. jMauiia! ang flagot 
sa canila uiyiing banal at »aiit»ng Si Moists; naalaman niny6 na ang lahat 
na gauii. nang manga tau6 ditd sa mimdo, ay mayrdnn din ipiinapapatii- 

Maram'ng hirap ang tinitiiM nang inang aondalo sa i)anah(Sn nang pag- 
babacd; tinitiis niyd ang giitum, aiig nhiio, ang pagod, at lumulnRob (H) pa 
xiyi ua mailga t^aauay, marami man sila at malaqui man ang pafigunib na 
ycamamatdy niyi, at cay^ gaydn, i^a ]iagca,t, siyilng yniblhintiiy niya nang < 
malaqiiing ganti nang caniyang Hart. 

iiindi ynaaluinana (9) nang magsasaca ang cainitan nang lirao. ang 
i-asamiian nang panahon. ang napagalan, ang piuiin at ang ihang dahi— 
lang, ^licat ycaliiiag nang caniyang gaua; sa pagca,t, ang gaynng pagsa; 
soquit nivang gumanii,!. siyitng vnihiblntiiv niyD nang magaling na pug- 
aani (10)." . 

Ang niagcacalacal ay hindf iiatatacrot tuniauir (11) nang dtlgat. niu- 
lacuH man ang hai^gin, malaqui man ang daluyuii (12) al ang paiiganib 
ay malaqui rin, can inaacala niya na ang gaydng pagtanir ay aiy^ng 
yca^'nsulnng (K^) niya nang caniyfing laco sa mabnti at mattia:' na halagii. 

Ang may safinit ay hindi nnaaua su caniyang cataiman. rundi bag- 
. mis tinitiis niyi nang magandcLng Idob ang pait nang purga (14), ang 
bapdi nang parapit, (1^) ang antnc (Ui) nang sUgat at ang hiitang mania- 
tapating (17) gaoin nang medico sa caniySng cataouan, cun ilii maflga ga- 
uang [it(i,i, siydng ycagagaling at ycabalmfigon (IS; niying maloual- 
bati (19) sa caniyAng saquit. 

(11 Root, dongnol, "tii level at", lie 
liin^ levelrcl at". 

|2) Boot, dating, "to arrive", "to r 
'I'r tlif plate tti be reached »t 

)S) Liimn, "to give up". 

H) TitlioMl. "back", "to turn one's back c 
Aao niid, plural. 

agiuUin, "the place lookeii at", "the 

ipinesa" ; quinarapalaran, "what caii^h happii 

(81 Lumuioh, "Ui break through" 

|W) Alumaaa, "to be of moment", "to matter"'. 

(10) Am, "rice harvest"; pagaani, "the gatherinji i 

fWJ Titmair'^^, "to ford , "to croBs". 

(li) Datuyon, "wave", "billows". 

(13) From (lifonij, "forwftnl"; ycniitmvlung" , ">'hai «' 

(H) Purga, (Bp, w.> "purge", "medecine". 

(15) Parapit, ''caustic-plaster' . 

f\6J Antar, "rack", "anguiah", "ache", 

(17J From nuUapnt, "just", "fair": malapalln, "wm 

ria> From tiailgi'ii. "to Uft'", "to ride". 

(19) ilaloiialliatt, "rest", "alleviation", "recuvery". 


Caya, ytinatanoiig co sa inyo: ^Saan cava ypitiatutuftgo niny6 ang in 
yiing mafiga gaiia?. t^aan di jto, (1) ang ysasagot ninyo, seguro, (2) sa nquin 
^saan di po cundi' sa pagcapacagaling ^3) namin sa Ufigit, sa pagcacamit 
nantin bagu nang mapdlad cararatni!,t, caloualhatfang ynilalaan nang 
Pafig-in<5on Dios sa atin.? C«n gnyrtn, ang iiica co sa iny6, eiin gaydn, ay ga- 
yahan ninyu ang sondaio, ang magsaBuci, ang magcacalitcal at ang may 
saquit. Sa macatouid, magcasipag (4) cayong hiimanap nang ycagagaling 
I ^ang inyong caloWiia para nang pagpapacasipag nang maflga naturan (.i) 
I «oiig 1aU3 sa pagliiinap nang ycalaJaiiui nang caniU'ing cuyarnana.t, yi-agu- 
*■ IE nang canilang cataiioiin. 

Tungmatama ditn i^a lugar na itu ang manga tanong nang Suntong Harl 
Si iJuvid, iia ang uica: ^Qvis mrentlel in munlem Domini^ iAut quh Mnbil 
in loro unitrto fjtin.'? Sa macatoiiir, ani Dai-id. "i.ffino niyd uiitj mnpiihiil 
»<( Umong nuirnnqviiiX iit yniiraTalhuj »a matilriH nl wtbtil na rnlril'u^uSnn (6) 
namj ating Pung-in-'mn. IHdk* iSino rtn/d iinii iiinviiilagni (7) ft niniyaii;! 
Sania Olonaf. iShw biiiid nng mnpnlnd na Ifivdng mnriipagrnmit ■nnnri 
mugaling nn mrrtrnfndnfi j/mlftliiau iifiiiij Dio» m tiUnf. At dito sa mafiga 
tanong na it",]', fiya rin ang sungmftsagot na ang uiea: Ivimrpni mnrnhvn 
ft miiniht i-oi-ilf, ijiii uoh nrcepit in rnitn aniwaiH sh/iwi. Sa macatouid; 
Aug wwiH(/n Iniiong mniiiinh nn rnniny nt vinWitiix nil lonb, at nng mam- 
Ti'inong mi mngmnhnf an nuiitang riitith'nm; na, ciin i^a biigay, (S) ay it" 
ang caholngiin: nng umiitjo. Iniidiiii naliiiig rtiimlnvnn ay xHd Inmnng nng 

mptiparag'iliiig nn fjaiigil. 

Diyata, (9) ang tanong co flgaytSn: iMnyrrion baga mafiga taudng hindf 
marilnung magmahal ea canildng caloltSua o inaari (10) caya niling liamnc 
ang canijang calol^>ua.? Mayrt^n din ang ^agot co namiin. 

Ang ating calnl6ua,i, piicat niny6 ypara sa mafiga canangcapang (11) 
guinagitmit nang tauo sa caniying pamamilhay (12) ciin aa, paghtlnap nang 
cani}ing pagcahiihay. Ay ano, ang aramng (IS) hindl giiinagamit sa pag- 
aararo (13) ^di parang inaaring himac nang nagpagaua niyi5n? 

Ang saya (14). ang tapis, (15) ang baro, ang calaual at Hid pa ganit i na 
binibili niny<'i,t, ypinatntabiis (16) at ypinatatahi sa marunong, ay, ,i.di parang 
inaari ninyi'i hiimac cnn pagcayari, (17j t, naca rtatago niny6 sa cabun al hindi 
ysucoot (IH) fa catauoan.? 

Ang itttc na ypinagauii ninyd sa panday at talagang gagamitin sa 
btlhay ciin sa pagtagd nang caouayan o aa ibing cailangan, ay, ^di parang 
inaari niny.i hamac cun sacali,t, yniifigatan niny6 ea caloban (19) 6 ysi- 
Dusucsoc (20) ninyi) sa dingding.? 

(1) Sdtia liaii here th? mane of "of L-ourae ;" tdan di fj, "M'liere, of coume, but to7," 

(2) Srgtira, (Bp. wj for "Biire", taaaJized into "perhapi," "no doubt." 

(3) PagfapagaJing, "aulvation." 

(4) liagcaKipag, "Iry," 'ftuleuvonr," "toil", (imp'. 

(5) Xaturaii, "naiiii'il," "naiii," "al>ove mentioned," "aforesai'l." 

CB) From the nxit lijf-i, '■_putting", planini;, &; caMagiiian, contracted abHlraot 
noun, meaning "plare," "(KWition." 

(i) From palagiii, lUwavs," '"constantly;" inamatagul, "lo stay, to be forever 
at a vlace." 

(5) Na, CU7I lu l-Agnij, "which uieana," "thut in to saj'." 

h) Ihyata, ■'wheri'lure." 

(10) Inaari, "eHtimutes," "vahiew," (pres. ind. 3rd. i>erH. pasa.) 

^11) From nonscnpi "tool," "piece of furniture ;" ragaiigfapaii, "lixluitis," "utens- 
ilB," "furniture." 

(12) From Mhng, "house," "nest;" patjtamihna. "dwelling." . 

il3) Amro, corr. from (8p. w.) araao, "plot^n/' iHigaariiru, "the p1oui;hing." 

(H) Sitt/a (Sp, w.) "upper petticoat." 

(l.'i) Tnpin, "aprcin worn by native women." 

(IdJ Ffim the nwtt tabdr, "to cut out itufl^ with §d«si>r!^" ; ypatnMt, "to have 
ttufn fnX. out." 

(17) Fagmyari, "finitdieil," "already maile." 

11%) From iiuot=*imt, "to jnit on clotheB," 

'IB) Vahbnn, "aheath," ''Bcabbard." 

(20) From mcimc, "tn pnihnne," "to infix." 



jDi parang inaari eong hamac itl^^g Umpara (1) nang elmbahftn run 
?acali,t, di ou piiiiluuutig »& maugii ^ucritrtan? (2) jAy! gaytin din, maiiga I 
rapatid co, ang aqtiing maBa^alti tongcol i^a nting caloMua, 

^Di osy4 parang inaari hamac nang tauo ang caniyang caloldua cniiJf-l 
gamitin niyd ang mafiga pinafigaftgalan potencias, (3) ang alaali bagK,J 
ang bait at ang 16t>b no. manga bagay iia ytiniicoy nang Pang-inooci Dioa f 
p& canili? 

iDi Immau iiiiaqiiiii, ang alaala ciindt gamitiit nang tauo sa pag-alaaia 
niyi sa DioH, an caniyang oiafiga biyaya, ?a macatouid, sa pag-alaall nang 
tauo na siya,i, guinaua nang Pang-in6on Dioa calarauan (4) niya,t, tinobde 
ni Jesucristo nang caniyang mahal na dug6 at pagcamatay ea Crus, aua n' " 
lumang sa caniyi. (5)1 

iQi hamac, anaquin, ang bait cundi gamitin nang tauo sa pagquil 
sa DioB at sa pag-iisip na ang caruniifigan, catouira.t, capangyarihan nang i 
DioB din ay ualang hangan at aii^ Hiya nga namitj, punong pinangalinga.t, 
quinaouian nang lahat. {6^? 

^.I)i hamac ang liVtb cundi gamitin nang tauu sa pag-iibig niyA sa Dios I 
na parang amu,t, macapangyayari na lahat; ea pag-iibig namiin ?a capouang I 
tau6 at sn pag-ibig at pagRunod nang dilang cahanalang^ iisal na ycapapasa- 1 
lafigit nang caniying calul(3ua at sa pandidiri l7) nang dilang cnaalananJ 
ycapapacanama (8) niyi sa inlierno.? 

Cayii, maflga capatid co, ypalaman ninyd aa Idob aral na ypi- 
nafig-ural co sa inyd, Yny<!>ng pacatant^in (ii) na ang yguinauii nang Pang- 
indon DioH sa iny6 ay ang liiya,!, alaalahanin, qtiilalanin. ibigui,t. sundiii \ 
niuyo dito ea lupa, nang macamtin ninyu di5on sa bi'ihay na ualang hangan. 

Ang pananampalataya (10) ninyo.t, paj>cata)aRtjLs (11) nit<>ng aral na.! 
itu^ siyang ycapag-iigui (12) ninyo nang inyong masasamting gaua, at siyi f 
rin namang ycapagbabagu ninyo nang dating asal na masafta 

Ang pananampalataya ninyi.t, pagcatalaetas nitfing aral na ito.i. si- 
yang ycasusulung nang inyung Idub sa pagtitiiB nang maftga cahirapan 
i^lang-alang (13) ua DioH para nang pagtitiis nang sondnlo nang dt masa- 
bing (14) hirap alang-iilang ea. caniying Uari. 

Ang pananampalataya ninyo, t, pagcatalastas nitung liral na ito.i, siyang 
ypagsasaquit (lo) nianalo ea manga caauay nang inyong caloloua, para nang 
pagsasaquit nang maQga magsasaei sa paggaua sa cani'&ng bilquid, maga- 
ling man di man (IH) ang panshdn, nang macamtan nili ang mabuting 

Aug pananampalataya ninyo.t, pagcatalastjiB nitong aral na itd,i, siyang 
ycapag-aaliB (17) niny6 sa iuyi'mg cataouan nang catamaran (18) sapagsimbi 
at sa pagcocompiaat at nang lahat na dinadahilan niny6 sa di pagaanod nang 
otos nang Dioii at nang 8anta Yglesia. 

(1) Ldmoara, fHii. w.) "lamp," "lustre," "crecBet." i 

(2) Safnttin, (Sp. w.> "sexton, " "diurch clerk." 

(3) Piiteneiai, (Up. w.) "the powers ofsDul;" Dieniory, underatanding and will. , 

(0) Piintnig pinangaiillga,t, qiirna'Otiiaii ntiiig lahat. "tlie >ioiir<« which everytfaiag ' 
(lows from and coiuee aicain bach into". ' 

(7) Dirt, "to liMtthe", "to ablior". 

(8) From uninit, "idea of wickedneaB" ; magca,papatn,vi4, "to incur eternal poniah-, 

("it) Pacalanl6i>', "endeavour to underat«n<l." /'impj 

(lOJ From nampalalaya, "ta believe", "to give credit lit". 

(■llj From id/oitdHj to comprehend," 

(12) Rcxit, 101(1, "idea of goodneie"; t/eapag'igtii, "what can 

C13J Alanif-^lang la, fur the sake of". 

(U) Di maiali, "unutterable". 

(IhJ From toqniti "pain", "toil", "hardship" ; tnagtaq'iit. "to etideavour" ; ypaffaa 

(11) From pag-fialin, "taking away", 
(U) Root, l6Ma.l (J- " - ■■■—■■ 

(magaling), underetood. 



At, sa caiagang uica, ang pananampalataya mnyo^t, pagcatalastas na 
maigui nang ponong piicay at sad-fyang ^guinaua nang Pang-inoon Dies 
8a inyo ay siyang icapagsinipag gamitin na magaling ang mafiga poten- 
cias o cabagsican (1) nang calol6ua; ang alaala baga,i, gamitin sa pag- 
aalaali sa Dios at sa manga biyayang ypinagcacaldob niyd sa iny6; ang 
bait ay, sa pagquilala sa Dios at nang eaniyAng capangyarihan, at ang 
16ob ay sa paguibig sa Dios nang lub6s na pag-ibig dito sa biihay na 
it6 nang macamtan ninyd d(3on sa biihay na qalang hangan. Siva naua (2). 


(1) From bagsic, a root meaning *'power'*, "tyrtony", **twcir'; cabagsican, ab«^ 
tract noun. 

(2) Siyd naud, amen. 




TH^ ^IVaUIdH ^Xl^RCIdl^S, 

In going oyer the Tagalog exercises the 
stndent most endeavor to guard himself 
against writing ng, at printed therein, 
instead of a;^ as it should be, that is to 
say, the titttr should be written in the 
middle over the two letters and not 
above the n. 



iMflyr6t)n oang tiniipay?. Oo, ix», mayroitn aci5ng tiniipay. ^Na aa 
lyc hji(;ii and tiiia|iay oo?. Na sa aquin ang tinapay mo. ^Na sn 
iyo bagu ang iiariie o laman?. Na na aquin aiig laman. i.Na ea iy6 baga 
aiig lying carne?, Nn wa aquiu ang came co. ;,Na sa iy4 haga ang apin?, 
Na sa aquin ang asi'ii. /.Na sa iyo cnyii nng asin co?. Na sa aquin ang 
iy6ag asi'n. /.Na »i\ iyo baga ang asucal?. Na sa aquin ang asiical. /.Na 
sa iyo baga ang tiibig?, Na sa aquin ang tilbig. ^Na sa iyu baga ang 
tiibig mo?. Na sa aquin ang tiibig co. ;,Anong papel ang na sa iyu?. Ang 
papel CO ang na ^a aqtiin. 


(.Aug amii co,i, muyr>wn asiu? Siyti,i, uaiti, ^May ini ca bagu.? Aca,i, 
niayrwn. (^Mayrdon bagang capatid na babaye ang liari.? Uala. ^May 
eapatid na lalaqui ang obispo.'? MayriSon. /Miiy tiibig baga si Juan. 7 Hi 
Juan av mayrdon tubig. /.Mayrdon baga utiyang bahay.? May bahay Qga 
Biya. iMay capangyarihan bagii ang Dios.? Oo, figa, Siyii.i, naiiy capang- 
yarihan. ^May caitagsican bagu ang iyimg sinti.? Oo, ang sinti co,i, 
may cabagsican. /.Ang Dios, ay, may sinia bagii sa tau6 ? Oo, ang Dios ay 
may sintI sa tauA, ^Mayrdon bagiing Hbro sa bahay mo? Oo, sa bitbay 
co,i, may libro. /May cabag.sican baga ang xintd uang ina mo ? Oo, Tiga. 
^Alfng libro ang na sa iyd?. Ang libra ni Pedro ang iia aa aquin. ^Aniiig 
bdquid ang na sa ama mo?. Ang buquid nang hari ang na sa caniyi 
(bia, her, of ber. of hira.) 


^Mayrdon bagii tayong baet?. Oo, tayo.i, mayrdon. ^Mayrdon bagii siliing 
mabubut^ig damlt?, Hindi, 3ila,i, uala. ^Mayrdon bagii caydng mafign sala- 
mfng maiiasamti?. Mayrdon caming maaasnma. /Na sa aquin baga ang iydng 
maririquit na cabayo.? Oo, {ang mafiga cabayo),i, na sa iyfi figa. /Na sa 
batang mahabaet ang mafiga aso coiig maririquit?. Oo, na na canila (1) 

(1) Canili, "their, o( them". 

ang manga aso moitg manriquil. ^Na i-a caiiilit bagu ang aquin tnangit 
librong maririquit?. UaU. ;.Al(iig satnbalelo ang na sa amin. (1)? Aug ma- 
nga sambalilo ni Peilro ang na sa inyo. (2). iSs. cay Juan bagii ang mailga 
mabuliiig cabayo nang aquing mnilga capatUI na niatanda?. Uala sa canila. 
^Na sa ama ni Peilro buga ang manga cubayung matanda nang aquing mauga 
bata?. Uabi »a caiiiyil. £ Ang manga inatanda.i, mayn^n bagiing sinti sa mafiga 
bata? On, iio,HilK,ii nifty einti eamaQga bata. ^Maycr'Nin hogaSinl Juan mafiga 
mabuting biihay?. Hindi, t-ild,i, iialiing mabubuting biihay, cundi silii,i, raay- 
riSon mafiga biiqirid na magaganda. ;An6 ang manga biiquid ninii Pedro?. 
Sini Pedro,!, mayriSon manga buqtiid na magagandi. iNa sa canila baga ang 
canii Juang manga pufigil na biihay?. Uala sa canili ang cana J uang ma- 
nga piifigit na bahay. ^Mayr^on bagil maftga libro sa mafiga lamesa?. Ualii 
mafiga libro »a mafiga lam«t;a. ^.Aiig mafiga capatid mong babare, mayrdoii 
bagang maflga asong matatanda?. Hindi, uala silting asong matataudii. 

(1) Ami,,, "our, of us". 

(21 Inyo, "your, of you", plur.) 


^.Xasaan ang amii mo?. Na sn biihay ang amu co. ^Siian nardon ang 
anac nang capatid co?. !^iya,i, naeasimlrahan. fSuan nanSon ang canilang 
aimc na babaye?. Na i*a simbahan ang canilang anac na babaye. tXasaau 
ba£a ang aming anao na lalnqui?. Ang anac naming lalaqui na aa escuela. 
^Narito oayii ang bata.? I'alii. wiya,i. ualii dilo, na sa biiquid sivti. 
^Nariyiin baga ang manga bata nang capatid mong babavf.? Ang mafiga 
bata nang aquiiig capatid na bahaye,i, ualii diyan. (ditd), ^Nastian cava 
siliS.? Sil«,i. na ca biihay. /.Siyri (figa) bagi.? Abaa, eiya figa. iCayrt 
nga baga,? Hindf figa cami, iNariyin baga ang mafiga capatid na la- 
laqui ni ini ? Ang mafiga capatid na lalaqui ni inft.i, nalii diyitn. sila,!. 
na cay Juang bahay. iNaroon baga ang bundoc.? Oo, naroon figa ang 
Imndoc. ^Ang singeing mo,i, guint<i baga.? Hindi, ang oingsing co,i. 
pilac. iAng iy6ng lameaa, cdhoy bagd? Hindi, ang laniesa co,i, biibog. 
(■.Ang mafiga obispo ninyd,!, mayroon bagang mafiga sing^^ing na bacal.V 
Uala, uala silang mafiga singsing na bdcal; sila.i, mayroon mafiga aing- 
sing na guintd. tAng mafiga sakmEn namin, pilac bagd.? Hindi po. 
ang mafiga salamin nomin, ay biJbog. ^Mayr6on ca bagang mafiga li- 
brong patalim.? Uala, aci3,i. mayroon mafiga librong papel. ^Ang mafiga 
ctipatid mong babaye, mayroon baga piling plumang cahoy.? Uala. uala 
silang mafiga plumang ciihoy; sila,i, mayroon mafiga plumang patalim. 
iMayrfion bagA ac6ng sambalelong cahov.? Uala, uala ac6ng sambalelong 
ciiboy. mayr<5on ac(5ng dalaudng sambalelong bulac. 


^Xa ea iy6 baga ang aquing wintaa na guinto.? Uala, ualu sEk aqttin .1 
^Mayroon ca bagang anomun.? Ufllii. ;,Sa sa iy6 baga ang aquing 1 
plumang patalim.? Uala. uala sa aquin. ^ Aliug paniilal ang Da ea J 

iyii,? Anj: anuiii;^ nialxiliiitj; paiiiiliil iia jiiUo aii^ na sii a.jiiiii. (.Anfc 
iiiiiyrdon ra.? Uulii. ;.Na ^n ivA lin^ii ang iiqulng jiliimftiig |iuliilini 
"> ang; piliu- I'luji.? Aug iyiiift i)nni1l!H iiii piitnlim, jiiik wii n.i aqiiin. 
;Na 68 iy6 bagti ang Hab5n co?. Ualti sa aquin. iNa Pa iyo Itaga lui); 
canilisltini co? (Ijilii yii aiiitin, f.Alfiig (.•andulcri) ang na ho. iyb.'l Aug 
uuudeleru cong guiitto ant; na lia aquin. ^Na fm iyu baga ang liibiil 
CO.? Ualii sa nqutn. j.Na Ha iyb I>aga ang aiac cong mabut!.? Uala 
sa aquin. ^Na ea iyii baga iyilng librong iyan.7 Uala sa aquin. Na hh 
iyo baga lyiing laniang iyiin.? Na Ha aquin figa. iMayroon ca bagang 
anomiing oiabuti.? I'alii acting anomanjc mabuti. ;.An6ng mar;quit na ba- 
gay (1) ang na ^a iyu? Ang mariquit na ^intas na giiint6 ang na na 
aquin. ^Mnyroon ca bagang Anonmng pangit.? Uala acong anoraung paKgir. 
piayrooQ aeong anomang mariquit. ^Anting mariquit na bagay ang na sa 
iyo.? Ang mariquit na aso, ang na ea aquin. ^Na m iy>'> baga ang iy6ng 
panutat na biibog.? Ang teni'ilor mo, nng na Ba aquin. ^Na sa caniy^ baga 
ito 6 (ciin) iyang p<fU>ng.? Vt >,i, na aa, caniya, iyu,i, uala. ^Nat-aaquing 
loafiga capatid na bahayc baga ang dainit niyiing manga batang iyan.7 Uali 
sa Giinila ang diytin h<a manga batimg daniit na iyan; ang mi oanilaiig manga 
uapatid na lalaqui. ang na sa iMnila. j.Yat^g paniilat na j'aon, doon set 
tanong yann baga? Yadng panitlat ay Hindi doon sa tau6ng y-n^n, at yn,i, 
ildon sa mafiga babaye. 

:1iinK , 



^Na sa liari baga ang jianulat na hiilxig d ang palaliui.? Ang bari, ay 
ualing paniilat na bi^bng man, n patalim man. ^.Aling paniilat bagii ang 
na sa obispo. ? Ang mariquit na paniilat ang na »a obispn. t.Ang mediat. 
ay na oa aquin eaya.? Uala t^a iyu an^ medias man, ang aspiler man. ^\a 
m iaglea baga ang pambnnis nang prango,? Ualii »a ingles ang pambuous 
man, ang caraynm man. ^Narit6 caya ang ma pa goal ileal.? Uala, uala niya 
dit6. i.Sa, sa prances hagii ang )iayong I'o. ? Uala sa caniyi ang iyung pa- 
yong. ,;Na «a lamesa bagii ang pambnciis nang prongo.? Na wi anionagut'. 
ftSa sa caninii bagii ang <;anil4ng pamocpoc,? I'alit sa anlonagne ang pa- 
inocpoc man, ang |ia«n man, ^.Alfng niangangabical ang inaynlnn aerbeiia.? 
Ang GomtTiiianU' sa Isayaii fn niayriVin dalanang basitng Acrbesa. /.Oaninn 
bngd iysing tintang iyan.? S;i nqiiing capalid na lalaqui. ^.Anong point 
baga ang na »ii mafiga ingli'.'.? Ang mafiga ingMs ity mayrnnn polot, nn 
mabuti. tAling tungcod ang na sa unnc na hiibayp nang iy6ng InA.? Ualii 
figa (or ualung nalii) tungood ang nnac na tiabayp nang in^ co, ang dedal 
niya, ang eaniyang ('araynui, ang caniyAng aspiltr, al ang aquing ornsan 
ang na sa caniyj, t^fii.V'^" bagii mafiga tupa sa Efpaiia.? Oo. mayroon 
^Ang laman nang topa.i, mabuti baga ^ Mabuii tlga. ,^Na -^a canino baga 
ang mafiga ciSmot ni ini.? Na csy Pedro. ^Ang aquing itac ay bacal ba^i .' 
Hindi, ang itac mo,i, patalim. ^Sa aling (or sa canino) tauo iyang iopot 
na iyan.? Yyilug sijpot na iya,i, sa maiiga capatid cong bab-iye. ^Cay6 po,i. 
mafiga castila baga.? Oo, mafiga castila cami. ^Nasacanica'ninoang aquing 
bigiis.? \a sa mafiga ingles. ^Y'aong salop na yaon, iyfi baga, o sa anac 
cong lalaqui.? Y'aong aalop, bindl man iyo, hindi naman caniyi. ;,Saan 
naroon si Juan, 7 Hi Juan uala ditu, siya,i, uali maguing na sa ^imbahan 
na sa escuelahan. ^Ualii i^iya sa baliay? Na sa babay siya. ^.Taga sdan 
cayo.? Taga Prancia cami. Taga liaan yaong mafiga tali6ng yaon.? Bila.i, 
taga rito. Vaong mafiga tau6ng yaiS.i, ineic baga.? :Sila,i, hindi insic. 



Yt^ng Inihflv na ito.i. liimU cahoy. Yviin manga «alami,i. hiudi pilar 
Ytftng manga j^ing-inii ay liindi guinto. ;.Ano l»aga ]»o rayo.? ISIailga an- 
ion a guo oamf. 


^iNarito sa tau'ng it6 ang lapis.? Ualii sa eaniya. ^.Na sa aquin baga 
ang sicolate.? Uala sn iyo ang sioolate man, ang asiical man. ^.Na sa 
aquing caibigan baga ang iyong tungcod.? Uala sa caniyft ang aquing 
tungcod, ang aquing payong ang na sa caniya. Ang aming babay ^.mari- 
quit baga.? Ang biihay nami,i, hindi mariquit, ciindi mabuti. ^^ An6 baga 
iyiin na sa maiigi camay mo.? Ang na sa aquin manga camay, isang 
lapis. ^,An6 baga iyan na sa canilang mafiga daliri.? Ang na sa cani- 
lAng manga daliri, mafiga singsing. j.An6 oayti ang na sa manga mata 
CO.? Ang na sa iyong mafiga mata, ay mafiga salamin. ^.Mayr6on 
baga tayong manga figipin.? Tayo,i, may mafiga figipin. ^.Tayong manga 
tauo may dila baga.? Go, tayong manga tau6,i, may dila. ^.Ang ilong 
nang manga taga Pilipinas ay maganda baga.? Hindi, hindi maganda. 
^,Manriquit cava ang caniling mafiga quilay.? Ang caniling manga quilay. 
maririquit. <:.8aan naroon ang dalaga.? Ang dalaga,i, na sa babay. ^.Sino 
baga ang anui nitong binata.? Ang amii nitong binata,i, ang mananahi. 
;.Na sa canino ang sa panaderong sutla.? Ang sa pana<lerong sutla i, nti 
sa aquing manga anac na lalaqui. ^.Nahiian ang eaniydbg mai\ga sisiu.? 
Ang maiiga sisiu niya,i. na sa biiquid. ^,Na sa canino ang mafiga lapis nang 
maiiga caibigan namin.? Uala. ^Manga caibigan namin baga sila.? Sila,i, 
aming manga casi. iSn sa canino baga ang sicolate nang aquing camaga- 
nac? Na sa cal>a'n nang caniying caibigan. ^Saan nar6on ang bayong 
nang maguinoong babaye.? Uala dito ang bayong nang maguin<5o. ^.Saan 
naroon baga ang susi nang caban.? Na sa magsasac*. ^.Ano baga ang 
yaong mafiga botf^.? Yaong mafiga ))ote,i, bubog. ^,Mayro>n ca bagang 
alilang lalaqui.? Uala acong alilang lalaqui, ang na sa aqui.i. dalauang 
alilang babaye. ;. .\a sa simbalian baga ang iyong mafiga camaganac? 
Ualii, ang aquing manga camaganac ay uala sa simbaban; sila.i, na sa 
bayan. <:.Saa!i naroon ang simbaban.? Ang simbaban. i, na sa bund«x*. 
;. Yaong ma ujuinoonii babavc. inn niva baira.? Siva,i, bindi niva ina. ;,Ma- 
bubutnig caibigan bag.i tayo.? Tayn.i. mabubnting caibigan. ^.Sino sin«» 
bagil ang manga caibigan mo.? Uala acong manga caibigan. 6 Ang cama- 
ganac m Jua.i. caibigan mo baga.? Sila.i, manga caibigan co. 


^.Kaparoon baga an^ amain mo.? Hindi napardon ang amain co, ang 
napanx),i. aiiyf a»jaing all. ^'.Ani? caibigan nang asaua mo,i, naparito baga.? 
^iyi,i, hindi napariio. siyai. napa^abahay. ^.Xaparoon bagi sa itiyo ang 
nugpangino^ng ni .\lprvdu.? Naparoon irila >a amin. ^'.Saan nardon ang 
magoasania ni Juan? Sila.i. napa-abayan. ;. Xapariyan baga sila.? Go, 
sila.i. napariyan: nguni t. Sinii Cm? na magcacapatid ay napaparito. ^Ang 
inagama ni Pearu.i. hiiuh >ila napasabiiquid? Ang magamii ni PedroJ, 
hindi napasabiiquid: napa^iuibaban ^ila. ^Naparoroon baga ?a gubat ang 

N'aiiamiHaltayanisilu. ^Ang iyita^ claiutt ay 1)ag6 I'l luma bagii.? 
Ang damit co.i, lutna im. l.\nv. inufigit ssiliimiti nilii,i, hod liagil o basHg.? 
Hindi basafE, cundi lumu. /.Aug miifl^u jtUi^u mivng mni^a capatid ud 
habaye iii iiii iiiiii)U|niti biiga o maiitim? Aug maiigii piisa naug luufiga 
oapatid iia babaye ni iiia,i, hitidf maijuputi, at hind! nnman maiitim. ^yin- 
laqui baga ang eabanalari iiang iy6ug cupatid na babaye.? Aug cabaiialait 
nang capatid cung babaye^, malaqui. ^.Malaqui bagii ang carunungan 
nang DioB.? Ang caruuofigaii nang Dios ay unlang cupara. ;,yiiio i?ino 
baga ang marorSnong.? Ang maflga maronong ay ang raagagaling, ^Magaiidi 
baga ang capiitian nang ating i.'alol6u.B.? Ang capiitfan nang calol^ua 
nali.i. magaiida. r'.Vlan magcaoaciiy silti.? Si Pedro, pali ni Juan at ni 
Maria ay iiiagi:a<.'aHaeHy. ^Ylan caydng tnugcacai^ami. ? Cam! ni Jurge.i, 
magcatiania. ;. Vlan uiaflga c-aiiuiiy ang na)iaritd.? Uaiang oailnay na na- 
parit6. ^Cayn ni Maria, magcaumc-iiii bagii.? Oo, caini ni Maria ay luag- 
CUDUC-bit. ;,VlaH silang niagcat-apatid.? Silarig inaguapatid ay Halaui. 
.^Magpaiigiudon buga cayo.? Oo. magpa&gindon cami. .i.Magamu baga cayo.? 
Hindi, hindi cami raagama./ ^Maghfpag baga sila.? On. pila, maghipag. 
^.Magcaibigan baga sila.? Hindi, hindi sila msigcaibigan. ,|..Ang magcapa- 
tid ni Juan ay napasagubat baga.? Ang magcapatid ni Jua,i. hindi na- 
paeagUbat. at na ea escuela sila. ^^ng magaania baga. ay oapatltd.'? 
Ang magaama.i, hindi naparil6. ^Ang mag-infk ni Juana napasasimbahan 
baga.? Hindi, ang mag-ina ni Juana napaea Cavite. iSino baga ang na 
sa bahay.? Uala. (.Silan naparoon ang calabao nang amain co.? Ang 
calabao nang amain mo,i, napasabuqnid. (,Ang caniyang ibon ay napa- 
i6oa baga sa biihay nang iyan hianrfn.? Hindi, naparoon sa bihay nang 
maniigang cong l-ilaqui. iAn6 baga ang pninaganang satapi.? Ang giii- 
nagauang wilapi ay giiintd. pilac at tangfii, iAning ngalaii mo.? Ang 
aquing figala.i, Antonio. ^Saan nari^n ang uali^ nang alila cu.? Uabi 
ritd ang pafigualii^ nang iyong alila. ^Maguling bagii an iyong pa&.? Hindi 
magaling. ^Sdan naroon aug luafiga ilgipin.? Aug maKga figipin ay na 
ga bibig. ^Muy nuiiaisa Iloilo bagii.? Ualii sinu luan napiisa Itoilo. fYliu 
tinupay niayrdon ang aquing tapatid nst babaye? An6 niiin timipay luig 
na B& caniya ay cacoi)nti. ^.Sa aling (oi* sa caniiioiii.') tiuio I'liyii iyiins' ni;i- 
;» ibong iyiin.? Sa alin man (nr »n canino man). 


^Canino baga it6ng manga cahoy na ito.? 8u aquing amii. iNino.? 
Sa aquing ama. ^Canino baga iydn mafSga batang iyan.? 8a aquin; 
i Aling baril ang na sa caniya. ? Ang buri! aiyk ang na ua caniy4. NariSon 
baga cahapon sa UngBafigan ang asaua mo.? Nariy^n siy^ camaualaua 
iMay tau6 baga noon na daan,? Ym man tauo ay unlii sa daan. /.Ang 
tai:6 ay may caloobaug magaling aa Dios.'? Oo, ang tau6 ay may Idob 
sa Dios. ^Ano baga ang ulaala.? Ang alaaleL,i, isang capangyarihan nang 
ating caloloua. iMayroon tayo bagang dtaiig na 16ob sa ating magugulang.? 
Oo, tayo.i. may otang na Idob sa maiiga magdlang natin. ;, Ang manga 
mahal na tau6,i, mafiga tampalasan baga.? Ang maiiga mahal iia taii^ ay 
hindi eila maiiga lampalasan. ^Anfi b;Lg.T iyan na sa ol6 mo.?; Ang na 
aa ol6 -co.i, ang aambalilo. ;.Ang pinsaii cw.cosine'ro baga siyamaihea.? 
Ang j^Ang-pinsa,!. hindi coeinero agad-agad.'-cundi sastre. ,",Ang biarian 
cong- babaye Riay itftng- ba'ta bagi. ? : f iyfi,i.'-inay' diUauing "b.ita. t.Ang 
taga ib^ng Iiipai-n ■ f bayan) mayrson* bazi ni1.-6.ig halaman aa caniyang "bar 
limanan.^' UaU.' nalar-tiya mlo.- »iya i.'-mayr6on rnan|;a il;'i'--,-|ila!aq«i 
bftgii ang d^gat.? Ang'd.igaf ay malaqni. "^Siian nafoon ang raonga'taga- 

ragat? Aiig maftga tagariigat ay na sa halamanan naag aming caapid- ] 
bahay. iMayrdon bagd silaiig butil sa canilang manga cartera.? Uala 
dlang butil. £^aan nardoti ung Inyong matiga tamb6buii^. ? Ang maftga j 
tan)L^bongeo,i, na sabiiquid. iSaan narSoii aiigt^agiiinoohan iiitoiig bayan.? j 
Ang caguinoohan nitoag haya.i. na sa simbahan. ^Ylan tuaf^ga halaman J 
mo ang na aa. halamauan iiiyd.? Ua)a acong halaman sa eantyang ha- 
lamanan. jAng bohoc niy4,i. maitini baga noon.? Ang bohw iiiy4,i,maitini 
ndon. ^ESaan cava iiaroon ang noe. ang manga lal'i at ang liig.? Na »i 
<i16. ^.Xa sa u\6 hnga ang niafigai balicat? Ualii. nailing bali'uat ang ol6. 
^.Ang oliiang lalaqui malacaH baga o mahina.? Siya.i. mahina, Yaong 
lauong naparitd, I'ajiutit) niu baga.? Aug capatid co.i, ang naparoroon. (VyaD J 
nmfiga e^iilut na iyun. na ama uio 1>-igii.? Ang niuQga puilut i^a aquing aiiui,!^,! 
iing na na lauiut^. iYyeng babiiyt^ng jyan bagii ang ^iniHinta mo.? Ang'J 
babaycng '•iniuinla i-u.i, ang aquiitg ini. (Anong ^aKabibin 1:1 no. aquiiig^V 
capaiid na babayt',? Sabjhui mu ^>\ iy6ng capatid na babayc na hotiaif.V 
biyang pui^a lloilo. ^Suisubiliin ^u luga ba caiiila na puKabiiquid ail&.i-. 
Uouag mung aabihin iyan. (Alin dito uu dalauing libro ang sa piosanli 
CO,? Ang librong bag" ang sa iyong pin&un, itong ifa. sa iydng anac nai 
lalaqui- (Yyang boteng iyan, ditu sa batang ito caya.? Hindi, iya.i, diyan| 
^a isa. iNapardon ca b»gd cuf^gina na. halamanan? Hindi acd aapardoo, 
(ac6,i, hindi oapardon. ) ^Cailan naparit6 si Jnan.? Camacaiian arao na^l 
parito ei Juan. iNapasahayan bagd cahapon ang ina nang htpag «o.?'W 
Napardon i^iya camaualanfl. 


iAnong tahoy iyan.? Ytong cahuy na ito.i. mulauin. tAng c&niyai 
mafSga daho,i. malalaqui at magaganda bagi,'? Oo, flga. ^Caninong ai 
it6ng manga batang ito.? Yt6.i, mafiga anac cq. ^At yaong isi, caninon] 
iinac? Sa aquing caibigan. iAng is>ng taon, may ilan b6uan caya,'' 
hibing datan^ng linuan ang i.'^ang tartn. Pafigalanan nin. — Enero at ibd pa. 
^.Ilan arao nng ii'Ang lingo.? An^ ising lingo,!, may pitong arao. Paiigal 
nan mo. — Lingo at ib^ pa. ^Anong bouang it6,? Brtuang Abril. iNariti e*J 
bagjt sa bi5uang Abril.? Uala acfi rito sa Itouang Abril, acd.i, naritu aa biSiian;! 
Jnlio. ^CailiLn ca mapasabtiquid.? Mapapasabuquid acd »a Juev«e. ^Di 
na :4a bayan ui palii i-uti Marten.? Na :-a bayan iwo i.'uu Lingo. ^Oailaii 
ta mapaua Maynila.? Aco.i, mapai-a .Maynila ^a Siiboilu. jNapahat^aaimha 
ban "iya cun Luneit.'? i^iya.i. iiapapai^uHimlnihan cun Lingo- ^And Houft 
•irao na itiX? VjernL-». ^Cailan t^ila riapa^iKa halamanan.? Hilii,i. napaeasa.-' 
halamanan »a mulaiig ara^i nang Lingo. ,'.An^ cayd ang lirao na Ba cata-' 
pusan nang bouun.? Ang catapuiian nang bouau ay Miercolee. ^Anong' 
houan ang na na uatapusan nang tadn.? Ang bouun na sa catapuaan uan^: 
taon oy Diciembre. i.Ano bagang ciilay nang pono niydng cAhoy.? Ang 
itilay nang pono nitaug caboy ay mapnla. ^Hindi baga madiliio.? Hiud{,t< 
maitim ititn. tMadilim baga ang arao.? Hindi, hind! madilim. ^Anocaya 
.mg arao sa paguitan nang gang Lingo.? Aug Jueves ay ang na sa pagui- 
tan nang sang Lingo ^-Ay an'">.? Uala nga, iAy aa6, uala bagang Dio& 
dito Bi lupa.? Abaa. iaan raa,i, may isaog Dios. ; Ay auo. ang capatid 
ui Pedro baga ang napar6on.? Siva rin nga ang napardon, /Ay «»6 na- 
ritft ca pala.? . Mangyari, .naritn. nga acd. ^Ay ano, maiaqui bags ang 
DiOB. ? Abaa. malaam jiga aiya. ^Ay and. icao paU ang nariyan.? Msng>' 
■■ari, aed ngani. ^IcJn rin bagi ang napardon ;a Maynila ndon Octubre.? 
Acd xin aog napardon. ^Sino nno bagi aog nagoacao nanz Ubro.? Ang'' 
maftga bahaye, ang nagnacao nang iibro <.Ang maiiga tjga Euiopa.- ma.< 



pDfmt!«tLys sila.? Abda mapuputi ag^ gila>. ^Saan nardonang ^os.? Saan 
man Icifo ay pumaroon, naroon ang Dioe. ^Sino ang niay^bi niyan-? 
Sino ma.i, ijiigaafiiili. ;,Na sa simbahaii bagJ, oi Juan.? \aril6 man siya 
sii hayan himli' tiiyii pjraeimbuhiii). t.ToIou hagii iviin.? Totoi figo. 


Anim na pnuo.t, tallo. .Saiigdaun dalaiiang puiio.t, ualo. Dalauing 
i'liia,t, lahing lina. Limang diiit.l, labiiig >>iyuui. Auiui iia dtian. tatlong 
poub at isa. Siyaiu Da raa,t. lab'iiig isa. tjangiibu, taUong daaii, lipat iia 
pouo.t, dalttoS. Tatlung lib'. Pildng !ibo, ualong ddaii. siyam iia pou6.t. 
iipat, Sanglacjft, anim iia raa,t, labing apat. Dalauang luoi-i, limAng libo. 
iialong daa.t, labing tatlu. TatUng lacsa, pitoiig libo at lati.ig imlii. Pi- 
long lac:a at iialung dam. Sangyotu, lim>iig daati, duluuang pou6,t. anim. 
Tatlong yolii, anim nii luc=a, dalauang libo, dalauang duan at labing apal. 
Ualong yota, tatlong lacsa, anim iia libJ, liming daati, anim na pou6,t. 
liira. Labing dalaudng yota, tatlong lau:a,t, dalaiidng libo, tatlong pouu.t, 
anim. Tatlong pou6,t, aput na yota. tatlong lacba, apat na libo, anim aa 
raa.t, ualo. ^Magcatio baga ang halaga niyang quiao.? Tatlong piso. ^Ang 
ama mo baga, ilan imhay mayroon.? Uala itiyang bahay. ^Ang iyong 
■-apatid na babaye mayroon bagiiiig tuaruming salamin.? Mayi'fion siyang 
dalauang pouo. ^Na sa manga magiilang mo baga ang laliat na singsing.? 
Uala sa tanilA ang lahat- ^Ylan iing mai^ga anac nang capatid n( An- 
tonio.? Mayroon i^ivang pild. ^Mugiiganda baga Hiluug labat.? Ang tatio 
^a canila,i, iiiaguganda, ang ibu,i, manga pafigit. ^.Ang iyung amain mayrdon 
siyang ilan oaiutid.? Ang amain cu,i, mayrdon limang capatid. Ylun baga 
Ba canili ang mauga lalaqui.? Ang tatlo ea canili.i, manga laluqui; ang 
ibd,i, mailgu babaye. ^Ang aquing ali, mayrdun bagu manuLing uahoy.? 
Siyti,i, mayrdon manga ibin. ;.Saan bagii nardon ang magbuyao.? Na 6a, 
Cebii sila. iVliiii cayang maHga babayeng ang uar6on cahapon.? Maraminj: 
maraii;i. ^Uala bagang libr« ^a bithay.? Cami,i, mayrdon marami aa babay. 
^Marami bagii diyan mnQga aso.? Mayroon, itlun Umang. ^Ang pinsan 
vo baga mayroon ilang pusa cayji.? Siya.i, mayroon iisa. ^.Mayroon bagitng 
ilalauang pouong ibon ^a baliay mu.? Muyrdon ildong labis ea dalaii^ng 
pouo. (.SiLan uardon.? Na sa manga i-afiga nang manga ciihoy. ^fiJiiio 
ang nagsal i aii iyo na mayroon maraming simbahan iia Maynila.? Ang 
aquiii mafigu isLibigan ang nagiiabi na aquin. f,Tayo,i, mayr6on ilaug calo- 
I6ua.? Tuyo.i. mayruou irk lamang. ^Vlan myang daliri ang na en cumay 
mo.? Aapat lamang. (,Ay an6,i, nawaan baga aug iba.? Ay aiio, aiig iM.i. 
linago. iVlan bagang pono niayrtkm dito r^n lialaiQanang iti.? Mayrdon 
maniDiing marumi. iVIan cava ha ijanila ang may safiga ul ildu uamiiii 
ang uala.? Ang maftga ualang saftga.i, iilan lamang. ^Siuo ang caona- 
onahang tauo.? Ang caonaonaban taiuo ay 8i Ad^n. j,At ang caouaoua 
bang babaye cayti.? Si Eva. ;,Ang capatid mong babaye ycailan siya sa 
escuelahan.? Siyii.i, ang ycalima. ,;Ycuilan ca baga,? Ycuanim na raan, 
tatJnng pou6,t, ual6 ac6. Mabal ca baga.? Acd.i, ang cahulihulihan nang 
mailga tauo. ^Maiaeama baga ang iahat na msfiga taud.? Hin^, iilitn 
Limang sa canila.i, ang masasama. ^Ang Iahat na babaye matiga. mabau 
baga;? Ang caramiha.i, mababait. ^Mayrdon ca pong mahigoH si tatlong 
plnnja.? Mayroon acdug higuit ga u'nim fia pou6, ^Ang caibigkfi mo.i, 
lalo pang .piatanda sa caniying capatid.? Siya,!, lalong mataa.-. ngunf.t, 
hmdi riya l&lon? malanda. j.Mayrdon ca pang iBaflga anac? Maytdon pa 
ai-on^ dalaua. ^Anong HTun i^sya figaynn sa sahglingo.? 5g.Tyo.i. Marten. 


oAt ycailan arad baga nang bouan cahapon.? Cahapo,i, ang ycadalau^ng 
pou6,t, lima. ^,Mafiga ilan cayang piso mayr6on ca.? Ac6.i. mayr6on 
niafiga tatlong pou6ng piso. 


^Anong libro ang na ^^a iyo.? Ang na sa aquia ay ang unaug libro. ^At 
nasaan ang ycalau^.? Na aa aquing capatid, ^Di baga ycasiyam na bouaQ 
nang ta6n ang Oetubre.? Hindi po. ycanangpubng bouan ang Octubre. 
^.Macallan bagang nagnacao ang bata mo.? Miminsjin. ^Macaiatl6 bagang 
napasahalamanan ang amain mo.? MiminBan lamang napasahalamanan 
siya. ^Paano ang pagbibigay mo nang iyong libro.? Ysi isa ang pagbibi- 
gay CO, figuni,t, ang aquing pang-indon ay tatlo tatlo ang pagbibigay. ^Pa- 
sasaescnela ca baga toning Jueves.? Ac6,i, napapardon arao-arao. <^Ylan 
oras naror6on ca sa escuela sa umaga.? Narordon ac6ng dalauang oras. 
^Sa anong drao nang saiiglingo ang manga anac mo,i, hindi napapasaes- 
cuelahan.? Cung linge,i, hindi 8ila napapaBaeBcuelahan. ^Ang manga plu- 
n)a,i, tig-ilan cung ybigay mo.? Nagbigay ac) napg tigpipito. ^Tig-ilan 
ang sabi mo.? Sabi co,i, tigpipito. ^Tig-ilan cun pagbibigay mo nang salapi 
sa mafiga bata mo.? Mamiso ang pagbibigay co. ^Gaandng bigas ang 
pagbibigay nang canilang ama sa canila.? 5lanalop ang pagbibigay nang 
canilin ama. ^* At ang canilang amain.? Ang canilftng amai.i, ualang man- 
belis mang lamang na ybinibigay sa canili; ang canilang ali mangaroba 
ang ibinigay na minsan. 6 Ang tauo ay may ilang bahagui? Dadalauang 
bahagui ang tauo, ang catauii.t, ang caloloua. ^.Cailan aco paparito.? Pa- 
rito ca sa catapusan nang bouan at narito ca sa capanahonan. ^-.Mabuti 
baga ang panahon sa bouang Octubre.? Ang panahon sa b6uang Octubre. i. 
masama. ^Cailan ca papasahalamanan.? Paparoon aco biicas nang 
omaga. ^8a biihay mo,i, mayroon bagang maraming bulilit.? Mayroon 
iilan. ^Mayroon bagang daga sa biiquid mo.? Mayroon maiiga daga^t. 
manga ibon. <; Mayroon bagang coto ang ol6 nang anac mo.? 8iya,i, ualii; 
cundi mayr6on siyang mafiga tuma sa caniyang damit. ^Marani baga ang 
mafij^a babuy mo.? Mayroon acdng lamang if Ang babuy damd,t, is^ng anacan. 


iCayd nang anac mo,i, mabuti baga ang lagay.? Oo po, earning da- 
laua,i, mabuii ang lagay. iAng pinsan raong lalaqui,i, mayrdon baga bu- 
lac-lac sa caniyang halamanan.? Oo po, siya,i, mayroon marami.ig bulac- 
lac. ^Mayroon baga siyang ibang halaman.? Oo po, siya,i, mayroon ibang 
halaman. ^Sino sino ang manga may bahay.? Ang manga mayayamaj, 
mayrdon bahay. ^,Ddon sa inyong bayan mayrdon bagang mababutiag 
babay.? Oo po, ddo,i, mayrdon mabubuting bdhay. ^Ad6 pang mayrdon 
cayd/? . Caimi,. mayrdon pang baca. <;, Mayrdon. ca pa baging maramliig sa- 
lapi.? Aug iJanadero G0,i;* mayrdon pang maraming marami. ^Mayrdon pa 
baga siyAxig pa'peU? Siya,i. mayrdon pa. - ^Ang cape- at aUg cha* nang 
• tagaragat 'ay magca^ngdani bagi.? Ang cape at ang 'cha niya^i, mtfgfca- 
^ ngd'amf. ^,Mayr(Son baga itong tauong i.o mafiga: oaibigan caftjngdfttni 


naiig caniyanj/ i-aiiuay.? Aug iiiaAga cniliigan at ang manga catiuay tiiyaj. 
mftgfnHn^dami. ;,Mayr(V>n raya «ililiig i^tipuig faparjs naiig dami iinnn 
rnniUng miMlia:'." Siln,!, iinl;ing nicdins. ;.Ang .<a iiqiiing capaliil na 
halelo singdiquil Imga nang tiquin.? Ang sa capatid mo,i, singdiquil nang 
iyo. jMart^inirif.' en liagii jiara iiaiig aiuafii un..' HiuJf a™ niarihiong jiara 
niytL iUaiial bagd -Si Juaii para nang aquiiig capatid na babajc? SUiing 
dtilaua.i, maizcaeingliaual. /.Vyaug biihng na iyun matigdti bagang parang 
bata? Ang i>at(^,i, bindi inatigds parii nitoiig biibng. j.Ma])uti baga ang 
biical para nang pilau.V Ang buuat ay lihiiJi raaputi para nang pilao. ^Ua- 
nitci bagii cailim ang tinta.? Ang tintu cu,i, ganiyiin caitini. ^Ang Ha 
aqtiin amiing patalim at ang amtng amain, singbubnti baga..? Para pa- 
rang mabn:i ^Yl6ng manga aaong ito, magaganda bagiing ganga noon.? 
VtoRg manga aRO,i. bindi ganOon caganda. (.Ang paggaiia nang tinapny ay 
gftnito haga.' Oo, ganiyan iiga. ^liaano cntanda ang aquing ama.? Ang 
iy^ng ami,!, Ringtanda nang aqnin. ^Ang atila nang aquing alE gaano . 
casama.? Gamagnanttcao Biya caxama. iGaano cariquil ang ibon co.? Gn- 
bulac-lac cariquit. ^.MaViait baga Si Antnniong para en.? Oay6ng dalaua,!' 
para parang mabail. ^Aning ibig niya.7 Aug ibig niyi ganagtatafigi^. 
hGanga niyan bagti capuli silu.? 8ila,i, ganga nitd capnla. iAng iyong 
hiyaa mahal bagii para nang no, capatid cong babaye,? Ang biyns fo,i. 
hindl mabal jiara nang na iy6ng capatid na baliayp. iYcao ay mayrfton 
iUng «uclay.? Mayroon noong dalauii. iAng tainga mo,!, maitim biigii parii 
nang ilong cn.v Maitim para nang iyong galanggalaftgan. iSaan nar6on 
ang manga bool at ang manga quiliqnili mo.'t Ang mailga bi^il co,i, na 
iia aquing manga paa, ang qnitiquili, na r^a iJalim nang balfcat. ^Ma6ga 
raayaman haga Sina Cruz.? Sil»i,i, mnyayanmn. .'Gaan" siia oayaman.? 
Ang cayamanan nila.i. ga sa ising Hari. ,",Ang bavin nin.i, mabnti bagii ang 
lagay.? Siya,i. mabnii ang lagiiy. 



;.Mayri5iin baga a'g aliU mung i^aiig luabiiting ualiii.? Stya,i, mayrdon 
ixii. I'.Ang niailga inagsaaaca mayrnon baga niln 6 niyan mafiga bayong.'.' 
i^ilu.i, nala nitu man niyiin man. ,'.Siuo haga ang mayr6iing it^ng mabu- 
tJng cahan.? Ang aipiing capatid na lalaigui mayr6on ink. ;.Mayrv>on bngii 
^siyitng ii=ang pnban na bnlat A inA cava na ciiboy.? Mayrikin siyiing iwd nn 
ctihoy. ;,Ang anionagne, mayriinn tiagiing maraming pacon'i htical.? May- 
riinn aiydng marami. r,Sino baga ang mayroi^ng liarll,? Ang maflga Ame- 
ricano.!. mayrtSon. ,;Na na ly/i baga ang pamocpoc na ciihoy nang prati- 
H^s 6 nang ingles.? Uala ac^ alin man. ^An<i baga ang lalo pang malial 
sa cayamanan.'' Ang cabanalan. ,', An>i bagti ang daquiii ea labal? Ang 
Dioti. ^Sino sino l>aga ang lain pang bata sa aquin minga capatid? 
Aug xnaGga anao nang amafn mo Jalo pang bata. iSino sino baga ang 
mayriSon lalong cayamanan sa cabanalan.? Ang maiiga mayaman. .Sino 
sino ang may lalong cabanalan 3a cayanrtanan.? Ang maiiga duo-hang tau6. 
iAciS,i, lato pa bagang maiiit cay Pedro.? Oo flga. siya,i, mataas (maiaqui) 
sa iyo. ;Alin sa mafiga bulac-lac na itt),i, ang lalong mariquit sa la- 
hat.? Ang lalong mariqult sa lahat ay ya5n na aa biibung. ^tiino sino 
ang malaciis st^ manga babaye.? Ang manga lalaqui Qgani. ^Ang ma- 
Qga cabay^,i, raaticsi pa baga 9a mafign calabao.? ^ila.i, lalo pang malicsi. 
^Ang manga Tagalog ay lalo pang ailang marami aa manga Americano? 
Silu,i, alangan ang dami, iAng capatitt nang oaapidbiihay, camaganac mo 
baga.? Hindi co cadugo aiya, cimdi cabalaye. iYlan bagii ang cahinlygan 
mo. ^Ang cahlnlogan co,i, pitdng lalaqai.t, apftt na babaye. iAng manga ba- 


nal na tau6 nana.'^oc ha^'a' sa Langit.? Ang iimn^a hanal n:i tJiu6 lainan^ ay 
an^r nan:isor sa La'figii. ;.VI>a haga ang oling na hato sa oling ii.". eahoy.? 
^ >o, nga, ang cav]>cnig hato ay il a sa oling. ^Maranii hagji ang manga bi- 
tiiin sa lafigit cung gahi.V Oo maraining marami. /.Ang pinsan mong la- 
laqiii may mabutfng Jisal bagji.? Tlindf. siya.i, mabag&ic. /.Ang ina mt) ba- 
gciji, may saijuit.? Hindi, siya,i, magaling; figuniM, ang iiianhihibo,i, may 
saqiiit. ^Magcand ang dosena niyung manga mansana.? Dalauang pouoiig 
sentimos. ^Ang iyong all mayroon bagang maraming larauan sa caniyang 
bahay.? 8iya,i, mayroon tat long larauan .sa Vmhay niya. ^.Ang bobong 
nang bahay nang iy<ing caapidbahay, ano baga.V Ang bobong nang baha^' 
nang caapidbaliay ay pauid. ;.Ang halamang pauid ano baga.'^ Sas&. 
^.Mayroon bagang sasahan sa iyoiig probinsia.? Oo, aiayroon. ^Nasaan 
ang pang-inoon mo.? Siya,i, na sa simbahan. iMabagsic baga siya, ? 
Hindi, siya,i, hindi mabagaie, mabuiiog asal siya. iAnong dasal iyan.? 
Ang Ama Namin. <;. Ylan baga ang tauo d(Son.? Mayroon tatlo, si Juan, si Al- 
predo sampong ni Ricardo. iAlin baga ang lalong maiunong sa canila.? 
Ang lalong mariinongsa canila, i, Si Juan. (.Alin bagii ang lalo pang ma- 
tanda.? Ang lalo pang matanda,!, Si Alpredo. ;.Alin ang lalong maputi 
sa canila.? Ang lalong maputi, Si Ricardo. ^Alin sa iyong manga ca- 
patid na babaye ang lalong maganda.? Si' Juana,i, magandft, Si Maria, i, 
lalo j)ang maganda; datap6ua,t. Si Clara ang maganda sa lahat: abaa Si 
Clara,i, maganddng maganda. ^Masipag na masipag baga ang manga Ame- 
ricano.? Sila'ji, masipag na masipag. ^Matamis na lubha baga ang polot.? 
Oo, nga, ang polot ay matamis di sapala. o^l^anga paiigit baga ang ma- 
nga calabao.? Oo rin, ang manga calabao ay pafigit na pangit. ^Anong 
hiiyop ang malicsi di hamac? Calicsilicsihan ang cabayo. iAng mailga 
ibon malichi baga sa manga cabayo.? Oo, ang manga ibo,i, malicsi pa sila 
sa manga cabayo. 6 Ang manga Tagalog baga caitimitiman.? Hindi, sila,i, 
bindi inaiitim na lubha. ^.Ang ])ilicmata mo,i, maiitim na maiitim baga.? 
Manga maiitim na maiitim. ;.Malalim cayti ang dagat.? Ang dagat ay 
calalimlaliman. iAng manga mansana cayii maguinhauang maguinhaui.? 
Oo. sila,i, caguinhaguinhaguahan. Ang ibo,i, ualang caparis nang licri. 
<[. Banal baga ang amii mo.** Ang ama co,i, ualang capantay nang cabanabin. 


,>\ng asiiua mo,i, ilan cava ang sapin.? Siya.i, mayroim dalaua lamang. * 
^.:?ino bagiiang matamad.? Ang alilang babaye, i, matamadtamad siya. oAlin 
bagii ang boilgang lalong masarai) sa lahal na bonga sa Pilipinas.? Ang pifia,l, 
ang h'aguing ay inasarapsarap. .-.Maasim baga ang dalaiidan.*' Maasimasiui 
lamang ang dalandan. ^Yt6iig tubig na itoj, maalat baga.? Hindi, maalat- 
alat lamang. ^.Lalo pang matulin baga ang mafiga sisiu sa manoe.? Ang 
mafiga sisiu cun sila,i, maliliit pa matulintulin lamang. ^Masarap baga 
iyang mansana ng iyan.? Masarapsarap. ^.Ibig mo baga nang tinapay.? Ibig 
CO nang caonti. ,.Ayau ca bagang pasaescuelahan.? Ybig congpasasimbahan, 
nguni,t, ang aquing caibigan Si Quicoy ay aiiyao. ^Mayroon ca bagang maraming 
pilrtc? MaynSon aco caonti lamang. ^Ano baga ang lagay niyang gatas (better) 
Maanu bagii iyiing gatas na iyan.? Ytong gatas na ito,i, maasimasim. 
(.Ano iyang larauan.'* Ytong larauang it6 il>onibonan. ^Maraming baga 
lauolauohan iliyan sa laniuang iviin.? Mayroon dalauang pouong tauo- 
tauohan dit6 sa larauang ito. «.Ang caniyang capKtid ay medico l>agH.? 
.*fiya,i, medimedicohan lamang. ^.Ano iyang hinihibo diyiin sa larauang iyan . ? 
Bahaybahayan. ^, Magaling bagti ang panadero mo.? Siya,i, may saquit. 
^Gaano calubha ang saquit niya.? Siya,i, magalinggaling na. oNapasasim* 


tialiaii i:ii,vi^n(! luhnl cafiiiiiiiiii^ ouiaga.v billing lutiat iiy na^ian^n lihan sn 
aquin. ^Mayroon caya iliin Dioe.? Ysa figa lamang ang Dioa. iVlan sa- 
lapr mayriSoii ang pare,? Ang pare.i, may salaping labw. iAnii baga iyiiiij^ 
nardoii ea liayong iia iyun.? Yto,i, papel. iYWg niy4 haga nang caonting 
suca.? AyuQ siyii; sa pageat,t, ang caniy&ng lulamonan ay masaquit. ^Siiaii 
nerdon ang maflga itgat.? Aug mafiga ugat nang mai^ga cahoy ay na »a 
)upa; ang sa manga h^y op ay na t^a laliat nniig catanu^n nila. iAn6 ang 
otac? Ang manga otac, ay ogat nang mafiga iititl. iMnyroon bagiiiig lii- 
fi^n diyan ita tapayang iyiin.? Halting uala, itdng tapayang it6,i, uaiiing 
lamtin. ^Sdan mayr6on ttibig.? May tiibig an lial-on. ^Ang iyi^ng ama.i, 
patdy na bnga.? Oo, ang ama co,i, namatay na. ^S^n nar^ii figayiSn 
arg mnfiga ca]oIoua nang naflgamatay na tauo.'^ Ang sa maAga bannl 
na tauo, ay na sa lafigit; ane ^a nan" raa^aRama,!, na !)a Impiernn 
;,Ang paWji, an^ bagii.' Anu pmv.i. ans calialili nang Uins. iAn6ng bagay 
.ing mahulny.'' iliy marnming garni na mahtilny. ;.Nao(5enl bagii sa ifan(.> 
laj.iqiii nng paggniia nang baro.? Vviin ay naoocol Fa maftgn babayt-. 
,:Ang mnflgii liayop n) ang maTiga tiin" ay magcaparps bagil.? Hindi, 
ang maftga huynp ay iba sa maf\ga land; ang mnnsa liiiyop ay nao&iol 
ea liipa, nng mnfiga taii" ay ?a Uiop. 


/, UngmaiirnI I'a bagii nang Tngalog.? ■.>!< po, nngmuaral :icu nang 
'fagfltog. iAm'i fflvang yniarst niya cahapon.7 Ang yniural niyd,i, ingk'^, 
(it^ungmdlai bngii cnmi nang r^i^tat sa lingong itacaraan.7 Camf, ^ungmdlnt 
nang marnn i. ;.Ciiilan silii.j, sungmi^ilat nang maftgn itaRalan.? SilaM. 
sungmiitat nang ilan caniacailung arno. ^Cailan ^UBillat ang cnnilttn^: 
am£.? c)iya,i, snsulat sa macalaui. ^Nacabasi ca baga nang siilnl nang 
dungmating ang aquing capntid na bahayc? Nang ang capatid mong 
babaye,i, dungmating, actS.i, nacabapA na nang stUat. ^Andng sabi niln 
i>a canililng mafiga anac? Nagsabi sila ea canil&, bumaci cayd ^linom 
Sana caya siyii nang nibig can mayrrton disin.'' 0»n mayroon rtiHJn 
siyslng alac, hiiidi siyii iinom nang tilbig. ^.Hungmiflgi bagii nang anomtin 
ang mananahi na caniy^ng ina.? Hungmifigi siyti nang tiniipay ea caniya. 
jCnn mayrrion sana acfing libro, ifbig ca cayang biimasi.? Cun mayroon 
ca dining libro. marabil ac<^ babasi nang ilan. uOun napasabayan bagti 
siya papaeioc caya Mya sa bjihay nang caniying aii'.'f Own paroriion sana 
siyii sa bayan marahil ciya papaHO<.' sa bsibay nang eaniying ali. ^.Tn- 
tacbd baga aco.? Houag cang tumacbi nang ganiytin, macii puraarit6 ang 
ama ran. ^Laialuiii ca sana oun baga ang panah6,i, mabuli.? Cun nng 
panalio,!, liindi masama, ac6,i, marahil ay talaban. ^,Bibil! ca baga sana 
nang pluma r-ahit maparit6 ang iyong: pafiginoon.? Bibili didu ac^ nan^ 
plnma bagaman nng nqiiing pafigim^o.i, pnmaritA. ;.('IiH':iin en bagi nanj' 
maraming cauin pa lingong papiisoi-.? Cahimn,t, flc<i,i, maynJon marami 
■ly Hindi acu i-aoiin nang marami. ^Alfn Imga ang latong mabuti, ang 
pagtacbo o ang pagliicad.i' Ang pagla^'ad ay lalong mabnti sa pnglncbi'i, 
IvCailUn darating ang ohispo.? Ang pagrlallng nang obinpn.i, minndn lamang 
r*Ei tadn I^n. ;.Aali)^ ca bagii.? Acri.i. aalis hagam^,t. masama nng pu- 
nahon. ^Macahafi na aco cun ang anac co.i, dungmating cava.? Di man 
riiyri.i. pnmarilo. bnbapi rin ac<l pincdiing anrt ang mangynri. 



^Bungmibili baga 6 nagbibili nang tiiidpay ang iyong panadero.? Xag- 
bibili siya n^x^g tintipay; nguni,t, bungmibili siya nang cdhoy, iGungnia- 
gaua b^gd nang anoman ang iyong pafiginoon dcen sa Maynila.*/ SiyH,i. 
nagaaral nang singles at ungmaaral nang Tagalog. 6Nag-ii8ip ca- bagang 
magbigay. nang anoman sa mafiga duc-ha.'' Di aco nagbibigay nang pilac 
sa.canila; sa pagca,t, ao6,i, mayrdon caoaonti lamang; datap6ua,t, nagnanasa 
•icong magcar^on nane niarnmi fit sacti magbibigay aco sa canila nang tinii- 
pay at nang daniit. i.Haqui< an.L^ manga eapatid na lalaqui nang amin^ 
mamigang na V)abaye ay najrnanasang nnialis.'-. Vbig nilang iimali?; sa 
pagoa,t, sihi.i, imsasah;iliay nana: oanilang anul maglaJabas nang pin- 
gaii. ;,Cailan baga Sina Dooot nag-iisip nnialis.** Sihhiir lahat ay aabV 
bucas nang hapon at ibig nilang cumoha iiang paiay ,<a bilquid nang 
<'aniMng urh, <.Siian ra nagdadala nang salapi.? Ac ),i, nagdadala dito 
nang raonti; sa pagca.t. aro.i. nagifsip bumili nang babay na bato. Nag- 
dadali doon si Pedro, nang ganoong salapf.' Tahu siya nagdala dii«*» 
nang r^anglibong piso sa oaniacailan. ,'.Nahahatid bagai nang anoman antr 
< aapidbiihay mo sa caniyang manga anac.** Naghatid siya sa cani.a 
nang bigas. ;.f>aquit <'a nagootos cay Juang magsimbi lingo-lingo.? S:i- 
pagca.t, aco.i. nagaalaal i na ang )>agsimb''i,i, hk sa manga otos nang Dins. 
<:'.Saan baga sila naglagay nang bandejado eo.** Vnilagay nila ang ban- 
dejado sa halamanan. i.Ano ang sabi mo.V Oaoin mo iyan pagdkca at 
sacii pumaroon ca sa halimana.t, magdala ca dito narg dam6. c^agsa- 
sabi baga nang anoman si Biangui tongcol cana Juan.'-' Nagsasabi siya 
nang ganito: cun gaano ang magugulang ay siya rin ang manga anac. 
^.Xagnariasa ca pang })umar6on sa diigat at magdala dito nang taga- 
ra'gat.? Nagnanasa acong pumaroon at magdala nang salapi sa aquing 
manga caibigan. iMayroon ca pa bagang maraming caibigan.? Uala p<>. 
(tacaonti na ang manga caibigan co; sapagca^t, ang caramiha,i, patiiy na. 
/, An»> baga i^'an na sa camay mo.V -Gvinting. ^.Mayr<x>n ca ]iang iVa ijx 
gunting.V Hindi, raayroon litmang ac6ng is^ng lanseta. 


. • 

;.Maano ang cai)»igan mo.? Tila siya.i, imtot6log; data{x>ua.t. sa ao^tta 
co;i. siyji.i. namamatay. ;.Xat61og ca na canginang pmaga nang dungina- 
ling ang aquin^^: eapatid na babayo.' Hindi, bindi aco nat61og pa. iA»o 
ba^-t: ang catulad nang isiVng tauo na natotolog na malalim.'' Ang tau6ng 
natott'dog nang malalim ay catulad nang bangc*^y. 6Sino, sino aa inyd ang 
nagugutom.? YsA man sa amij, bindi nagugHtom; flguni,t, camfng lahat 
ay naoobao. /.Baquit natatacot ang inyong mafiga caapidbiUiay na babny^.V 
Sila.i. natatacot. Trupagca.t,. aug canilang ama,i. may. saquit- nai lubh^jt. 
natatiicot sil«i na siya.i. niamatay. r'.Anong nagaiia mo bagji,t, icao,i, nahihiya 
nang ganiyan. * Aco.i. nabibiya, sa pagca,t, may ising bouan na di aco 
iiagsimba. ;.Xaguiguinao baga Si .Tuana, ang eapatid n a babay e nang manana- 
In'.? Siya.i. Iiindf naguigninao. anaqni siya.i. nagiiiguina'o: datapi>iia,t. siy:i,i. 


uaiinit-aTi:. iArio.t,' scng canilang iimflga aimc ay tjatotoua.7 Hilii.,i, wnto- 
tpua: sapagcu.t, an;r cnnilaDg aiinu,i. nagaacalang niaghatid t^a catrilaiiir 
lahat ga Maynilu. ;Nahabapis hagti aiig inyong pare.? Nahahapii; siva,- 
sa pasca,t, cacaontf lamang anginaiiga tauiliig nageisimbi iingo-liiigo.? "^tv 
nino bagii yaong mafiga bahay na niisosonug.? Aiig mailga bahay na 
na^osdnog ay KUrifl' nang caiHgan mo, ang aiuaiir ni Joarra." fcfiino baga 
ang gungmisi naiig iyong baro.'? llala gunguiit^i nang ai^itini; bat-w; lila 
naguiGi; datapoua.t, naputol lamang. ;, An'g caiiiyang alf. magbabiisag bagu 
nang landii pingan. baao: bote at tapayan.v Di po. Jiri" ibig- myi lii- 
Hiang, magbiidag nang tapayau; ngmi{,t, htndi isiyiE nagbautiinj; luagbiuiag 
ining diJang ibiing Vmgay. ;,BaqLiin baga hindi nagdadala diftj ang alila 
nang cauayiin bi}(jty co sa caniya <.ubapuii t^a gabi.' f^iyii.i.-natatiicot at 
I tiaVilnlfang parho'; «i pagca.t. ^iya,i, nagbalf naniir cauaynn. ,:8mo'aiig 
nagpntid nitong hibid na il6.'f 'Anc ali nang alila nt '.fuan .'ly feiyi^^ 
nngfala^t niya^t, maraniing ibing U'ibkl."''t*Ano nagtatagpf en ba-'ii'iHya^? 
Niigtatagpi acli nang bar<i,t, aapEii, i.Aac.t, itng anac; ma,!,- htiidf nuigjfc-- 
pHRot nang manga curayum.? llnulf niyi ibig nmgpotut niingcariiytini inun,' 
niitig manga man. «NagbabHntiiiig humanap bagii nang unoman ang't8u6n;g 
banat.? Ang i^an^' banal na t^u6 ay nugbabantiing hnnuinap nanfrlan^B 
patoDgO ea Liingit. ^Mainit baga u mahiniig ang tlibig nn iLagal.? Aug tlibig 
:<a dagat ay maitiiliiiit. ^Ang iyung ali. itiin na baga »iyang ladn.v LublN 
na fiiya sn lall^ng puii6,t, aniiii na tuun. ^Magcauo ngayou ung hulagu 
naug bigas.? Tiglilim&ng pitto ang uuban. ([Auu ang sabi mo no. a<\mn.'.' 
Ang sabi 1:0 ^a iyO.i. magandang ;lrau pu, m pagua,t. flgay6,i, utuaga; cuu 
Upas nu ang tanghali. ang sasabibin uu ea iy6,i, magandaug kapon at 
saoi CUR dumating ang gabi ang sababihin co,i, magandang gabi han- 
giin Ea hating gabi. ^AUn sa acala mo ang Jaloug niaJ>uting sa 
lahat.? Sa acala co,i, ang saguing ay ang bofSgang lalong mabuti 3a lahat, 
datap6ua,t, may ibing tau6ng nagaacala na ang nianga, an^ lalong mabuti 
?a lahat. i\a6 ang balamaug palay.? Aug patay ay i^ang halaman na 
may 6hky. ;An6 baga mayroon ang baua.t, l:iang tuuO.? Buua.t, it^ang 
tituo ay mayroiin^ damit na t^arili. at yiiniuug t^ila,!, tiiayrotin datnlt^ i.ia- 
Utacot billing gurntFl iiung na ila, ^^liinjamutuy bu^a ang tiitio.?' Ang 
.-.augcutauoha,i. nianiuniMlay; ang pauaiig lia!nmii,i. nrnt^'loyo at 'ang 'lilH'ng 
biliii,i, niiigdiililiin. 


iUngmaacyat (nanficyal) Imgil anj? lying pn niaugniiin «a bundoc,? 
Nanacyat siyd aa bundoc, sa pagca,t, ibig niylng tumanrio ea dagat. ^AnA 
aiig figaian nang inaanau nang amit nio.'^ Ang figalan nang inaanac ni 
ama,i, Si tluico. iSino bagii aug iniibig; niong lalo aa labat.r Aug iniibig 
con^'lalo pa sa lahat, ay ang a((uing amii. iCun uala ea sanang ama tjiho 
baga* ang iibiguin mo diein lalo sa Itihat.? Cun uala 3.v6 aanang a/ni 
iibiguin CO diein ang aaiiua op na-lalo sa Vi^af. -Baquit ibig nang caiuyahg 
pamangquing babaye na i^aliiahan it6ug lalaquing it& sa simbahan.? 8ft 
pagca,t, siya.i, inaanau niyii. iSino baga ang iniiua niji.? Ang caniyang 
iniini,t, yadng babaye tungmitinging sa mafiga cahoy cahapon naug hapon. 
^Baquit cayii nacyat oi Jcsucristo sa Laiigit,? Siya.i, ungmaeyat sa Laiigit 
nang tangapfn niya d6cn ang taniiug caloldua nang manga taufing banal dito 
ea lupa. lAng inaaaac na lalaqui nang aqiiiiigUpag, didingiguin baga niyi 
ing mabutcng aral ni ypifigailgiiral r.i Pare Saatoa sa caniy*.? Marahil didi- 
i^giguit aiyi cue aisan^ihau sshs. si/a ii3:i£ sine man ss simfcahan. ^Ibk mo 
cayang la^apiii yaung mangang nador^oa sa lamesa n-^n^- capatid nong 


babaye.? Inamdy co cangina at bagaman tila masarap ay hindi, cay^ 
fiea hindi co lalasapin. ooaan nardon aug pusang binib co camacalau^.^ 
Unfffnah'd, ba pagca,t, iuanaoy niya iyang daga iyau na pungmasoc doon 
Hd DutaBy uang iiardou cami sa halamaiian at ftgay6,i, ang pU8a,i, nagtago 
^B. tapayan. ^Macallan baga ang alilang babayeng naquiat (ungmacyat) 
an tanauan, nang cani\ iiig hanapin ang balamin nang capatid co.? Nacyat 
(angmacyat) siya doon raacatatl6. ^Baquit di mo sued hinihipo.? Sa pag- 
ca,t, masamkng asal ang pagbi|K) sa manga tau6. ^ An6 baga ang guinagaua 
nang alilang tinauag mo caf^gma.? Tungmatacbo parati (nagtatiu^bo) eiyai 
da mafiga lansaftgan at cun siya,i, tinaUiuag co,i, cailan man hindi napaparit6 
o dungmidifigig at tinatanong man &iya,i, hindf rin sungmasagot. ^Baquit 
oaya tinangap mo siyd.? Tila, siya^i, mabait at banal mona, datapdoa,!, 
siya^i, malicot at magnanacao. ^An6 ano yadng mafiga librong binaba^i 
nmig iyong capatid na babaye.? Binasi na nang capatid co ang mafiga 
IfVro mo at ii^ay6n ay biuabasi n\yk naman ang aquin. ^And an6ag 
itlung mafiga libro ang babasahin niy^ bucas.? Bucas, siya,i, laUbaa na 
bibih nans maftga ibon na sinali mo sa caniya at hindi siya darating 
sa capanahonan. oAnong tinapay ang qninain nang capatig ni Juan.? 
Quinain niya ang tiriipay na ybinigay nang caniyang capatid na babaye 
:^a caniya. 


^Baqmt caya ang tagaragat ay hindi niya dinadala dit6 ane mafiga 
sasacQuian na binili co sa baybay.? Dinadali pa niyi sa mafiga didampasig 
nang rasig at hindi siya darating bangan macalaua. ^Gaan6 calapad ang papel 
na pinadala mo sa anac nang anlouaguc? Ganitd calapad. ^Hindi baga 
maicli iyang cayong iyan, sa i.-ang baro.f Hindi, sa pagca,t, tila man 
maicli, mahaba,t, malapad. ^An6 caya ang bagay na lalong malouang sa 
iahat.? Ang b^ay na lalong malouang sa lahat ay ang dagat. ^Maquipot 
baga ang manga sapin dinali mo ditd.? Maquipot nga. Saian pinaglalagay 
nang anac mong babaye ang dalauing libro pinagotos co na dalhin niya 
doon sa San Pedro.? Pinaglalagay niy^ sa dalampasig. ^Alin baga da- 
himpasig, ang sa canan o ang sa caliua.? Aquing inaacala, ang sa caliua. 
^.Ang mananahi mo nagdamit na baga sa mafiga anac nang iy^ng capatid 
na .i^baye.? Hindi pa siya nagdamit sa canil^. ^An6 ang dinasal mo 
:>a lingong nacaraan sa siinbahan.? Dinasal co,i, ang dasalan yniaral ni 
iianay sa aquin, nang ac6,i, bata pa. ^Ano ang quinacamtan nang pagdada- 
<al.? Ang quinacamtan sa pagdadasal ay ang Lafigit. ^An6 ang sabi nang 
alila nang medico sa ina mo.? Sinali niyd sa caniya na hindi darating an^ 
t-aniyling panginoon hangan sa macalaua. ^Ano ang ynilabais namin Sit 
l^ahay ni Pedro.? Ynilabas namin ang cahuy na amiug binili sa caniya. 
.^Anong ibig mo.:* Ang ibig co,i, ngayop din ay pardon aco sa bahay ni 
Pedro at dadalhin sa caniyi ang salaping nang bayaran sa cahoy. iAub 
ang inilsip mo.? Uala. ^Ana ang pinadadaU nang Pare sa anac mo sa 
^tavnila.^ Pinadadah niva iton? mafiga libro sa caniya. 

•> -* • 


iADiiHgypiiiot-j! liig tiiyaiiy laru.? Aiigguntiiig aiig jpiiiutol cu. iAmJ 
tmgil ang yguinaiia n^ng aiilouagut; nuug lameaa.? Pamoupoc ang ygui- 
hagauU niji. iGuiiionting mo bagd iyang cayoiig ijaii.? Oo po. ang 
kfontibg ang ypiiidtol co naiig cayo. iAno ang ytioapon nang iyong ca- 
patid na babaye cafleinang uraaga.? Ytinapon niy4 ang caniyung plunia. 
^Biquit ylmapon niya.? 8a pagca,i. luma na. (Ylatapon sana niU aug 
caniling salapf, cun mayWion Jisin silii?. Hindi, uun mayroon sana silang 
salapf, hindi niji ytatapon. ;,Anang gagaoin co ni(6ng isda.? Ytapon mo. 
^An6 cava ang Tjfi&figa baliU dit6 Ma bsA-an.? Ang Eabi nang niaf^ga tauo 
na ang liocom ay darating figaydn. iniao baga ang nagbalita niyau sa 
iyo.? Yya,i, ang sabi nang lubat. tCaflau ybabalita nang iyong bianan 
:ia maftga anac niya alig pagtamatay nang caniyang alila.? l?a lingong 
darating ay ybabalitu niya. ^Ano.t, nanayuo ca na a<:D,i, uniinom nang 
alac? At;o,i. ndnayao na umiuon ca nang alac, sa pagca,t, uiarahil ay yea- 
suc4 mo. lAnif ang ysinuca mo cahapon.'i' Ang quinain co, ang uqiiiug 
yuinuc^. ^Aqo baga ang ysasabog saiia nang ama mo dito && biiqtiid na 
1 to cun naabnli ang panabdn.? Cun niabuti sanaang panahdn ang ysasabog 
diain niya,i, palay. (And baga, ang yquinacalat na lubha nang masasa- 
mang tauo.? Ang masaroang tau6 ay eungmacilat nang masamang asa!. 
(.An* ang guinaua mo sa cahoy na ypioadala sa iy6 nang iyong magsasaci.'' 
Yguinatong co. ;,Ancing guinagaiiii mo diyan,? Acd.i. maggagatong. 



iSino ang inuotangaii nang manguiigalucal nang caniyiug luanga t 
lucal -' Uula iaa man inoutafigan niy^ nang manga calacal, ibing nia- 
ngaAgalacal ang binibilban niyii; ngunf,t, ieJing cababayan niy4 ang ino- 
taftgan niya nang salapi sa macailan. iSino ang ootafigan nang panadern 
nang »alapi.V Ang na, caniyang amain mnriga anlouaguc ang ootafigan 
niyi. ^Nao^afigan mo baga na fii Pedro nang salapf, nang dungroatin^ 
iicd dito.? Hindi, nang iciio ay dungmating ditu di pa tti Pedro inota- 
Mgau CO nang anomtin. ^Sino baga ung outangnn oo nang salapf.? Ang 
iyuug all ang ootafigan niu. ^Aling lugar ang piuagbatahau ni JcHUcrit-tL> 
nang maraming caturapan.^ Ang Bondoc nang Ctilvario, ang pin^bata- 
iim nang ating PaRgindon nang maraming cahirapan. ^Macapagbata cj 
na caya nang maraming cahirapan cun icao ay tumanda? Oo figa., mag- 
bab&ta na acd nang maraming cahirapan cun ac6,i, mat^nda na. «Sin<' 
caya pinagnacaiian mo nitcng libro.'- Ysa man tauo ay di co pinagna- 
cauan nitong libro, ybinigiiy sa aquin itd nang aquing capatid na babayt. 
.^Mftcallan caiig nagaacao naug ^nor^iin sa ma&ga magiilang mo,': Maca- 
tiilii. :MagcaQ^ sa baua,t, ui.': Macadalau4 ay cahati, at miQ£4>ii , pi^o. 
,:.Knif ca.y-i ap,g bjnabaiitayan nang aquing hipag.'- Binabant^ag ^i?^ *0£ 
caaiying mafiga pana9i,m. .:.At aii6 ang binab^ctayin :iang .siaj^a' sun- 
dalo.' An" maftga hayan at ang aia.aga, dia,i, ang binabantiyan .a;U „Saar. 
nng pina^ub^ntayuj ni Juuu." Ar.;; piriUgb^jLani^Vjn ni Ju^i ' -ng tuU;' 



na mala^ui. ^Aiiong ibig uioiig fiugmaBJiiii co.? Ybtg vo nii ijong pag- 
musdau itong aqiiin^' ytuturo »a, ivo. iAno bagii iyiin.? Na ang capa- 
luraD dito sa lupa,i, lungmiiipas na madaii. iAno ang ysinugat mo sa 
L'iiniyA.? Ve&ng itac ay veinugat co bii catiiya. ^Sauii bagii siyu einoga- 
tan mo.? Ang camay niyi ang tiinogatan co. ^Sino bagd ang magaauit 
ngaydug gabi.? Ang anac tia babaye ni Alpredo. ang magaauit. (.Stao 
^uya ang pagaauitau nfyi.".' Ang anjii nij-4 ang caniy'ing [mgauoitan. 
aAho aiig fiabi niya.? Ang ^abi niyi,i. abjiu! ina cu, ^Siiio caya ang 
pinaggaeabihan imng piiisiin coiig babiiye niyan.? Piiiagaabilum uiya ang 
i:aniyung all niyan. ^,AUn ang tinapitDnii mo nang (.iitioy iia b'ulot;.? 
Ang clagal ang tinaixjnan cu naag (.ithuy na boloc. ^A)!n ang pinagla- 
guiun alila niyang qiii^o.'i' Ang lam<:)>a, ang pinaglaguiaii uiyk. ^Sinu 
;ing einolatan nang canilang capatid.? Ang caniyang mailga anac ang ei- 
unlatan niya. ;f>a alnig biihay fWg mong pumanhic? (Aling bahay ang 
ibig mong pnnhican.)? Ang buhay mo aiig papanhican co. i.Aab baga 
ang ami nang araii mo.? Aug amu nang ama uo.i, a^iuing uonu. ,'At ang 
anac nang anac nangnonu mo ^ay ami bagii.? !^iya,i, apO niya. ^At ang 
ap(5 nang ama mo.? Siya,!, apo ea tubud. Al ang npo ea tuhod nang 
iy6ng ama ^anJ baga sa caniyi.'/ Siya,i- ap6 sa talumpacaii sa cauiyi. 
,;May asiua pa ang pinsan mong bsbaye.? Hindf, {or ualii) tiya.i. balo na. 


^Sino ang ynngmayaniau.'.' Aug yuugmayuuia,!, iiug mafigat^galacal- 
/.Ang pantangquing babaye naug ating caapidbahay dungmuduc-lia baga.V 
Hindi, himlf aiya dungmuduc-ha; sjya,i, gungmagalitig. alintana.l, ang cani- 
yang balalungmuhtltia saquit. hUngmicli bagti ang cayi> nang amiingealaual.'.' 
Hindf, cundi bagciie humaba, ^Sino ang tungmatandii.' Timgniatandii ang 
ama co, iAng anac ni Tonio lungmalaqui baga.T Hindi, bindi eiyu lungma- 
laqiii; cundi lungmalaoii». tDungmiinong bagii ang manga Tagalog.7 Hindi. 
liindi pa sila dtmgmdnung. ^Catltin caya silti liisipag.? Ciiu sila,i, ma- 
yaman na. ^Tinangap na l>aga iiang capatid mong babavt? ang manga 
^lilat.? Hindi pa niya tinangap ang maflga Bulat. ^Bungmibill ang mafiga 
Americano nang anoman.T Biingmibili sila nang biiquid. ^Anobagtiang 
giigaoin CO.? Cumuha ea uang tiuilpay at nmalis ca na. ;.An6ng inabot 
nang iy6ng pinsan.? Ungmabot siyS nang alao. iSinong ungmiUang nang 
])ilac.7 Ytbng tauong il6,i, migmolang nang pflac, ;.Ano ang babaot^in 
Hating r.amtan.'l Magbabanlii tnyn magcamit nang cayamanan. ;,.\nit bagri 
^ing einompong mo.? Sumompong aco nang quiso, ^Sa canino saBattlbong 
L-a.? Basalubong acu m aqning amafn. ^.Hungmuli ca baga nang daga.? 
Hungmiili acu nang iml. i^Sa ranino dungmadaquip ang niafiga baiitay.V 
huugtnuraquip tiila sa maflga magnau'icau (iri- luliean.J ^Baquit ca ung- 
imiumit nang salapi.? Hindi ac6 ungtnuumil, ang alila ang nngmnamit. 
^Baquit tungmatacbd ang iyimg anac na babaye.? 8iya,i, tungmatacbd, 
;-a pagca.t, ibig niying humuli nang ising ibon. ■ iAno ang gainagaua 
nang caniUng capatid.? Tungmatalon siya sa dagat. iAn"",!, longmolocsb 
.ing manga bata-? Hindi sila lumoloceo; aila.i, lungmaiacad na lamang. 
,;Ang tagarJgat ay maninong luoiaftgtfy.^ Mariinong siya lumanguy. ASaan 
.iag- tahanang nang ama mb.?- Dit6 siya tangmatahaa. ^Baquin- mndi 
■'-.a- hiiDgMutumpiiy aa p.tgt6!o2 '' Sa-pon^a.t n^^ga T^."^*- liungmigi-ico 
'.ii-hapoa 6a bfitinc gabi. ^Aro ing oati niya.? NassaU 'lU-a tuminoi^ ca 
rinaiii- sA duutapa ea. ."iHitui; bagi laloug mabati-a^'.' a«i^,i:~tamih«ya.* 
Hind;, mtaapat ca- =a aijia^ i'.. 'sci turaaguilid. ca. ■„^!!^i53<^"=l-bagi-«og 
tasfiga halaman =a iy6ng halumaniin.? iungmisibol na' at- ung- ma^a oa- 



tioy iiii sii •]nlnin|i.'i:'itj| nnii^ lioj^: ny llh<fllllln^l•llll^ lui. {Mirinnd Im^a di- 
fvajioii Jiiifi |I!)iiiiIk'iii.'/ CaliafMiM uv nnitnmliln. I'u ngmolng, riingmiHlai ai 
lungniintii^ at >ii eiiDttt^nl anft urao. ^Aii'n nii): parorootian mu figayt'iii. ' 
Na^psi^HliHljiiy !ii<>, S.I pagcii.t, (lungiiiktiliui tm at nng buiia.i. liimli i^i 
aiuRt baugHii ^tl Ijaling gaM. ^Uu^iuit caysi aiig iydng CHjintiil ay puiig 
mapatay iiaiig iliuii, luogmilijKil iian^ linlaiutiii, ^iiiigmUHUgal aaug biibsy 
l>unf^atiiiBag nang |tiugiiii at liungniubali iiaiig cauayan.? So. pagca,(. 
»iyii,i, mabagsio, pinapalo man aiya ni aaui. ^Baqiiit tungmatafigia ang batft.' 
Ytrig niyang nmihi at tuniHe, cafigicaugiua Utnang siya,i, tdngmat^iud. 
nang cuiigmnc»in, uiigmiinom at tiingmalamon nang bohga. ^Anu ang 
gagaoin.? Lnmiira >^\\i'\ at tiiiffniin m« na Iirmiig siyiing cacagatiri nang 


^.Sino n,n(f F^iiiigin.ifiania i*;i iyo,? I'-.iliinf; siingniiir'iima r^ii ;n[iii(i figii- 
yan, ('afiginii iHinaii}: hv suiigmaina rttxj ray -Iiian na luignionsiip si\ cn- 
^niyiing cupatid na bahayc, aiya,i, sungmiLisama cay I'odro, na (l^i Pedro) 
imgmtuiuay iia cauiy^ng caibigan at hiingmiuabiy aeo sa caniyit. ^Dung- 
midifigig bagti ang pran^ea nang aiiumun.? Siyii,i, diingmidingig nuug 
;i,nom^, rigiini,t, tuiigmttiiigin fiyii nang manga iboit r<a manga tuifig^ 
nang caboy. iSinr>-siun bagii ang linngniiliipo sa maiiga babaye.' Ang mn- 
nga batang tampalaaan lu'mang ang biingmihipo na mafiga babaye. ^.(inng- 
mitgatiii baga ang iyong piusiing babnye nang anomin.? ^^iyli,i, ungmn- 
amdy nang bulac-lac at lungmalasap nang biuiga. ^Anong guinagaLui 
nang matigamcdico.? 9i]a,i. gungmagamot &a ibii figuni.t. liindi sibt uv\(-- 
ma^hit at di rin gungniugupit sa ibl. ^Sa canino bagti diuagmahampi- 
ang iy6ng ama.? Hunginabampas se caniyung alita, ea pagca,t, hind! hiing- 
mitamos »a, pnnginiSon niyi. ^Oungmagaua baga nang anoman ang alib> 
ni Pedro? 8iya,i, HiingmuBuclay at cungraacamot sa L-aniyang pangindong 
babaye. ^S>no ang guiguimbal.? Aug aqiiing anac ang guiguimbal, fa 
inantnta ang raibigan niya,i, gungniugupit sa cabayn. jAnong gagaoin 
mo nij'HDg stibat na iyiiu.? Sisibat ac6 nang babuy damd. iSino anjf 
iwgmfua cny Magallanee,? Ang manga taga Sebii ang ungmiiia ga caniya. 
^tiuinagaiia baga nang anoiuiin ang manga anlouague.? Aug ibi Ra na- 
nila,i, dungmaJaras, ang ib& namitn ay cungmacatam. ^'iN'aaaan aiig Dio~ 
na ating Pangindon.? Ang Dioa ay r^nngmasalahat at ang Caniydng uhi- 
hal na Anac ay rangmasaiuTigit sa caiiiying canan. ^Baquit bagii di nat'- 
InlabiU nang npuan ang inyong alila.? Siya.i, naglalabii^ nang ilun, ngii- 
ni^, vnilabtU na niya ifing manga lameea. (,lbig mo po hagii nang 
ib&ng Wgay.? On, ypaciiha mo ang lahat na pingiin na i^nHatamoria railgina. 
oAn6 ang gagnoiii rai mi mauga aso.? Tacntni mo, ^a pagca.t, ang mai'ig.i 
pofB nnngflgr'aontiicul ^a canita at iiaguguioui. ^.Bilquit bagii ang pafigi- 
n«5on co,i. ungmaiiuay »a aquin,? Uugmaiinay siya sa iy&, dabil sa indbnu 
mo, nng mai^Ka a.^o at iyong gniniJIom nng maiiga pnsn. 

E^Cailiin oa ooui s: 
hagii ang qiiinaon mo. 

Yi'AI)Al,Al'AN<i POl'n,T, MMANii 

iyOng bayan.T Ibig cong nmoui dodn buca:^. iSinu 
Aqiiing ypinalawag ay ang mAlico. .*, \angyayari 


li&giin^ t'lilinn uki il<\n<: liil'iil.? M)iii)£yiiviiiiii^ [.•imtiiliil ;vi'> iiali^ rimi\»!:> ' 
liihirl, ngiiiif.l, ili CO inaariii); )i»tinti it6. .;Hil*|iiii iiug cnitiignn mo ntii'ru) 
I'ay JuMia.' Dahil en iimiijava ni ■luaDaeiji. bBunf^fhaj^ baga an|; m&ftgn < 
Americano nang niaraiiiiii^ pmioiu^roii;; Tng^log.? On, ang nitingii fiigiilo^ 
!iy iinEmtiTOnp at ang roai^ga Americnno.i, dinaquip cila. ;.S*aiin nngmiigiiib 
ang alila mo.^ Siya,i, umiignib doon !>a ba}-<taK liniitucsnii nang mafiga 
ibon naiig pdlay at quiniquitilan nang bulnc-tac nang iydng ca[>atid na ba- 
baye. «3aiin nardoii ang bata.'^ An^ batii,i, tungmntactd, upan ni&onahati 
niyA Si Pransisco. j.SiQO sino ang nanaln »a manga i-astila." Anf^ manga 
Americano ay nanaloBa maugacastila. iAiioang guinagaua ni Pedro.* Si Pe- 
dro,!, naquiquinig sa cura at naquiquiniibang. i.Sino ang nannnuyo sa-tau^ng 
iianunuluyan sa bihay nang iy6ng ama.' Ang alila nang iyong copatid na 
babaye ang nanunuyo ga caniyi. iiguni.t, hgayd,f. nanondod siya nang pro- 
cesion. i.Sino ang namamatni5got ?a maAga Tagfilog sa paqulquibara laban 
^R maHga Atnericftnn.? Ang manga Tagalog ay pinamamalnogotnn ni Agui- 
naldo na s.iyk niliing pinanaligan. I'.Saan nanuniibig ang liata.? Ang pi- 
nannnnbigan niyd,i, ang halamanan. i.Anong pinapanimdim nang raatnn- 
diing lalaqui.T Ang pinanimdim niyi.i, ang paniin ?a tongcod, ^a pagca,!. 
liiiidi mangyaring siya,i, lomohod. jWino aino ang qiiinacanaap nang Anie- j 
ripano.'^ Ang qiiinacauFap niy4,i. ang ilan niyang (»babayan. ;.Sinn ang ] 
nangiifiguna ray Alfredo.? Siyii,!, niunahati ni Francisco. ..N'aquiqiiiiiubang 
ca nang marami .sa iyong caliu'al.? Aco,i. hindf naquiqiiiniibang. cundi 
bagciit^ acting nafigufignhigni. (.Nafiglfigitig bnga f*a lamig ang alila.? 
Hindi, ?iyu,i, nafigifiginig oa tacol. /.Sinn ang nangingimi.? naUng n»- 
Hgifigimi, dalnjirtna.t, ang caibigan nang raibignn mo.l, nartgingimb<>io at 
narigift^Io. iAnt'mg wibi nang maHga eurn.? Ang sabi nibl sa lahftt ny i 
mafigilin ciin piesta at pag-ifigatan lio\iag maflgflap sa J)ioP. iAno.t. 1 
n)irigiiigilHl>ot ang iy6ng asitua.? SafigiftgiWbot siya dahil pa cnngmOPlilog. \ 
i.A!i6,t, naninibiighrt ang asiiua ni Juan.'.' Sa |iagc.a,t, slyii-i, pinaiigifigi- 
higan nang caniydng oaapidbrihay. ^Nafignflgaynpapa ca baga sa harap 
nang Diop.? Oo, at lahat na 1nVi6,i, diipal maAgaynpapa sa harap Niyi. 
;,An6 nng pananagiu'nip nang pinsrin mo cagabi,? Siya,!, nanaguinip na 
innanyaya ang caniyang capatid na habnye at ito naniil.i, nangarigaidnn i 
SB salamfn. ,:,B«qnit naflgangamba ang capatid mong babayp.? Stya^. i 
nafigaiigamba daliil m siyii,!. mafigafiganac. fMaRgafiganay baga siyj.? ^ 
Hindi, yeaiauA pafiganganao niya yadn. ^And,t, ang canilang amd,!, 
nafigaflgalumbaba at bihasang humaloquipquip.? Siyii.i, naflgalo at na- 
ng^lay. J.Naflganga]ius cang mnngaco na mananatiti sa vabanalan?. Na- 
nanatili ac6 sa paganti niyan. *.Anot,t, hindi siyii nananaog «a bagditn 
at di Biyjl nannnasila diyrin.? Vpinanambitan niyi nng pagcamatdy nang 
(•aniydng asana. /.Nananalig ca baga 3a malial na Virgen.? Oo, siya 
ang aquing pinananaltgan. iAnu.t, nananagh<5y divan ang capatid tnonc; 
babaye.? Sapagea,t, ang caibigan niya Si Maria, i, nananagliili »& caniya 
at namiimungcahi pa caniya pa i>agliligo. f.Natatacot ca bagH diyan SR ftao.? 
Hindf ac(S natatacot, .aa pagca, t. namamaypoy. /.Xamamahay ca baga.? 
Hindi, actf.i, tnngmitira ea giibat. ;An6 ang ypinamamalTbic rao t*a aquin.? 
Ang ypinamamanhic co s»a iyi'i na icao ay bumaiigon maaga.t, magligo 
»a dagat. ZAnong mayrdon ca sa rauc-hii.? Namamaga. ^Baquit ytinapon 
nang iydng anac sa d^'gat iyang sBong iyan,' Sa pagca.t, aiya.i. quinilgal 
,^,Bnqnit hindi mo siya biniguidn nang mabuting aral.? Sa pagca,t, di «. 
-iiya ynilaguy pa iH^iig colegin. ;.Bii(iuit ang capatid mong lalaqni ay hindi 
nag£flsalitd nang lalong magaling nang nicang ingles.? ^ pagra.l, di Biyii 
macapagaicang magaling. i,Pinauala mn baga ang cahayn.? Ane alila nng 
-iyjing may cnnnlanan *.n pap^'fiftlprffi nang rabayi 


^Minomor^ bagJ Si Pedro Dang capatkl mong lulaqui? Hindi niyii 
iiiiuoiDor4, ypiciaala-alci lamang sn caoiyi ang caniySng catnngcolan. ^Andng 
dapat cdng gaoin nang acd,i, mahalin?. Cvin magbibili en nang anoman, 
boiing mong mabalaii at cun ang calilcal mo,i, hindi magaling, iyong yeaoli 
ang pllac. ^Magodtang thetier msgpapaStnng) bagd ang ama mo nang saiapi 
sd caibigan niya? Hindi ^iyii Jiag-otaiig inagpa6tangj sa caniya nang aalapi, 
nagbigtiy laraang at nagcaldob pa iinng handog. ,'.Ybinalita baga nang 
iyfi^ng maiiga alila &a canildng caibigan ang nangyaii? Hindi, ysinaysay 
Umang sa caniU na ang bolxifigan nili.i, hinaguis nang bato nang mafiga 
batn. ^Bh*!'"' pinahihintololiin en nang iyong aina na iimalid cun gabi ' 
Pinahintoloian aco nlya u|>an maimiiood co ang pagliobonsod ea sasac-quian. 
f,S(Lan mo ytinapon ang ii-diing biiloc? Vhinagais co sa hipa. ^.Magbobual 
mo l)agft nang marnming cahoy fiin mayroon cang palacol? Hindi, ihig 
wng maghasii: nang binghi, at ang ihi.i, ysiibog «a manor. ;,NaamAy mi> 
bagtl ang sainyung ysinasambiilat nang manga bulacbic? Oo, at aco.i, t-ung- 
mkil nang iwa npang maylagiiy sa wuKelrrn (Sj). w. "flower-pot"). ^Anonji 
inaanla mon<! ylaa^? i)i aci'i niigaaciilang magtaas nang nnomjin; cunui 
ang ninanaria c>.i, raagtayi'i nang iialiay at ypaiiHDg yaong dalauang cua- 
dro. iAalipin mo bagti ang mafiga pai'o? Hindi, aquing ytitindig ang 
mafiga Inrriiian.t, ylniayi), ;.Uungmagamot baga ang manga modico »a ibd? 
On, nguni,t, »\\i\,\. Iiinili gnngmagamut sa tranilang parili (or naggagamot). 
;;Ang caibigan mo.i, nagaabil baga, nagsusucliiy at naghahampiis (sa ca- 
niydng sarili^? Hindi, cundf fiya.i, naggogopit at naghihiiamos. (.Nasugatan 
bagii Si Antonio? Oo, ealiapon siya,i, nagbat>a al sa caniyang pagcamol 
nagcaatlgat sa balat. ^Aning guinagaua nang cura? Siyii.i, nagsusugal figayon, 
i^gum,t, nagmisa cafigina. ^Nagtatabiico baga ang anac mo? Hindi ^iiyii 
na^tatabaco : cundi nag.~i:^ic<>]ate toning hapon. /,Nagsaf>atauat baga ang 
maflga Pare?. Hindi, cundi sila,i, nagxasapin, nagsasambaleIo,t, nagsasa- 
lamin. ^^agtatapin cayii ang manga bahaye sa iyong Provineia?. Hindi 
sila nagtatapia. iNagsania liaga Si Pedro at Si Maria? Sild,i, imgsam^, nag- 
f.iHtuan at nagauay, tBAqnit nagtipon ang caguinoohan nang hayan ealia- 
pon? Silii,!, nagaama-sama liimang at nafigagtalu. ^, Nagqui'iuita baga Si 
Jnana at Si Pranciscn? Silii.i, liiiidi nagquiqnita, cundi nagsuenlatanan. 
fMaghahalo bagii ang maiiga mag-gagati^ nang tiibig sa gatas? Oo, nag- 
bahalo. ^Andng guinaua mo t^a magcapatid ni Del Ko^ario? Pinaglmli i" 
mla. ;.Ang mag-asaua.i, diipat cayiing magtungayaua,t, magham|ia^iin.? 
Hindi, oniidi bagciii' pibing diipat mag-ihigan, magtoloiigaii, magliisan.l. 
magpatauaran. iAng niiig-asaua ni Rnin, ay nagsostonoran baga? Hindi, 
sila.i, nagcacagainn.I, nagtaladyauaii. 


^BtiqiiiL ang manga imta nangagtalacb6, al pinagtnlulacanan ang aqilit^ 
I'aliayong matandii? Sa pagca,!, piU,i, nagcai.l, mig-inom. ^^ Narigag»<iila I 
langHgba!'^ Iiagii ^^ila? Hindi, cnnd] >^ilu',i, nangagiacad at nnfigagtafigi^. 



ngiini,t. pag-isipl^ipin nila ang magpadaandaan. i,Paano-an6 baga ang pag 
calacad nang manga tauo? Ang manga lasing, ay nagsuj^uray-siiray at na^^^- 
(puquiling-quiling; ang ujanga dalaga,i, nagquiqiiinding-quinding; ang manga 
mangmang ay nagbabaling-baling (bungmabaling-btiling); ang mailga ma- 
tanda,i, nagocor-ocor; ang manga may saquit, ay bungmabalibaligtag, at ang 
mafiga bata,i, nagtitiar-tinr. ^,An6 ang caraniuang ypinaacala nang tau6/ 
Ang manga mangmang ay nagmamarunong; ang manga douag, ay nagta- 
tapang-tapangan; ang manga babaye,i, nagmamariquit; ang manga tacsil, ay 
nagbabait-baita,t, ang manga mapagpaimbabao, ay nagbabanal banalan. 6 Ano 
ang nangyayari naman sa iba. ? Ang maiiga masintahi,!, nagmLamalimoti.t, 
ang manga matanda,i, nagmamasasactin. ^.Gungmagauii baga nang may ca- 
banalan ang Hocom.? Hindi, cundi siya,i, gungmagaua nang may cotouiran.? 
^Alin mafiga dalaga ang may magaling na asal.? Ang mababait ay gung- 
magaua nang calinisan, nguni,t, ang hindi mababait gungmagaua nang 
cahalayan. ^.Tungmacbo-tacb''> baga ang manga bata sa haJamanan.? Tung- 
macbo-tacbo sila, datapoua,t, hindi nangyaring matoldy, sa pagca.t. 
ungmoolan-olan. ^.Maalam nang sumiilat ang caniying anac? Hindi, 
cundi nagsusulat-sulatan pa lamang. ^Mabait baga ang ^nac ni Alpredo. ? 
Hindi, snbali.t, siya',i, nagbanal banalan, nagcaeain-cainan palagui at 
nag-iyac-iyacan, at cun minsia',i, nag olol-ololan. <:. Baquit baga ang aquiuh^ 
alila,i, nagbibingibingiha,l, nagsasaquit-Haquitan.? Sa pagca,t, siya,i, mason in 
at palaguing magbabahay bahayan casania nang ibang bata. <;.An6ng gui- 
naua nang mag-ama.? Si]a,i, mona nagtinginan, at sacii nagyaeapaii. 
;.An6ng guinaua ni3'6ng maiiga taiio.? Nag aabut-abutan nang manga 
bayong. ^.Nagbibigas at nag-iisda ca cava.? Aco,i, nag])ibili nang bagoong 
at itlog at nagtatayo naman nang baha3\ ^,Ang iyong capatid na lalaqui.i. 
marunong baga mag-ama at mag-anac? Hindi siya mariinong mag anac, 
cundi mariinong mag-ama. ^.Marunong namtin baga siya magbianan.? Oo, 
bagaman maliirap ang magbianan. ^,An6ng sinasabi niyd sa caniydng anac? 
Sinabi niyang, magpumilit cang magjiral, magsumaquit cang maguing ma- 
palad, at magdumaU ca. ^<Anong guinagaua cangina doon niyongcaramihan.? 


jGuinaua mo ang sinalii co sa iyo.? Hindi, sa pagca,t, di co nalalaraan 
ang ypinagotos mo sa aquin. ^Ano ang aquing gagaoin.? Alisin mo iyang paco 
at iy6ng ysaoli ang siilat sa aquing bayao. ^Ysasaysay co sa caniyk ang 
pagcamatay nang ibon?. Hindi, houag cang magsabi sa caniy*'! nang anoman 
tungcol sa bagay na iyan. iAnong aquing ytatanong sa caniyk? Ytanong 
mo cung cailan niya aco dadalauin. iNagquita baga cay6 noong isang j£rao? 
Go, nagquita cami sa langsangan. ^.Ybig mo baga ytapon co itong aspi— 
ler? Hindi, i"iguni,t, ang halamanan ay pagtaponan mo nang cahoy. 
^.Anong ybinalita mo sa iydng balbero? Aquing ybinalita co sa caniya 
ang sermon nang Pare canginang omaga sa simbahan. ' 6Saan nila ybi- 
nonsod ang sasac-yan? Ang pinagbonsoran nang sasac-ya,i, ang Sebii. 
/.Pinagtaniman mo baga nang anoman ang iyong biaquid.? Go, naghasic 
aco nang pjilay. 6Saan mo yhinasic? Yhinasic co sa buquid na dacong 
diigat. <;,An6ng ysinisilid mo diyan sa tapayan? Sinisidlan co nang tina- 
pay. oSaan mo ytatayo ang iyong bahay? Ang pagtatayoan co,i, yong lu- 
pang may manga cahoy. ^Siian sila nagauay? Ang pinagauayan nils^.i, 
ang silid. ^,Saan baga nagoosap ang mafiga Americano cahapon.? Ang 
Escolta, ay ang pinagosapan mona nil^, saca sa tulay na malaqui, sila 
nagauay. ^Baquit nagtolonganan cayo.? Cami.i. nagtolofiganan, dahil sa 


nasang aming magcamtan ang ganti. ^An6,t, ang manga magsasaca, ay 
biingmoual nang ganoong caraming cahoy.? Sila,i, nagboual iiang gano- 
ong caraming cahoy, sa pagca,t, cailangan nila sa pag-gaua nang bahay. 
Yyong bilangin cundi mo pa nabibilang. Ang nabilang co na, ay mahi- 
guit na tatlong daan. ^Sino ang binilhan mo niyang manga carayom.? 
Ang binilhan co nit6,i, ang magcacalacal, nguni,t, ibig cong ypagbili oli 
sa manga mananahi. ^Sino ang ootangan mo nang salaping iyong cai- 
langan.? Ang maiiga caibigan co ang aquing ootafigan. ^Nagpadtang baga 
sa iyo ang iyong hipag.? Hindi, subali,t, ac6 ang inotangan niya nang 
anim na sicapat. ^Baquit nag-hampasan cayo sa biiquid.? Dahil sa ac6 
mona ang minora niya. . ^At nagtipon .baga doon ang maraming tau6.? 
Abia;! oo, maraming nagtipon sa pinagaauayan namin. ^Baquit ang alila 
-mOji, nagbibingi-bingihan.? Ang ypinagbibingi-bingihan niyd,i, ang houag 
pumarito. ^Saan ynilagay nang iy6ng anac ang manga salamin co.? Ang 
hihigan mo ang pinaglag-ian niy^. ^Sino ang ypinag-gagaua mo niyang 
upoan.? Ang aquing ina. ^Di baga ang iyong nono ang ypinagtatahi mo 
niyang mafiga salaual.? Hindi, ang Pare, ang aquing ypinagtatahi. iBa- 
quit ang anglouague, ay aayiiu acong ypapaggauti nang isang lamesa?. 
»Sa pagcHjt, sivHyi, matamad na tauo. 


^Saan naruliis at natisod ang iy6ng alila.? Hindi lamang siya nadu- 
las at natisod, cundi nah61og pa sa gubat na caniyang quinaligaoan. iAno 
ang nauala sa iyo, at icao, ay ganiyan nalulumbay.? Ac6,i, namatayan 
nang anac. ^Saan namatay siya.? Ang Maynila ang bayang quinamata- 
yan niya. iBaquit nilisan nang capatid mong babaye na ycompisal niydng 
casalanan.? Sa pagca,t, nacalisanan niya. iAn6,t, nagulantang ang ina 
mo cagabi.? Nahihiga siya nang cungmocolog, nagulantang siya, at biglang 
napatindig, at nang siya,i, naquita namin, ay nacalohod. ^Naquita mo ang 
magnanacao.? Oo, siya,i, nacataob at napapangao. iNagogotom baga o 
naoohao ang ating caapidbahay.? Siya,i, hindi nagogotom at hindi rin na- 
oohao, cundi nagagalit. iHino ang nahihiya.? Ualang nahihiya, figuni,t, 
8i Pedro, ay nagugulat. iAlin-alin ang manga casiraang galing sa pagba- 
bacd.? Ang casiraang galing i<a pagbabacft ay sungmasaclao sa maraming 
bagay; ang cabahaya,i, nafigasisira; ang mafiga tahoy ay nafigatutuy6, at 
caniyang mafiga safiga, ay nafigagcacabali at ang mafiga cauat nang tele- 
grapo, ay napapatid. ^Baquit hindi nila quinacain iyang isda? Dahil sa 
buloc na. <^An6 ang vquinamatay nang aquing nonong babaye? Ang ca- 
tandaa,i, ang yquinamatay niyk. iSaan siya namatay.? Ang simbahan aiig 
quinamatayan niya. ^Baquit ya6ng tau6,i, naffausuling suling.? Dahil sa 
^iyai, pilay at bulag, at nalulumbay, sa pagca^, siya,!, naduduc-hd. ^Ba- 
quit siya nagbibingi-biiigihan? Hindi siya nagbibiiigibingihan, cundi tunay 
na biiigi. ^Saan munti (or halos) nang maldnod ang tungmatanan? Halos 
maloldnod na sa ilog. j.Anong lagay nang pinsan mong babaye.? Siya,i, 
napapagod at nahilo. iBaquit nalaglag itong boiiga nang cahoy.? Sa pag- 
eant, ang biihay nang cahoy, ay unti-unting naootas. 



^.Ano ang yqiiinahoh61og nang maraming tauo.? Aug yquinahoh61og 
nang marami, ay ang pagcatlsod. ^Ang lagnat baga ang yquinamamatay. 
nang maraming tauo sa Pilipinas.? I)i lamang ang lagnat, cundf ang 
ibi,t, iba pang saquit ang yc^uinaraamatay nang maraming taga Europa 
sa Pilipinae. ^Saan naholog ang alila.? Ang daan, ang quinahologan 
niya. ^An6,t, nah61og siya.? Nahdlog dahil sa siya,i, lading. ^YhiniSlog 
baga nino itd? Yhin61og nang ating caibigan. ^An^ng yhoh61og natin 
sa caniy^.? Hulugan nating tsiya nang isang dalandan. oSino-sino ang 
hinologan nang inaama ea binyag nang salapl, sa paglabas niya sa sim- 
bahan.? Ang manga bata. ^.Magcan6 ang natira sa salaping ypinadal^ 
CO sa iyo no6ng lingong nacaraan.'* Ang natira, i, tatl6ng p6uo,t, tatlong 
piso. ^Magcano ang matitira cun mabayaran na ang mananahi.? Lablng 
iinim na sicapat lamang ang matitira. ^Saan inibig nang pinsan cong 
matira noong isdng arao.-' Tungmira siyii (cusa") sa Cavite. ^A.t saan 
baga ang canildng anac ytinira nang caniydng manga casama.*> Sa gii- 
bat, siya,i, ytinira. ^Sungmulat bagang mabuti ang nagaiLral.? Hindi, 
cundi ang pagcatftic niy^,i, mahiisay. iAno ang ysiniilat niya.? Ysing 
bagiiis ang caniyang guinamit. ^Aling papel ang susulatan co.? Houag 
mong sulatan ang alin man papel, cundi isang lamesa ang iy^ng sula- 
tan. iSungmasampalataya ca bagii sa Dios.? Oo, po, ang Dies, ay aquing 
8inasampalatayana,t, sinosonod. ^Sungmososo pa baga ang iy6ng sangol.? 
Sungmososo pa, dahil sa aanim na bouan pa lamang. ^Sino ang nagpa- 
pasoso sa caniya.? Ys^ng sisiuang galing sa biiquid, ang siya niyftng sinoso- 
han. ^Ang gatas niyang sosohin, ay mabuti baga.? Siya,i, mayroon mabu- 
ting gatas na susuhin at ang caniyang, pagpapasos6,i, magaling na magaling. 
iAnong salisalita sa labas.? Ang capayapaa,i, di pa nayayari ^Sino ang 
nagsalita niyan sa iyo.? Ang mafiga periodico (Sp. w.) {pannlatany Taga- 
log w.) ang may sabi. ^Ang manga j)cridr/tco,i, pinaniniualaan mo baga.? 
liindi lahat nang sinasali nang mafiga penodicOy ay toto6. ^Ano ang sasabihin 
mo sa iyong apong lalaqui.? Uala acong sasabihin anoman sa caniya. 
^Caninong ysinasalita nang panday bacal ang balitang iyan.? Ang ma- 
nga cababayan nang aquing capatid na lalaqui, ang siyang pinagsalitaan 
niya. ^Ano ang binabalot nang babaye diyan sa papel.? Cayo ang bi- 
nabalot niya. cAnong ybinabalot niya sa cayo.? Ang binabalot niy^,i, 
papel, cAnong sabi mo.? Houag ang baril ang ypatay mo sa manga daga, 
ang ypatay mo,i, lason. iYlan babuy damo ang papatayin nang tagalog.? 
Mapapatay niyA,i, marami, dahil ?a =iya,i, bihasa. iAnong ypinapatay 
niya.? Sibat ang ypinapatay nivA. iSaan pinatay yaong pit6ng dinala 
ni}a dito rioong.isang arao..\ Ang pinagpatayan niya no6n mafiga yaon ay 
ang gtibat. ^Anong gagaoin mo iyang sandata.? ^iya? (ang sandati) ang 
ypapatay co sa aquing caauay. 


^Ang baro, ay Siian co hahanapin.^ Ang gilid ang paghaaap^n mo. 
^Andng yhahanap.? Ytong ilao ang yhanap mo. ^Anb ang iyong quinoha.? 


Quinohu v.o cay Juan ang librn, ;, Baquit aiig Wta.i, ayiio cumain at, 
iiminom.? L'ala siya maciiin at mainoni, bocud an uala pang pingaii at 
inuinaii. lAno aiif! binili niyi.? Si Juana ay binilbaii niya naag isang 
bulaclac, iMay ybibili ca baga naiig bdhay.? Hindi'. ac6,i, uala'ng maybili. 
^.Baquit di cu, humifigi sa iyong amain.? Hindi mangyarj, eiya,i, qui- 
nancaman co nitong salapf. iAno ang hatol ita ybinigay mo aa iyfing 
attac ncL lalaqni.? Aquin siyiiog hiiiatulan na ysaoli ang salapf sa cani- 
yang amain. ^Anfi ang ybiniyaya sa iyo iiang ami mo.? Aug ybiniyaya 
niyl. sa aqiiin ay isAng oraean. lAnong yhinalita mo sa iyong caibigan.? 
Ybinalita co sa caniyi ang pagcamatay nang capatid niyang babaye. 
iAHn ang ytinotoro niyadng bata./ Vai5ng cahoy ang caniying ytinotoro. 
^Sino ang pinagbiiinan niya nang bilin uang caniySng alila,? Ang Pare 
ang canijing pinagbiiinan. ;.An6 ang niloloto rao.? Ysda ang aquiug 
niloloto. ..Sino ang ypinagloloto mo.? Ang aquing ina ang eiya cong ypi- 
nagloloto. iYpagpipritos mo .namiin siya nang sagiiing.'-' Uali acdng 
paiiah6n, sa pagca.l, linalababan niya ang aquing damit. ,.An6ng nina- 
nasang abotan niyang mandaragal sa ganiying pagtac-bo.? Ang ninanasa 
niy*.i, abolan yadng aso. iAno.t, 8i Pedro,i, lungmolocsfi nang paganiydn.? 
Ang mafiga boftga, ang linolocsfe niyS. iSino ang pinanhic mo.? Ang 
capatid cong lalaqni ang aquing pinanhic. iAHn ang pinanaegan mo..' 
Ang patongo sa pintong harapan ang pinanaogan co. ^Sino ang quinata- 
tacotan nang mafiga capatid mong bubaye.? Ang mafiga patjiy ang siya 
niling qtiinatatacolan. tJatacutan nili iing Dios at houag nilang ca- 
gulatan ang manga caloldua nang maSga patiiy na. ;8ino ang namatay 
Ba caapidbiihay,? f?iya,i, namatayan nang ina. iCaildn siya namatay.? 
Namatay siya nang onang a'rao, nang Marzu. iAn6 ang yquinamatiiy 
niyd,? Nalonod. iSino ang quinatotuuaan mo.? Ang quinatotouaan co,i, 
ang aquiug mafiga anac. ;,Sino ang paparitoban nang camaganac mo.? 
Ang paparitoban niya,i, aug aquing capatid na babaye, nang mundod 
ea procewidn. ^And ang vpinariKi nang aquing pinsaii? Ang ypinnrito 
niya.i. ang pagbayad nang c-aniyang ulang. tSino ang paroroonan mo, ? 
(or dadaluoin.lAng Pare ang paroroonan en (<ir dadaluoin). 


^Biiquil iina^amsam mo ang bonga.t. ang damil na guinamit nar_ 
iyong ama. ? Ytdng majlga bongang it6,i, pinili co i-a halaftianan, at 
tungool sa damit, ay aquing hiniram. iAni ang dinodocot nang capatid 
mong babaye.? Dinoddcot niya ang carayom sa butaa. iAno ang dinaying 
mo sa iyong ici.? Ang dinaying co sa cfiniyi.i, big-yan acd nang salapi. 
^■,Ano ang pinapang-(5s niyang bata.? Ang pinapang-iis niya,i. ang tiio nang 
raniying capatid. :Tinauag mo baga ang alila.' Di co siya tinaua;;, 
c.undi bjyi.i, aquing quinauayan. ^Sino ang iy6ng sosondoin.? Sinosongdd 
CO ang balbero. iHinah'hao niya caya ang pamocpoc.? SinaliCfiic na niya. 
/.Tinangap mo baga ang stilat.? Tinangap co na ang siilat at figayd|i, 
sasaluboi^gin co ang aquing caibignn. ^Binating baga nang maiiga ami3- 
ricano itong mafiga babuy damd,? Binating Dili (nahuli). iPinuanS artg 
paghuli nitong tauA, ditd sa manga ibo,t, isdii.? Xacat: niya ang mafiga 
ibon at bininuit (nabanuit) ang mafiga ieda. ^Tinanao baga nang manda- 
ragat ang saaaquian.? Hindi niya tinanao (natamio) ang sasuqui^n. ^Anong 
finubuliap nan^ dalaga.? Uala siya'ng sinusuliap, ang pinandod niya.i, 
,ng proi^osioii, „An6ng canilan^ linicman.? Ninamnan nila ang al;ic. tAno 
ang aamoyin natin. ? Aamoyin natin yada mafiga bulac-la£. ^YnaaUaU 

nio baga aiig sinabi nang iyong amii.? Vnualaala co, na pagca,t. tiyJi ayl 

uquing iniibig. iYniibig mo baga namiiu ang iyong ina ■> Oo, uga, mifbig" 
ID eiya. iVnirug bagd niyft ang caiiiy^ng aiiac. Di utyi introg. i,Siiio ang 
iiiaaaquit mo? Ang aqiiing caibigan ang tnailquit cu. ^.mno ang binihintay 
iiiyA.? Ang biniliintiiy niya,i. ang caniyang ufiana. ^Sinong tinatanong 
mo.? Tinatanoiig CO ung caapid-bahay. ^Sinong sinala mo, noon ising 
ilrao.? Sinala co ang aquing anac, sa pagca.t, di iiiya sinaclolo ang ca- 
niyang eapatid na lalaqui. iSinong gungniiba nitong bahay.? SinBnod. 
^Baquit di nili bimi^ay ang canilang inai\ga libro? Sa pagca,l, ang mai\ga 
libro,i, tinastas, ;.Mangyayaring pasanln mo it^ng capdtol iia cdhoy? 
Hindi, cnndi mangyayaring hilahin eo, iCaninong cuentas na Una- ■ 
taglay mo? Sa aquing ina. iAnimg qniniquiliu mo'? Ysing librong da- 
i^alan, aa pagca.t, ang aquing iiiiuu ay di macalacad at quiuacalong co 
tiiya. 6An6,t, pinotol mo ang timipay at guini^ic mo ang oayo cong tinabas 
na? Yya,i, ili co guinaua; acd,i, tungmagti nang capotol iia caboy at 
hinapol CO ung manga ponu uang aaguing. ^Tinimbang mo baga ang btical at 
t.ijiacsl ang palay? Aquing tinarou ang ulac. ^Ay au(i, inaaquiu mo itong 
libro? Yya.i. quinacanil4 co. ^Yniiny6 bagii iyiin? Oo, inaamin co iya: 
r'.Minamarapat mo baga ang guinaua nang iyiing anac? Hindi, minama- 1 
sama co. ,,An6ng gagaoin niya niyang maf^ga balo" Sisimbahanin niya, j 
(gagaoin niyang simbaban.) Baquit (inaariug amii) inaama nang caibigan 1 
mo Si Pedro? Sa pagca.t, tiya,i, (inaaring uuac^ inaanac ni Pedro. tAnong^ 
liliparin niyang banoy? Liliparin (dadagiiitin^ niyii ang isang si&iu, iAabu-. 
Ian mo uaya ang iyong caanay? Aabutan co siya, pa paglangoy. iiAndngl 
sieieirin niya^ Ang .-iKi-iirin jiiyA.i. i^ang singsing, 


^AtL^ng piiiagolayaii ypinagbil! nang niangafigalaea!? Ypinagbili 
iLiyaug otay-ol^y ang mafiga carayom at aepiler nang aquing uaputid nal 
liabayt. iAnong ytiiiatapon uio ea apiiy? Yliig co ytapon sa apuy ang-| 
caboy nang aquing ama. ^Baquit ang pinsiin rao,i, sungmaHabog nang pdlay] 
sa caniying biiquid? Dahil so. giingmaeambiiiat nang bailgo. Mnfing ymnalofl 
nang tagalog sa alac? Tiibig. ^Andng ydinagdag irnng mafigangalacal sa« 
jtmnliguiyu^ Aug ydinagdag niya,i| ang ntliv (Sp. w.) naug aquiug ama. i Andn|Ca 
ylinagay nang piusiin mo sa ibabau niying laniesa? Ang ynilagay Diy^|i}f 
ling librong dasalan nang eapatid cong babaye. ^Baquit ybinibilad tno^ 
lyang damit? Sa pagcat.t, basa. ^Anong ybinibiyaya mo sa iyong iua'.' 
Ang ybinibiyaya co aa canija,i, salamin. ^.Anbng ysinalita niya sa iy6ng 
hipag'' Ytinanong niyi ang calagayan nang caniying ali. ^Anong yniaral 
mo dito sa bata? Yniaral co sa caniya ang dasalan. „Aling ytinoro , 
nila sa iyong pinsang babaye'" Ytinoro nila sa caniya ang aquing pamay- J 
pay. iAning ysinasalin nang nagadraP Y.^inasalin niya and tulii. ^Anoug.! 
vpinotol mo sa aquing tinifpay? Ang ypinotol co,i, ang aquing cuchiyo.F 
/.Anong ysiniilat mo ^a caniyang siilat? Lnpis ang ysimllat co. ^^'^'^'^Sl 
ysinugat niyi Ba ating oailiigan? Yeang tongcod. iAnd,t, di mo ac6 bina-. 
bayaran? Sa pagca.t, uala aco ybriyad sa iy6. jAning aalapi ang ybi-fl 
bili ni Pedro nang hihigan? Ang ybibiU naya.i, ealaping tinangap sa aquln.r 
(.iVnongypinagtatafigisniying babaye? Sa pagca.t, namataydn siya nang anac J 
iAnong naytira niya dito? Ang iquinatira niyi dil6 Si Ana. ^An6n^ ymimsu-l 
nod uang manga sondalo Ga canilang pono? Ang yeinusiiuod nila,ir ^^Sl 
ticot. iAnong yquinayaman niya? Ang pagbibili nang balat siya iu.yii_ 
yquinayaman. ^Cailan ^ana daraliiig sn diigat cung ungmalis si^ Au 
cap.iaaUonan? Siya,)) .darating A6oa uaua bucas nang a las dicL. iSittoon 
pariiitoban mo^ Pinatitohan quitd. 



^Anong tinatanaoan mo sa taloctoc niyong bondoc? Tinatanaoan co 
ang manga cdhoy na may ganga mahahaba. iAng ligoiig nang hafigin ay 
nararamdaman baga niya? Hindi niya nararamdaman ang ligong nang 
haiigin, dahil sa siya,i, bingi. oAng isdti baga inaasnan nang alila? Ang 
isda hindi pa inaasnan. iXinablan baga itong calabao nang sibat nang 
iydng capatid? Ytong calabao, ay tinablan nang caniy^ng sibat at cani- 
y^ng tinicmiin ang diigo. 6An6ng tinatangnan mo? oYsiog sibat ang 
tinatangnan co. :An6 baga ang pinagaralan mo? Ang pinagaralan oo,i, 
ang uicang ingh'i'. ,:.Sinong pinagbabalaan nang magnanacao; Yaongbata 
ang pinagbabalaan niya, bmulaoaan siya mona niya at ngay^,i, dinadaya. 
^Hinatolan uio ba^i.-i .it dinaratan ang bata ■' Dinamttin co siya,t, hina- 
tulan hagcan niya aiui caiiivang capatid na babaye. ^»Sinong nadingan 
mo nang iy6ng sinal i sa nquin tungcol y^a pa^jcalag sa bilangoin? Nadin- 
gan co.i, isang cailngan co. c.Anong binulmcsan nang caniyang apong 
i)abaye? Binubiicsjin niya ang pinto nang lialamanan. <'.An6ng guinagaua 
mo diy.'in? Pinoponan (•o,t, tinatacpan ang tapayan. ^.Anong bibilhin 
nili sa Americano? Siya ang bibilhan nila nang aquing mmtteguiya. iS\- 
nong quinonan mo niydng tongcod? Ang amain anjjj tinangapan 
CO. ;,Sinong hiningiin namin nitong papel? Ang Pare ang aming hini- 
ngan. ;.Saan hinanap nang alila ang inahing manoc na nauala? Ang 
halamanan ang caniyang hinalihaoan. iSinong tinangapan mo nitong sa- 
laping bayad? Ang nacacautang sa aquing ang siya cong tinangapan 
nitong salapi. <,Baquit di aco binibiguian niya nang caniydng ibon? Sa 
pagca,t, ang capatid niyang babaye, ang siya niyang biniguian. ^.Yto baga 
ang btihay na canilang pinagtiponan? Hindi, ang bahay ni Maria ang siya 
niling pinagti|^>nan. /,An6ng ypinagtipon nila.? Ang ypinagtipon nil^,i, ang 
pago<5sap nang longcol sa ambaganan, (bonis). ^.Alin ang paroroonan mo? 
Uala ac(5ng |wroroonan. ^.May sasabihin canganoman sa aquin? May sasabi- 
hin aco sa iyo. ^Saan mo ynilagay ang aquin manga salamin? Ang silid ang 
aquing pinaglaguian. ^'.Sinong ypinopotol (ypinagpopotol) mo niydng cahoy? 
Ang Pang-inoon co ang aquing ypinagpopotol. 6Di co baga sinabi sa iyo 
na houag ca nriotol nang inafiga cahoy? Mabuti, ac6,i, sungmasonod sa 
aquing Pang-inoon. 



^,Ang pamangquin mo baga ang pungmcStol nang safiga? Hindi siya 
pungmotol. j.Silii baga ang nagsabi na ac6,i, nabibilango? Ang aquing 

otos na ang iy6ng pinsan lalaqui ay pagcaualaan? Hindi ang Hocom, 
cundi ang capitan. ^Ang binabasti mo, ay ano baga? Ang binabasa co.i, 
ang librong ypinahiram sa aquin nang aquing caibigan. ^.Canino ca baga 


hungmihifigi nang tauad? Hinihingan co nang tauad ang aquing Maestro. 
^Baquit di mo Ibig (ayaoj cumain? Di ac6 cungmacain. sa pagca,t, di 
mangyari. o-^^^ dal^ rao rito, ay aiioV Nagdadala aco rit6 nang bunga. 
<f,Saan mo quinoha? Quinoha aoo sa giihat. ;.Xagsisicolate baga ang Pare 
sa toiling omaga? Nagsisicolate siya arae-arao, pagcatapuB nang raisa. 
^Anong bibilhin ni Maria? Bibili siya nang tinapay at alac. ^Di sana 
lalong mabuti can bumili siya nang caniyom at cayo? Uala na siya ni- 
yong salaping ybinigay mo nwng isang arao. ;Ay ano! Gan6on pala? Oo, 
figa, acala co,i, di i>a niya ya6ng guinagamit. /.Sa aling tiibig, iinom ac6? 
Uminom ca sa tiibig na ito, sa pagca,i, malamig at malinao. oMangyayaii 
acong cumuha baga dito nang salapi? Cumuha ca lamang nang dalau^ng 
p6uo,t, tatlong piso. ^Sino ang tinatauanan nang manga bata? Ang ti- 
natauanan nildji? vaong lasing. oAno ang ytinataua nila? Ang canilaag 
ytinataua ang caniying pagsusuling-suling. oBaquit naglalacad cay6? Dahil 
sa cami ay nagmamadali. oAn6,t, ang anac mo,i, sinugatan itong aso? Sinu- 
gatan niya, dahil sa siya,i, quinagat. iSinong sungmisintd sa capatid mong ba- 
baye? Siya,i, sinisinta ni Pedro. iSinong gungmaua nito? Ang tau6ng 
naparito niyong lingo nacaraan ang siyang gungmaua. oSinong tungma- 
tacbo^ Ang dalaga na gungmisi nang iyong mediae ang tungmatacb6. 
/.Tatauaguin co baga siya? -Oo, tauaguin mo. ;,An6 ang sasabihin sa 
aquin nang comercianto? Ang sasabihin niya sa iy6,i, magbdyad ca nang 
litang mo. /.Magcano ang utang co sa caniya? Nagcacaiitang ca nang 
tatlong p6uo,t, anim na piso. iSino pa ang nagtanong sa aquin.? Ang insic 
na maiigangalacal na naparitong sungmisingil nang sa sapin. ^Anong 
sinabi mo sa caniyA.? Binabi cong uala cang salaping ycabayad. iAn6,t, 
hinahampas niya ang caniying alila,? Dahil sa siya,i, ninacauan nang 
isang singsing. ;,Di bagti siya binig-uian nang ganti di pa nalalaon.? 
Oo, guinanti siya, dahil sa oaniyang pagcatapat \6o\\ Baquit cava di 
naparirit6ng hanapin ca sa bahay nang iy^ng caibigan.? Quinatatacotan 
niya ang aso. ^Ano.t, ayao mong tangapin itong pilac-? Sa pagca,t, di 


/,Sino ang pinanlilibac nang anac co.? Yciio ang l)inanlilibac niyk 
/,An6,t, nanlilibac siya sa aquin . ? Sa pagca,t, guinagamot mo ang aquing 
aso. /,Sino-sino ang pinangalingan nila.? Ang pinangalingan niW,i, ang 
caonaonahan namayan. 6Mariinong siyang mangagar sa mafiga pusa.? 
Hindi, cundi siya,i, marunong mangatas. oSino-sino ang pinanhahanap 
nang manga Americano.'^ Ang pinanghahanap nila,i, ang mafiga insurrecto 
(Sp. w.) (nanhihimagsic.j 6Nangagamot baga si Juan.? Hindi, siya,!, 
nanhohola. /,An6ngyquinabuhay nang maiiga i»«t^nrr/o.? Ang yquinabuhay 
nil^ji, ang manghuli. /,Saan naninilo ang mafiga bata nang ibon.? Hindi 
sila naninilo, cundi nanlalambat at namiminuit. 6 Ano ang pinamimisanhan 
mo.? Ang pinamimisanhan co.i, ang panlilibac at ang panunumpa. ^Canine 
nanunucso ang bagcng tauo.? Nanunucso siya sa caniying pinsan babaye. 
^Cailan ca nangibig.? Pinangibigan co ang manga dalaga cun ac^,i; bi- 
nata pa. /,An6ng pinanhuhuli nang ama mo.? Pinanhuli niy^ ang maiiga 
magnamicao. /,Sino-sino ang pinamamahaguinan mo niyang salapi.? Ang 
pinamamahaguinan co,i. ang camaganacan co. ^Namamahala baga nang 
halamanan ang alila mo.? Pinamamahalaan niyd ang biiquid yamang 
di siya namamayan, cundi namumdquid. /.Anong pinangifigisda naug 
caapidbahay mo.? Siya,i, namamalds at namamalaca. /.Anong cagauanan 
mo.? Ang cagauanan co. ang panuniilat. 6An6ng pinaninira nang manga 


jii'Krrcdu.? Aii^ piimuiiiivii nilii.i, aiii^ iimi^ga paimin'iii nt liiiyan at ni- 
iii&gil at iianuuungilrao dahil ^a di ^ila inanalo. tSino atig pinaiiaualHfi^irmii 
mo,? Ang IHoa at ang Mahal na Vlryen aiig pinaiianalanginaii co. iPiiiit- 
ngafigaralan hagii nang Pare jaon tnailga hahaye nananapis.? Oo. iAiiong 
pjiiangagauii nang caniyang asiina? Siya.i, na'figifigilao. bNaiigafigagat at 
tiafigaflguin liagti nang biibuy dam^ iyang asong iyau? Hindf nafigufiga- 
gat, cundf ang maHga bubuy dum6,i, nuiigingilag at di najiaabut. ^Aiiong 
calagayan nang manga cahuy na iy6ng halanianan? Hindi pa iianiumu- 
* iiga, cundf naniumulaclac na. lAab ang pinangagauii ni Jnana nang na- 
hubiihay pa siya? Siya.i, nanunuHt. nt natigifigitil nang btilaclac. iAii6ng 
vaniyiing paghahanap bilhay.? Siya,i, nananahi at nanunulat. ^Nananan- 
datil Viaga ang manga OfifiaUn (Sp. w.) ('pono nang sondalo.)? Sila.i, 
nnnanandata. nguni.t, tli naiuamalaoi)!. jNandariigat cayii ang iy^iig unmi? 
Hindf, piya,i, nafigahoy at nafigopa, ^.Safigiada baga ang ama mo? Miyri.i, 
iianalaha,t, nafigapiti, «Naminas siia o naminuit? Hild.i, naiigilaa at Run 
(nlnHti,!, nanlamhat. ;:. Namam:iril hagn ang i-aniyang (;:iil>igun niiiig bilbiiy 
dami!i.7 Hindi. Hiyii,i, naHgai^o nang babuy danio. 


V.Baqnit di <'a nirtcalanid,? iJi ni'n niamlBcad wa iiagca.t, acrt.i, i)ilay. 
;.An6ng nacnhabapis sa caniy*.? Aug imgcamntay nangcaniySng \nk ang sn 
i>AD)y&,i, niicahnpix. ;,Sino-fino ang catolnuaan niy i.? AngcaniyAng maRga 
nnac ang eaniyang catotoiimln. ;:An6ng yquin:dunibay nang ami mo.'f Ang 
pandardgat nngyqninatfltacotniyd. ;,Andng yquinawamamonoong Hngong na- 
cnraan.? Ang nacasama t^n aqui,i,angb\inga. ^At ana ang sa iyd.i, nacagaling? 
Vliing gamut ang naoigalingsaaquin. ^Nagagau^ baga niyi iyan.? Di niya 
nagagauil iyan. ^.Andng nacnpangingiiiiboi sa maAga hata.7 Ang culog ang 
na('apai^gingilaVlot sa m.ifiga bala.^iw^ yqninagagand^ nnng manga dala- 
ga.? Ang yquinagagnndd nang nmnga Halaga.i, ang cabinbinan. ^Aii6 ang 
iiaoabubnsiop.'f Ang mnnga t^ainote nacabnlmsng. hAn6ng mai^agagambala sana 
ea caniyh.? Ang canly^ng catungcolan ang naragagambala Ba cani.i a. iSino 
ang nacagiiinhauit E>a iyung pagtitiis.? Ang asaua en ang nai;ugninhjind sa 
aqwing pagtitii-. ;, MaijalalarKis i^iyti figiiy^n,? Hindi eiyit nacalabas ilga- 
yonj cundi macaaalii; biicau. <.Nauapaglabu6 i-u baga nang buto,? Di ai'u 
nacapuglabas nang batu. ;, Nacauaral ca' baga nang Togalog.T Hindf, di 
00 macaya, f^guni.t, nacapagaaral aci5 niydn. ^Nacapaftgaftgaral bagd eivH 
aa bayan.? Siya,i, di Pare, (.-aya figa di siya macapaAgangaral. ^Maaring 
ronin co iton^ libro.? Mangyayaring cumuba ca. ;. Nacatatalaatas aa cii 
nqain.? Hindi ac(> nacatatalatiis sa iyo. Natatanto mo bagn ang sinasnbi 
CO? Oo, natatanto ca. ^Naririfiig niyd baga ang ligong nang biiiigin.? 
Hindi naririfigig niya, siya.i, biflgi. tMaiisip mo baga iyan.? Hindi c-n 
maisip, figunf,t, aquing maalaaliu iMalatantu cayu niyii ang cabiilogitn 
nang uicang 1X6.1 ^>iya,i, macararamdam at matmqiiiquita; ilgnnl.t, di niy^ 
natatanto ang cabuiogan. ;^Nacaami1y baga eiyil nang bango nang manga 
Imlac-lac? Nacaamuy «iyii mona, figUTif,t, figayo.i, hiiidi, at di man 
liimang maramdamiin ang anomiin sa bipo, at di rin malasap ang alnc. 
^ Macapaguiuica bagii siyti.' Hindf macapagQiuica, dahil sa nagugaril- 
garil siya. iMaysasaysay nil4 laiga ang bagay.? Maypabahayag nila i-n 
Hocom, ^NaeababafA baga sild.? Si]i,i, nacacaaalam. &An6ng gninngaiiri 
mo dit^ i^a baybay.? AcAi. nai-ataifng nnparitiV ^.Hinanap baga nang nlil:i 
ang susi.? Oo, ngnni,t, di niy^ nabanap. [.Hungmirigi baga nang bnlaivlnr 
ang: capatid mong babnye sa ating nnnpidliiibay.'' Hindi, sa pagca.t, talas- 
taa niva na di sivii macahihiAgi. ^Anong guinaini nang bala.? Himibnl 


iiiva ?i ['.(iitriiiii. :ii Ciiniviai'' naaWuiiin. '(."ailaii cumi iiali?.' L'inali< 

favonj;: iiiiiaga, njni<i «li cay«'» ma:iriinaiK /.At. ran t»-aml,i, magabihan ^.l 

(bian.? Ypatoloy, sa [)a^ca,t, cavoj. inalilinanagan nang hoiian. fiornni.l. 

ingatang lionjijjr onyo manlanan. 


^. Pinapanhio mo ang manga bata.? Oo, pinapanhic co na. ^.Pinapagpa- 
panliic mo ang manga alila nang eahoy na ygagiitong.? Oo, pinapagpapanhi<* 
CO. iAno ang ypinagagaua nang amii ni Jorge sa caniya.? Pinapagaaral 
pa siya niya. ^,Baquit di mo pinapaga^iral ang anac mo-? Di co siya 
pinapagaaral, sa pagoa,t, siya.i, may saquil. ^.Pinasisimba bagii nang iyong 
bayao ang caniyang manga alila cun arao na i)angilin.? Oo, pinasipiml a 
niya sila. ^.IJaquit di ca nagpapatila.? Ac6,i, nagpasilang (nang arao) ai 
acOji, nagpalamig nang arao. ^.Baquit mo pinaboboloc ang manga halaman.? 
Di CO pinaboboloc, cundi bagciis pinahahafiginan co,t, pinaaart^uan. ^Nagpa- 
patila baga piya.? Oo, nagpapatila. ^Baquit di siya magpaarao.? Dahil sa 
siy6,i, nagmamadali. ;.Anong ypinagana ni Pedro sa caniyang aliia.? 8inaV)i 
niya sa caniya, houag ca mag[)atuy6 nang manga bulac-lac. /.Bsiquit di mo 
palamiguin ang tiibig.? Sa pagca,t, malamig na. ^.Bjiquit nagpaparaya 
ang capatid mong babaye.? Dahil sa siya.i, lubhang tuso. ^;Sino ang 
magpapasiVat nang arao.t, Ixman.? Ang Dios. ^And pa ang pinangya- 
yari niya.? Siya ang nagpapaoliin, nagi)apaquidlat, nagpapaculog at nag- 
papaalon. ,.Siya pa rin ang sa manga calioy nagpapabulac-lac at nagpa- 
pabofiga.? Oo. /,Sa canino nagpalimos yaong magpapalimos.? Ang all 
CO ang pinagpapalimosan niya. /.Ba'quit ang mayama,i, di nagpacain doon 
sa manga tano.? Sinai i niya .sa caniyang alilang pacainin mo sila'. 
('.Sila' bagii,!. paiinumin co.? Oo, )>ainumin mo sila nang alac. iSino cava 
yaong tauong nagpapalim<5s.-* Siya,i, isang magpapalimos na pinatoloy r.» 
cagal i, <.Marami baga ang pinagpapalimosan niya.? Hindi jm, di nagca<*a- 
siya sa caniydng ycabnbiihay. iBaquit di mo siya pinauiitang.? Sa pagca.t. 
ac6,i, ualang-ualii, at pinatutuboan co ang aquing salapi. iBtiquit di napa- 
ramit si Antonio sa caniyang manga anac? Sa pagca,t, uala siyang maybili 
nang damit. ^^nan co palalamiguin ang tiibig? Ytdng batalang itd ang pagpa- 
lamigan nang tubig. ^.Sinong Pare ang pinagcumpisalan mo? Si Pare Juan 
ang pinafigungpisalan co. Baquit yaong dalaga ay nagpapagandi? Sa 
pagca,t, napapapuri. iNapapasaan baga ang tiibig? Ang tiibig ay napa- 
pasaibaba. iAnong ypinarusa ga iyo nang Pareng pinafigumpisalan mo.^ 
Ang ypinarusa niy^ sa aqui,i, ang ac<5,i, msLg-nynno (Sp. w.) 6Pinainom mo 
ang mafiga manoc? Pinainom co. t.An6ng ang ypinacain (ypinatuca^ mo? 
Pinacain (pinatucd> co nang pa lay. iPinabangon bagii niyd ang caniyang 
anac na lalaqui? Caniy'^ng pinabangon. iBaquit di mo ac6 paraanin? 
Di quita pararaanin hangan di mo aco pinaiinom nang tiibig. 


;,An6,t, naquiquipagosap ca sa manga matanda? Naquiquipagosap aco 
sa canili, dahil sa naghahangad acong umiilam. i, Baquit yniootos mong 
houag acong maquipaglaro sa mangii babaye? Yniotos co sa iy6, sa pag- 
ed,!, mahalay ang maquipaglaro sa manga babaye. ^.Baquit siya naquipag- 


lalo ea oaniying caapidbdhay? Sa pagi-a,t, aog caapidb^hay niyi,i, naqiii- 
qnialaiu. iNaqiiiquicastila bagu ang iyoiig cupatid na lalaquj? Hindi, di 
fiya naquiquirastila. iAnong piiiaquiqiiihiflgi mo sa caapidbahay? Ma- 
quiquibigati au<5 sa uaiiiyi, iSiiio ang ypinaquiquibigas nio? Aiig ypina- 
qiiiquibigas co,i. ang aquing caibigan na may saquit, at ualang macaiii. 
^AnpDg pinaquihifigi nili? Al-o.I, naqutalac. tSino ang htniiig-^ii mo? 
Vpinaquibiflgi co i-a matidantgat. fDi co baga siiiabi s& iyo na hoitag c-a 
HiV^nihingi divan sa maramot na taud? Siyii ang pinaquihing-an co, sa pag- 
- ■'».!, ua]ang ibS. ^Minamabal baga siya? -Siya,!, minaniahat nang camyiiig 
Pang-in6on, njmg siya,i. bata !>», iGaan6 ang gulang nang anac mo? UaU pa 
haloB tatlAng tJion, fignnf,t, ang capatid uong lalaqiii ay may labing liuim 
humiguit cumillang. at ang biings() ay mayrooii eiyam na bouan. ^An&ng 
ybinigay mo doon na. matlga batang yndii'i' . Uultt ac6ng ybiuigiiy ea canili 
r.ahapon anunmji, figunf,t, naybigay no na ang ypinabigay mo nang icao 
ny dungmating. ^Ybibigay cayii niya sa aquin iytlng tongcod? Hindi. 
uDiidf ang ybibigay niyi sa iy6 ang libro na yplnagbibilin mo ea i;aniyd. 
^,Ybig mong ypagbill iyiing cabayo? Ay ami; ^ibig mo bagitng bilhln? 
Clin mura bibilhin cu. ^Anong papt-I ang caniydng sinuBiiIatan? Yting 
jmpel na ito, ang caniyibng sinusulatan. ^Tatauaguin bagit niyi ang Pare? 
Hindi, ang tatauagain ntya,i. ang mangagamst. ^An6ng guinagaui niyadn 
uiafiga bata ddon sa dalampaaig.? Nangaglalard. ^Anong hihingin mo sa 
iycng ama cun dumating' Ang acd.i, blbiguifin niyi nang salapi. j;Sian 
naparordon iyang mafiga babiye? Ang paroroonan nila.i, isang lugal na 
molayo. ;,Bungmohos slya nang dlac sa aquing copii.? Hindi bungmo- 
hos nang alac cundi ttibig. ^Anong iy6ng gninagaua? Sinisidl^n co nang 
lubig ang inuman mo, na lubhing malaqi.i. ^An6ng pinagmamasdan nang 
mai^ga taudng yaon?. Pinagmamasdan ni!4 ang laraiian nang mahal n,i 
^'trgen. ^Aji6ng pinagaaralan nang caibigan mo? Ang pinagaaralan niya.i. 
[,alin. ^Saan piya nagaaral?. i^a Maynila, iMaliuug bagang pagaralan 
iiiig Latin? Oo. nialiuag. ^Biiquit di ca binabati ni Pedro? Palibhasa 
;ic(^,i, dlio-liii iialJng lungmiliftgnii *'a aquin; v\in